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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2019, 10:09
I have a question regarding the "milky sap" modifier here. In answer choice A, it seems like the milky sap is the one that causes mouth sores, but in answer choice B, the meaning changes and it is now the plant that causes the mouth sores. Because of this meaning choice I selected A, could someone briefly go over why my thought process was incorrect?
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 10:34
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NinetyFour wrote:
I have a question regarding the "milky sap" modifier here. In answer choice A, it seems like the milky sap is the one that causes mouth sores, but in answer choice B, the meaning changes and it is now the plant that causes the mouth sores. Because of this meaning choice I selected A, could someone briefly go over why my thought process was incorrect?

try to consider the meaning of the entire sentence, not just one isolated part. Check out this post by Ron.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 18:13
Hiee , can anyone explain

In the correct ans B.

how we can use displaces as the verb to grasses ?

Posted from my mobile device
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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 20:13
Akshi123 wrote:
Hiee , can anyone explain

In the correct ans B.

how we can use displaces as the verb to grasses ?

Posted from my mobile device

Quote:
Correct answer B in the sentence
About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.


Hi Akshi123 - welcome to GMAT Club!

displaces is not the verb for grasses
displaces is the verb for that
that is the relative pronoun for leafy splurge

displaces needs a direct object
displaces WHAT?
displaces grasses and other cattle food.

grasses and other cattle food are direct objects of the verb displaces

leafy splurge/that . . . displaces . . . and gives . . .

leafy splurge (singular) . . .
that (singular)
(1) gives mouth sores to cattle
and
(2) displaces grasses and other cattle food

. . . leafy splurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives [mouth sores to cattle] and displaces [grasses and other cattle food],
rendering rangeland worthless.

Hope that helps.
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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 20:59
Quote:
Correct answer B inserted into the sentence:

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

NinetyFour wrote:
I have a question regarding the "milky sap" modifier here. In answer choice A, it seems like the milky sap is the one that causes mouth sores, but in answer choice B, the meaning changes and it is now the plant that causes the mouth sores. Because of this meaning choice I selected A, could someone briefly go over why my thought process was incorrect?

Hi NinetyFour , LordStark gave you an excellent head start.*

Posts on the thread deal with your question.

Are there parts of those posts that you do not understand?

Essential modifiers can never be removed from a sentence.

Non-essential modifiers can be removed from a sentence.

with milky sap is a non-essential modifier
(1) the phrase is set off by commas, and ONLY non-essential modifiers can be set off by commas.

(2) non-essential modifiers can be removed without changing the core meaning of the sentence

(3) remove the phrase. No kidding.
Take it and the commas out.
"With milky sap" is a prepositional phrase that adds some information.
It is set off by commas. If a modifier is set off by commas, it should be fair game for removal.**

We can also remove the other modifier set off by commas, a . . . plant from Eurasia.

About 5 million acres ... have been invaded by leafy spurge, a ... plant from Eurasia , with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

Now we have

... leafy splurge ... that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering rangeland worthless.

The guideline is: that-clauses almost always touch the noun that they modify. That guideline is not a hard-and-fast rule, as this official question demonstrates.

Sometimes a descriptive phrase such as "with milky sap" cannot be placed in another part of the sentence. In such cases, it is okay for there to be separation between the noun plant, and its relative pronoun that.

Takeaway: is the information set off by commas?
The commas signal that the modifier is not essential.
Remove the information and the comma(s). See what happens.

In this case, what happens is that the leafy splurge gives mouth sores and displaces grasses.

Hope that analysis helps.


*I think that LordStark was hinting that "with milky sap" does not matter a whole lot to the meaning of the sentence. That hint is correct.

**There are a few exceptions to the comma rule such as dates, which must always be set off by commas. Not to worry. GMAC does not test whether information such as a date is essential.

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 21:23
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Hi generis ,
Please let me know whether my analysis is correct.

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.


(A) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering
that refers to milky sap suggesting that displacement is caused by milky sap rather by the plant.
How ever we can correctly infer that milky sap gives mouth sores to cattle.

(B) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

That correctly refers to leafy surge and suggests that it displaces the grass.

