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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 22:40
RaguramanS wrote:
The question checks the meaning and parallelism.

Parallel elements are
gives mouth sores to cattle
displacing grasses and other cattle food and
rendering

Here the leaf spurge performs two actions
gives mouth sores to cattle
displace grasses and other cattle food

The effect of the second action(displace grasses and other cattle food) causes the third [i]rendering rangeland worthless.

Hi RaguramanS, this is a very good analysis. The key to this question is to understand that mouth sores to cattle have nothing to do with displacing of grasses.

In fact, parallelism with participial phrases is a very commonly tested concept on GMAT and is totally about understanding the intended meaning of the sentence.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Parallelism with participial phrases, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 11:12
sevenplusplus wrote:
Hi Shraddha

I read another related post on this from you:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ing-mod ... 35567.html

Does this mean that A without comma before verb + ing phrase would have been correct?

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

in other words, in the above sentense, would "displacing" modify the preceding noun (cattle) or "leafy splurge"? would this sentence be correct?



Hello sevenplusplus,


Thank you for the query. :)


About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives[/color] mouth sores to cattle displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

No, the above-mentioned sentence is not correct because in this one, the verb-ing modifier displacing now modifier the preceding noun cattle.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 12:19
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
Hi Shraddha

I read another related post on this from you:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ing-mod ... 35567.html

Does this mean that A without comma before verb + ing phrase would have been correct?

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

in other words, in the above sentense, would "displacing" modify the preceding noun (cattle) or "leafy splurge"? would this sentence be correct?



Hello sevenplusplus,


Thank you for the query. :)


About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives[/color] mouth sores to cattle displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

No, the above-mentioned sentence is not correct because in this one, the verb-ing modifier displacing now modifier the preceding noun cattle.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


This is Exactly why punctuation is important.
Just a comma changes the whole meaning of the question, making it both logically and grammatically wrong. :)
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 04:31
adkikani wrote:
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
could anyone explain how A is wrong?



Hello sevenplusplus,

I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :-)

Let's take a look at the original sentence:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

(Blue = subject, Green = verb, Pink = comma + verb-ing modifiers)


In this official sentence, the comma + verb-ing modifiers displacing and rendering illogically modifies the preceding action gives by presenting the result of this action. Grasses and other cattle food are not displaced and rangeland are not rendered worthless because leafy spurge gives mouth sores to cattle.

This is the reason why Choice A is incorrect.

From the context of the sentence, we can understand that because leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, rangeland are rendered useless. So we do have this logical cause-and-effect in the sentence that must be communicated in correct grammar.

Let's evaluate Choice B now:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

This choice correctly conveys the logical intended meaning. The comma + verb-ing modifier displacing has been turned to simple present tense verb displaces. The comma + verb-ing modifier rendering correctly modifies the preceding action displaces, presenting the result of this action. Because the leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, it renders rangeland worthless.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Excellent explanation, Shraddha. I have a couple of doubts though. I am truncating part of your solution
to lay stress on my doubts.
For choice A, there is no coma before rendering. How did you assume both rendering and displacing as coma + verb-ing modifier
when in fact coma is present only before displacing. Do you assume this because of parallelism?
Also want to understand if my noun + noun modifier is correct in option B: a herbaceous plant (noun) from euracia (noun modfier due to presence of from) modifies
leafy spurge - a noun. Also let me know of you omit phrases between coma to understand meaning better. There are just two many (comas) to complicate things in option B
WR,
Arpit



Can verbal expert please comment on this?
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 04:49
Here is my take..
D and E contains ... ,having and cannot modify "About 5 million acres in US".. so D and E is eliminated straight away..
In option A again Displacing is incorrectly modifying the preceding clause ..neither it's answering the "How" aspect nor the result ..

C commits a parallelism mistake .. read carefully .. mouth sores to cattle and Displacing and other cattle food.. and being the parallel marker..

Only in B rendering is used as correct modifier.. which answers the result aspect of the preeceding clause .. and rest of the parallelism is maintained ..

Hope this helps

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 06:03
1
adkikani wrote:

Excellent explanation, Shraddha. I have a couple of doubts though. I am truncating part of your solution
to lay stress on my doubts.
For choice A, there is no coma before rendering. How did you assume both rendering and displacing as coma + verb-ing modifier
when in fact coma is present only before displacing. Do you assume this because of parallelism?
Also want to understand if my noun + noun modifier is correct in option B: a herbaceous plant (noun) from euracia (noun modfier due to presence of from) modifies
leafy spurge - a noun. Also let me know of you omit phrases between coma to understand meaning better. There are just two many (comas) to complicate things in option B
WR,
Arpit


Can verbal expert please comment on this?



Hello adkikani,


Thank you for the query. :-)


Whenever two comma + verb-ing modifiers make a parallel list, the comma appears only before the first verb-ing modifier. This is a common usage across the GMAT SC section.

And yes, the connector and between displacing... and rendering... is the indicator that since they are part of a list and since displacing... is preceded by a comma, hence rendering... is also a comma + verb-ing modifier.


