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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy

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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 14:09
rma26 wrote:
egmat
I have a question. You wrote " The comma + verb-ing modifier displacing has been turned to simple present tense verb displaces. The comma + verb-ing modifier rendering correctly modifies the preceding action displaces, presenting the result of this action. Because the leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food, it renders rangeland worthless. "
But I thought in correct ssentence "rendering" modifies its previous clause's two actions that are "gives mouth.. " and "displaces". However, from your sentence it seems to me that only "displaces" is the reason.So I feel confused. If two verb are jointed by and, will modifier only modify last verb?!

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Hello rma26,


I apologize for answering this question so late. But as they say better late than never. :-)

Per the rule, the comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the IMMEDIATE preceding action. So if there are two verbs associated with and, as we see in this official sentence, the comma + verb-ing modifier will modify the closest action.

This is the reason why in this official correct sentence, comma + rendering... modifies the closest action displaces.

Following correct official sentence is another example of the same usage:

To map Earth's interior, geologists use a network of seismometers to chart seismic waves that originate in the earth's crust and ricochet around its interior, traveling most rapidly through cold, dense regions and more slowly through hotter rocks.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 14:15
gwaitforitmat wrote:

Thank you for your brilliant explanation. I have a few questions which I can use your help with. My questions are mainly about verb-ing modifier.
In the wrong answer choice A, you pointed out that both displacing and rendering would refer to the action, in the preceding clause, gives. That leads me wonder why we cannot do the same for the following sentence, for which your team has offered excellent explanation.

As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, causing the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water offices on the second floor.
My question here is that why releasing cannot modify the action, similarly in the preceding clause, to burst. Especially as you mentioned that

"Verb-ing modifiers
1. When separated by comma modifies the preceding clause
2. When not separated by comma modifiers the preceding noun or noun phrase
"

My question is that which action or part of the sentence or which action the verb-ing modifiers refer to?

Looking forward to your reply.

Best regards,
Li




Hello gwaitforitmat,

I apologize for answering this question so late. But as they say better late than never, :-)


Usage of the word then is very important in Choice D.

It seems to suggest that some entity first caused something and then released torrents of water. This the reason why comma + releasing... does not modify to burst.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 14:29
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thingocanhnguyen wrote:

Hi Shraddha,

Nice to read your answer. I also chose B because I have same logic with you, except the modifier " that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food". IMO, this modifier modifies for milky sap.

I don't understand why above modifier modifies for "leafy spurge". If we summarize the sentence, it should be "About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering...".

Please correct if I'm wrong. Thanks.



Hello thingocanhnguyen,


I would be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Please pay attention the meaning of the sentence.

Per he context of the sentence, we may think that the milky sap gives mouth sores to cattle. However, there is no confusion in understanding that leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food.

Now look at the structure of Choice B. The verb gives and displaces are parallel and must belong to the same subject. The subject for these two verbs is that.

So logically, that must refer to leafy spurge because both the verbs make sense with this subject. It is absolutely logical to say that leafy spurge gives mouth sores to cattle, may be because of the milky sap it has.

In addition, whenever that is used to modify the immediate preceding noun entity, it is NEVER separated with that entity with a comma.


But in this choice, there is a comma between milky sap and that. Basically, both the modifiers - a herbaceous plant from Eurasia and with milky sap - are enclosed between commas because they just provide some additional information about the leafy spurge that are not crucial to core meaning of the sentence.

Hence, the noun modifier that jumps over the preceding modifiers and modify leafy spurge.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 21:12
egmat wrote:
thingocanhnguyen wrote:

Hi Shraddha,

Nice to read your answer. I also chose B because I have same logic with you, except the modifier " that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food". IMO, this modifier modifies for milky sap.

I don't understand why above modifier modifies for "leafy spurge". If we summarize the sentence, it should be "About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy spurge with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food, rendering...".

Please correct if I'm wrong. Thanks.



Hello thingocanhnguyen,

Thanks for your explanation. I quite understand right now :D

I would be glad to help you with this one. :-)

Please pay attention the meaning of the sentence.

Per he context of the sentence, we may think that the milky sap gives mouth sores to cattle. However, there is no confusion in understanding that leafy spurge displaces grasses and other cattle food.

Now look at the structure of Choice B. The verb gives and displaces are parallel and must belong to the same subject. The subject for these two verbs is that.

So logically, that must refer to leafy spurge because both the verbs make sense with this subject. It is absolutely logical to say that leafy spurge gives mouth sores to cattle, may be because of the milky sap it has.

In addition, whenever that is used to modify the immediate preceding noun entity, it is NEVER separated with that entity with a comma.


But in this choice, there is a comma between milky sap and that. Basically, both the modifiers - a herbaceous plant from Eurasia and with milky sap - are enclosed between commas because they just provide some additional information about the leafy spurge that are not crucial to core meaning of the sentence.

Hence, the noun modifier that jumps over the preceding modifiers and modify leafy spurge.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha

Kudos [?]: 22 [0], given: 142

Re: About 5 million acres in the United States have been invaded by leafy   [#permalink] 26 Dec 2017, 21:12

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