It would not be incorrect to assume that the plant causes the mouth sores in cattle.

For Ex: The sting of a particular mosquito causes malaria.
A particular type of mosquito causes malaria.

I believe both of them are correct.

Hence we have a reason to choose B over A.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 22:36
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Manas1212 wrote:
Hi generis ,
Please let me know whether my analysis is correct.

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.


(A) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering
that refers to milky sap suggesting that displacement is caused by milky sap rather by the plant.
How ever we can correctly infer that milky sap gives mouth sores to cattle.

(B) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

That correctly refers to leafy surge and suggests that it displaces the grass.

It would not be incorrect to assume that the plant causes the mouth sores in cattle.

For Ex: The sting of a particular mosquito causes malaria.
A particular type of mosquito causes malaria.

I believe both of them are correct.

Hence we have a reason to choose B over A.

Manas1212 , both of your examples are correct.

I think that you are suggesting that we should use logic to figure out
the most likely subject (and causal culprit);
in your examples, the logical culprit is a particular kind of mosquito,
and whether we add the "sting" does not change the causal logic.

In the prompt, the most likely culprit is some hideous plant called "leafy splurge."
What invaded the U.S.? Leafy splurge.
What is likely to be the cause of worthless rangeland? Whatever invaded the U.S.

If you are asking a different question or I have missed your point,
tag me again.
Nice work! +1


(And I just caught an error in my answers: I need to use splurge, the plant's name, not plant.
Plant is in the appositive.)
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 23:29
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generis wrote:
Manas1212 wrote:
Hi generis ,
Please let me know whether my analysis is correct.

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.


(A) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering
that refers to milky sap suggesting that displacement is caused by milky sap rather by the plant.
How ever we can correctly infer that milky sap gives mouth sores to cattle.

(B) States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

That correctly refers to leafy surge and suggests that it displaces the grass.

It would not be incorrect to assume that the plant causes the mouth sores in cattle.

For Ex: The sting of a particular mosquito causes malaria.
A particular type of mosquito causes malaria.

I believe both of them are correct.

Hence we have a reason to choose B over A.

Manas1212 , both of your examples are correct.

I think that you are suggesting that we should use logic to figure out
the most likely subject (and causal culprit);
in your examples, the logical culprit is a particular kind of mosquito,
and whether we add the "sting" does not change the causal logic.

In the prompt, the most likely culprit is some hideous plant called "leafy splurge."
What invaded the U.S.? Leafy splurge.
What is likely to be the cause of worthless rangeland? Whatever invaded the U.S.

If you are asking a different question or I have missed your point,
tag me again.
Nice work! +1


(And I just caught an error in my answers: I need to use splurge, the plant's name, not plant.
Plant is in the appositive.)


generis, Thank you for your response.. That's exactly what i meant.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2019, 01:30
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NinetyFour wrote:
I have a question regarding the "milky sap" modifier here. In answer choice A, it seems like the milky sap is the one that causes mouth sores, but in answer choice B, the meaning changes and it is now the plant that causes the mouth sores. Because of this meaning choice I selected A, could someone briefly go over why my thought process was incorrect?

Sorry, I'm maniacally late to the party here, but I'll throw in my two cents anyway, even though it's probably too late to be useful.

You're certainly right that (B) changes the meaning of the sentence, but this is not a reason to eliminate an answer choice. You can eliminate an answer choice if it creates an illogical meaning, but just “changing” the meaning isn’t necessarily a crime.

In this case, the question-writer doesn't expect us to come in with any prior information about leafy spurge, so the question about whether it's the plant or the sap that causes the sores can't be the deciding factor. We need to look for other, more concrete decision points.

Take another look at (A):

Quote:
…states have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering…

As several smart people have noted, this construction makes it sound as though "displacing grasses" is a consequence of the milky sap giving mouth sores to cattle. How would giving mouth sores to cattle make grass disappear? This makes no sense. And because this modification is illogical, (A) is out.

Takeaway: if one of the answer choices changes the original meaning, but it's better, that's a good thing.