The phrase a herbaceous plant from Eurasia is not a Noun + Noun Modifier because a prepositional phrase is not exclusively a noun modifier. It modifies either a noun or an action, depending on the context of the sentence.

But yes, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia is a noun phrase that modifies the preceding noun leafy spurge. Again usage of noun phrases to describe a noun entity is common on GMAT SC.

Let's take a look at the sentence with choice B: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

So Arpit, just treat these commas as a pause points to read and understand the sentence better. Of course, the comma before rendering... defines the role of this entity in the sentence. But the other commas are really the pause points so that you can relate all the information properly to understand what the author wants to convey.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 06:49
Thanks a lot for helping to clear my queries on punctuation and noun modifiers. +1 Kudos!! :good
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2017, 10:19
1) gives & displaces for parallelism
2) rendering for result purpose.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2017, 02:48
sevenplusplus wrote:
could anyone explain how A is wrong?

a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives "mouth sores to cattle", "displacing grasses" and other cattle food".
There is a parallelism error in gives mouth scores to cattle and displacing grasses.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 07:46
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 751


About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

A. States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering

B. States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

C. States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia having milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle and displacing grasses and other cattle food, rendering

D. States, having been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displaces grasses and other cattle food, and renders

E. States, having been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia that has milky sap giving mouth sores to cattle and displacing grasses and other cattle food, rendering



My 2 cents on this!
If you look at the portion which mentions Eurasia and milky sap,
All options other than B,
convey - Eurasia has milky sap
(A- Eurasia with milky sap
C- Eurasia having milky sap
D- Eurasia with milky sap
E- Eurasia that has milky sap)

But B says- Eurasia, with milky sap
The comma after Eurasia, conveys the right meaning! As simple as that !
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 07:49
Hi GMATNinja,

There's one thing I don't understand about A:
"a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle" is an appositive phrase and can "break the touch rule" of noun modifiers. So, the other part "displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering" could logically modify the first clause "States have been invaded by leafy spurge" and still be the correct answer. Consider the following sentence:
Mike, a very big guy, wanting to get home before sunset and surprising his wife, drove very fast. "a very big guy" is an appositive phrase separating Jack and "wanting to get home" and "wanting to get home" clearly modifies Mike and not "a very big guy".
Where am I wrong?
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 15:15
egmat
I have a question. You wrote " The comma + verb-ing modifier displacing has been turned to simple present tense verb displaces. The comma + verb-ing modifier rendering correctly modifies the preceding action displaces, presenting the result of this action. Because the leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, it renders rangeland worthless. "
But I thought in correct ssentence "rendering" modifies its previous clause's two actions that are "gives mouth.. " and "displaces". However, from your sentence it seems to me that only "displaces" is the reason.So I feel confused. If two verb are jointed by and, will modifier only modify last verb?!

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2017, 09:23
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
could anyone explain how A is wrong?



Hello sevenplusplus,

I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :-)

Let's take a look at the original sentence:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

(Blue = subject, Green = verb, Pink = comma + verb-ing modifiers)

Let's understand what the sentence intends to convey. The sentence states that in the US, some 5 million acres of land have been invaded leafy spurge. Describing the leafy spurge, the sentence states that it's a plant from Eurasia. It has milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle. This leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food and renders rangeland worthless.

However, the way this sentence is worded, it suggests that because leafy spurge gives mouth sores to cattle, it displaces grasses and other cattle food and has rendered rangeland worthless.

We get this illogical meaning from the sentence because of the incorrect usage of the comma + verb-ing modifiers* displacing and rendering.

The comma + verb-ing modifier must modify the preceding action logically and must also make sense with the doer of the modified action.

In this official sentence, the comma + verb-ing modifiers displacing and rendering illogically modifies the preceding action gives by presenting the result of this action. Grasses and other cattle food are not displaced and rangeland are not rendered worthless because leafy spurge gives mouth sores to cattle.

This is the reason why Choice A is incorrect.

From the context of the sentence, we can understand that because leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, rangeland are rendered useless. So we do have this logical cause-and-effect in the sentence that must be communicated in correct grammar.

Let's evaluate Choice B now:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

This choice correctly conveys the logical intended meaning. The comma + verb-ing modifier displacing has been turned to simple present tense verb displaces. The comma + verb-ing modifier rendering correctly modifies the preceding action displaces, presenting the result of this action. Because the leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, it renders rangeland worthless.

*The correct usage of comma + verb-ing has been covered in great details and with pertinent examples in our SC course, In fact, this concept features in the Free Trail course offered by e-GMAT. You can register for free at e-gmat.com and review the concept.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha Thanks for clarification.

I have one question for choice B. "that" after the non-vital modifier "with milky sap" what does it refer to, logically it should refer to leafy spurge. Because in one of my questions, when i chose a choice that had "that" modifier seperated from the noun by a non-vital modifier (as with choice B for the questions), i was marked wrong. So i rejected choice B for this question. I am kind of mis-guided.

Can you please help clarify the concept.

Thanks
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Nov 2017, 00:29
boiled down to A and B.
A does not make any logical sense because of "displacing".
Also, "that" in A has many problems.