I hope that helps!
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 13:38
Hi Expert,

Option B -
States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

I crossed out this option because I thought a 'that' was required before 'displaces' to have a 'that verb1 AND that verb2' parallelism. Of course in the hindsight I realise by POE , option B seems the 'best' option , but I would really appreciate your response on a 'that AND that'usage here.

Also in general is there any difference in meaning when we say -
1 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food
2 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and that displaces grasses and other cattle food

Essentially when do we use 'that AND that' parallelism.
Thanks in advance
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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 17:25
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testprep11 wrote:
Hi Expert,

Option B -
States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

I crossed out this option because I thought a 'that' was required before 'displaces' to have a 'that verb1 AND that verb2' parallelism. Of course in the hindsight I realise by POE , option B seems the 'best' option , but I would really appreciate your response on a 'that AND that'usage here.

Also in general is there any difference in meaning when we say -
1 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food
2 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and that displaces grasses and other cattle food

Essentially when do we use 'that AND that' parallelism.
Thanks in advance

In this case, the clause beginning with "that" is a relative clause that modifies "a herbaceous plant from Eurasia." This relative clause has a subject, "that," which clearly goes with the verbs "gives" and "displaces," just as the the noun "plant" does in the following clause. The plant gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses.

So, while repeating "that" would not make the sentence clearly incorrect, there is no need to repeat "that."

So, when do we have to repeat "that"? We have to repeat "that" when the meaning that we want to convey would not be effectively conveyed unless "that" were repeated.

Consider the following sentences.

I told John that I had seen a man peering into the windows of the building and that the man had been wearing a blue hat.

I told John that I had seen a man peering into the windows of the building, and the man had been wearing a blue hat.


These two sentences are pretty similar, but mean different things.

The first conveys that I told John two things, that I had seen a man and that the man had been wearing a blue hat.

The second contains only one "that," and so, it conveys that I told John one thing, that I had seen a man, and it conveys that, in addition to my telling John about the man, the man had been wearing a blue hat. Because the second "that" is not included, the sentence does not convey that I told John that the man was wearing a blue hat.

Either version is correct, but they convey different things. So, if you want to convey that I told John two things, you have to use "that" twice.

Overall, it helps to realize that analyzing parallel structures tends to be more about considering logic and effectiveness of expression than about checking to see whether a structure is constructed according to some rule.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2019, 01:17
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MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
testprep11 wrote:
Hi Expert,

Option B -
States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering

I crossed out this option because I thought a 'that' was required before 'displaces' to have a 'that verb1 AND that verb2' parallelism. Of course in the hindsight I realise by POE , option B seems the 'best' option , but I would really appreciate your response on a 'that AND that'usage here.

Also in general is there any difference in meaning when we say -
1 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food
2 - that gives mouth sores to cattle and that displaces grasses and other cattle food

Essentially when do we use 'that AND that' parallelism.
Thanks in advance

In this case, the clause beginning with "that" is a relative clause that modifies "a herbaceous plant from Eurasia." This relative clause has a subject, "that," which clearly goes with the verbs "gives" and "displaces," just as the the noun "plant" does in the following clause. The plant gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses.

So, while repeating "that" would not make the sentence clearly incorrect, there is no need to repeat "that."

So, when do we have to repeat "that"? We have to repeat "that" when the meaning that we want to convey would not be effectively conveyed unless "that" were repeated.

Consider the following sentences.

I told John that I had seen a man peering into the windows of the building and that the man had been wearing a blue hat.

I told John that I had seen a man peering into the windows of the building, and the man had been wearing a blue hat.


These two sentences are pretty similar, but mean different things.

The first conveys that I told John two things, that I had seen a man and that the man had been wearing a blue hat.

The second contains only one "that," and so, it conveys that I told John one thing, that I had seen a man, and it conveys that, in addition to my telling John about the man, the man had been wearing a blue hat. Because the second "that" is not included, the sentence does not convey that I told John that the man was wearing a blue hat.

Either version is correct, but they convey different things. So, if you want to convey that I told John two things, you have to use "that" twice.

Overall, it helps to realize that analyzing parallel structures tends to be more about considering logic and effectiveness of expression than about checking to see whether a structure is constructed according to some rule.


Thanks a lot MartyTargetTestPrep .
Now I am at peace with the usage, which had been bugging me for quite some time :)
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 01:09
saurabh9gupta wrote:
GMATNinja... could you please explain the correct sentence or structure in which "Having been" would be correct. I understand it needs to be the first of two actions but i want to see how this same sentence would look like if we were to to use - Having been.

Sorry for my horribly belated reply, saurabh9gupta!

There's a pretty long rant about "having + verb" constructions in this transcript from our old verbal chats. The essence is basically what you suggested above: "having + verb" basically has to indicate the first of two actions.

For example, we could say "Having been angry all morning, Charlie ate a third breakfast and subsequently behaved more reasonably." That's fine, since "having been angry" was an action that Charlie "performed" before he ate his third breakfast.

I don't think there's a ton of value in contorting the original sentence to make "having been" work. But I'll give it a shot with a stripped-down version of the sentence, anyway: "Having been invaded by leafy spurge, about 5 million acres in the United States became unpalatable to cattle." In this version, the 5 million acres were invaded by leafy spurge first, and became unpalatable to cattle later. Fair enough.

I hope this helps a bit!
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 03:25
B is correct. About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2019, 09:45
I have a doubt in this question.

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, "a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle", displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

Isn't the quoted part a non-essential part of the sentence as it describes something on the spurge. Because if it is,then, the comma before and after the non essential can be erased with the non-essential modifier itself, giving rise to the following statement


About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

Where displacing is modifying spurge.

I also a a doubt that the non-essential is more than a phrase because of verb "gives" is present in it

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2019, 15:29
Panoj wrote:
I have a doubt in this question.

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge, "a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle", displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

Isn't the quoted part a non-essential part of the sentence as it describes something on the spurge. Because if it is,then, the comma before and after the non essential can be erased with the non-essential modifier itself, giving rise to the following statement

About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless.

Where displacing is modifying spurge.

There are a multiple ways of looking at that situation. One is that, while you can remove the modifier that you quoted, you should leave a comma between "spurge" and "displacing."

A second way to look at it is that "displacing grasses ..." is part of the nonessential modifier, and thus could be removed along with the part that you quoted.

A third is your way, which, to a degree, seems to make sense. However, the truth is that restrictively modifying "leafy spurge" with "displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless" creates an awkward sentence with a not entirely clear meaning.

Are we meant to understand that there are multiple types of leafy spurge and that this one type, the type that is displacing grasses and other cattle food and rendering rangeland worthless is the one invading?

Probably not.

The version created via the use of choice (B), on the other hand, conveys one clear, logical meaning.

Quote:
I also a a doubt that the non-essential is more than a phrase because of verb "gives" is present in it

The entire quoted portion is a noun phrase that serves as an appositive modifying "leafy spurge."

Within that noun phrase, is the relative clause "that gives mouth sores to cattle," which seems to modify the noun "sap."
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Joined: 10 Jul 2015
Posts: 685
Location: United States (CA)
Age: 39
GMAT 1: 770 Q47 V48
GMAT 2: 730 Q44 V47
GMAT 3: 750 Q50 V42
GRE 1: Q168 V169
WE: Education (Education)
About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2019, 17:01
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What's up Marty? Good to see that Target Test Prep now has a verified perfect 800 GMAT scorer on its team.

-Brian
_________________
Harvard grad and 99% GMAT scorer, offering expert, private GMAT tutoring and coaching worldwide since 2002.

One of the only known humans to have taken the GMAT 5 times and scored in the 700s every time (700, 710, 730, 750, 770), including verified section scores of Q50 / V47, as well as personal bests of 8/8 IR (2 times), 6/6 AWA (4 times), 50/51Q and 48/51V (1 question wrong).

You can download my official test-taker score report (all scores within the last 5 years) directly from the Pearson Vue website: https://tinyurl.com/y7knw7bt Date of Birth: 09 December 1979.

GMAT Action Plan and Free E-Book - McElroy Tutoring

Contact: mcelroy@post.harvard.edu (I do not respond to PMs on GMAT Club.)

...or find me on Reddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/GMATpreparation
GMAT Club Bot
About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy   [#permalink] 01 May 2019, 17:01

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