Originally posted by chesstitans on 12 Nov 2017, 19:28.
Last edited by chesstitans on 23 Nov 2017, 00:29, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 22:56
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
could anyone explain how A is wrong?





Thank you for your brilliant explanation. I have a few questions which I can use your help with. My questions are mainly about verb-ing modifier.
In the wrong answer choice A, you pointed out that both displacing and rendering would refer to the action, in the preceding clause, gives. That leads me wonder why we cannot do the same for the following sentence, for which your team has offered excellent explanation.

As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, causing the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water offices on the second floor.
My question here is that why releasing cannot modify the action, similarly in the preceding clause, to burst. Especially as you mentioned that

"Verb-ing modifiers
1. When separated by comma modifies the preceding clause
2. When not separated by comma modifiers the preceding noun or noun phrase
"

My question is that which action or part of the sentence or which action the verb-ing modifiers refer to?

Looking forward to your reply.

Best regards,
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 06:19
Is the use of 'having been' always incorrect? If not, where all can we use it ?
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 10:47
RashmiT wrote:
Is the use of 'having been' always incorrect? If not, where all can we use it ?

Nope, it's not always incorrect, though you don't see it in correct answers all that often.

Here's a snippet from one of our old chat transcripts on this topic. Full transcript is available here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/verbal-chat- ... l#p1869642

Quote:
Q: Can you provide an explanation on the usage of 'having + verb'

A: The quick version is that ""having + verb" ("having been", "having studied," "having eaten," etc.) is sort-of just another "-ing" modifier, but the timeline has to be correct.
Just like any other "-ing" modifier, it has to make sense with the noun it modifies. But the added twist is that the timeline has to make sense, too. The "having + -ing" has to occur before some other action. Sort of like past perfect tense.

1) Having been sick all day today, Amber called in sick to work this morning. --> Here’s the problem: the timeline is wrong in #1. The "having + verb" needs to be the first action, followed by another action. That’s not happening here. Logically, she wasn’t sick "all day today" before she called in sick this morning.

2) Having eaten dinner already, Amber immediately began drinking heavily at the dinner party. --> This one actually gets the timeline right. She ate dinner first, and then started drinking at the dinner party. That’s perfectly fine logically.

To be honest, I can’t think of any official questions that use this "having + verb" construction in a correct answer. It’s not inherently wrong, but GMAT doesn’t seem to use it much. In that sense, it’s sort of like "being" -- mostly used in wrong sentences, but there’s no reason why it couldn’t be used correctly.


I hope this helps!
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2017, 19:36
egmat wrote:
sobby wrote:
In B , it seems like "that" is pointing to Eurasia not milky sap..
If B is correct,can some please justify usage of that here..

Comma + that is worrying me in option B ...

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Hello sobby,

I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :)

Let me bring in here the sentence with Choice B:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

In the above-mentioned sentence, it is the phrase with milky sap that has been enclosed between two commas. If we were to remove this phrase from the sentence, we would also remove the comma before with and the comma after sap. Hence, it is not so that the that clause is preceded by a comma.

The placement of the phrase with milky sap between the two commas implies this is just an additional information. The milky white sap does not necessarily give mouth sore to the cattle. It is the plant that does so.

Now let's talk about how that correctly modifies the noun entity a herbaceous plant. There is no issue in that modifying a herbaceous plant because the phrase from Eurasia modifies a herbaceous plant and cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. Here we see the case of a noun modifier modifying a slightly far away noun. We have a detailed article named Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun that deals with this concept. This article can be reviewed in the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

Nice to read your answer. I also chose B because I have same logic with you, except the modifier " that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food". IMO, this modifier modifies for milky sap.

I don't understand why above modifier modifies for "leafy spurge". If we summarize the sentence, it should be "About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering...".

Please correct if I'm wrong. Thanks.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 15:00
hellosanthosh2k2 wrote:
Hi Shraddha Thanks for clarification.

I have one question for choice B. "that" after the non-vital modifier "with milky sap" what does it refer to, logically it should refer to leafy spurge. Because in one of my questions, when i chose a choice that had "that" modifier seperated from the noun by a non-vital modifier (as with choice B for the questions), i was marked wrong. So i rejected choice B for this question. I am kind of mis-guided.

Can you please help clarify the concept.

Thanks




Hello hellosanthosh2k2,

I apologize for answering this question so late. But as they say better late than never, :-)



The noun modifier that in the correct answer choice refers to a little far-away noun entity leafy spurge. Take a good look at the structure of Choice B. Whenever that is used to modify the immediate preceding noun entity, it is NEVER separated with that entity with a comma.


But in this choice, here is a comma between milky sap and that. Basically, both the modifiers - a herbaceous plant from Eurasia and with milky sap - are enclosed between commas because they just provide some additional information about the leafy spurge that are not crucial to core meaning of the sentence.

Hence, the noun modifier that jumps over the preceding modifiers and modify leafy spurge.

Please review our very famous article Noun Modifiers can Modify slightly far away noun to learn when noun modifiers can modify a slightly far-away nouns by clicking on the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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