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According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2015, 00:21
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
reto wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase.

Note: The other question based upon the same argument is already discussed at the following link. Hence modified the thread to keep discussion focused on the mentioned qs.
according-to-the-tristate-transportation-authority-making-151393.html


Seriously, why should we assume that B is less costly than D. We have no information whatsoever indicating that the private contractors do not cost much more than the 20% regula commuters who switch to an alternative route. From logic okay, D does weaken the most, but we have to assume a litte right...?


Can the cost of adjusting 20 machines be at all comparable with the toll paid by a huge chunk of commuters for the next 5 yrs?
It's like saying I don't know whether I will become rich if I win the Wimbledon because I will first need to buy a new racket! It's not logical.


Well but there is still too much of assuming with this answer I believe. We do not know how frequently the highway is being used, we do not know the dense of traffic, so 20% of 5 cars could be 1 car less per week/month/day (what do we know?!) and it might be possible that the adjustment of the machines is being done every month by a monopolist or even every day, every week (what do we know from the passage?) :roll:
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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2015, 13:46
Yea I agree reto ... Not only is it doubtful that 20% of the traffic is a significant amount, you can also say what if the increase in toll was just 0.1%.... Why should we assume total cost of railway improvements is so change is large? A small increase in toll would mean much less loss from the diversion of 20% of the traffic... I've also seen many posts here that say you should avoid % if % is not in the argument - because GMAT loves percent - number traps.

It looks like we have to make assumptions in both cases. We could consider D more "direct"? I think the point is that this cost does not have as much of a bearing on "effectiveness" of the plan - the toll booth costs won't make the plan less "effective" since the revenue is the main concern of the authority... It also states that the alternate route has improved - meaning it could be more than 20% this time... 100% change route = 0 effectiveness of plan!?

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 00:53
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.



Responding to a pm:

The plan is to finance the improvements by increasing the toll on 2 highway bridges. What casts doubt on the plan?
The plan will be in trouble if the increase does not lead to increased collection.

Option (C) says that commuters can 'postpone' the effects of the increase. So it may take a little longer to get in the increased collection but you probably will see the increase.

Option (D) says that commuters switch to another route when toll is increased. So the overall collection may be actually less than before. This certainly casts doubt on the plan.

Hence, answer is (D)


Can you please explain why option A is incorrect?

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 03:31
MeghaP wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.



Responding to a pm:

The plan is to finance the improvements by increasing the toll on 2 highway bridges. What casts doubt on the plan?
The plan will be in trouble if the increase does not lead to increased collection.

Option (C) says that commuters can 'postpone' the effects of the increase. So it may take a little longer to get in the increased collection but you probably will see the increase.

Option (D) says that commuters switch to another route when toll is increased. So the overall collection may be actually less than before. This certainly casts doubt on the plan.

Hence, answer is (D)


Can you please explain why option A is incorrect?



Note what the question asks you:

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

You need to cast doubt on the effectiveness of the plan i.e. if the plan is implemented, will it be effective? Will it bring in additional revenue?
You don't have to worry about whether the plan can be implemented or not. The point is - Will it be effective?

Option (A) gives you a possible hurdle in implementing the plan. It doesn't talk about the effectiveness of the plan once it is implemented.
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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 05:45
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MeghaP wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.



Responding to a pm:

The plan is to finance the improvements by increasing the toll on 2 highway bridges. What casts doubt on the plan?
The plan will be in trouble if the increase does not lead to increased collection.

Option (C) says that commuters can 'postpone' the effects of the increase. So it may take a little longer to get in the increased collection but you probably will see the increase.

Option (D) says that commuters switch to another route when toll is increased. So the overall collection may be actually less than before. This certainly casts doubt on the plan.

Hence, answer is (D)


Can you please explain why option A is incorrect?



Note what the question asks you:

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

You need to cast doubt on the effectiveness of the plan i.e. if the plan is implemented, will it be effective? Will it bring in additional revenue?
You don't have to worry about whether the plan can be implemented or not. The point is - Will it be effective?

Option (A) gives you a possible hurdle in implementing the plan. It doesn't talk about the effectiveness of the plan once it is implemented.[/quote]

That is exactly where is got confused. Thank you so much for clarifying this.!

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2016, 22:58
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

improvement in main commuter rail line => ridership improvement
Plan :- automobile toll increase on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves

reduction in effectiveness if
1> once toll increase implemented, automobile will find another way

toll money = no. of commuters* no. of tolls* per toll price

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?


(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
lets say they have bought tokens equivalent to 5 years so
many_________few
earlier 100 --------------100 =200
after 100--------------120 =220

still this plan is good.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.

20%_________80%
earlier 100 --------------100 =200
after 0-------------- 120 =120

untill unless toll paid is not doubled this will always be less. so trouble in the paradise.
Although both cases close by, revenue is not lost in case of C, but revenue lost in second case. SO D

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2016, 04:29
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase.

Note: The other question based upon the same argument is already discussed at the following link. Hence modified the thread to keep discussion focused on the mentioned qs.
according-to-the-tristate-transportation-authority-making-151393.html


Hi experts,
this question is about efficiency of a plan. and I picked up C
I have a question about this type.
some are judge efficiency by killing the valid of the plan :
such as OG 13, CR# 30
The Eurasian ruffe, a fish species inadvertently introduced into North America’s Great Lakes in recent years, feeds on the eggs of lake whitefish, a native species, thus threatening the lakes’ natural ecosystem. To help track the ruffe’s spread, government agencies have produced wallet-sized cards about the ruffe. The cards contain pictures of the ruffe and explain the danger they pose; the cards also request anglers to report any ruffe they catch.

Which of the following, if true, would provide most support for the prediction that the agencies’ action will have its intended effect?

(D) The ruffe is one of several nonnative species in the Great Lakes whose existence threatens the survival of lake whitefish populations there.

OG13 CR #40
A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?

(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

OG13 CR# 15
A certain automaker aims to increase its market share by deeply discounting its vehicles’ prices for the next several months. The discounts will cut into profits, but because they will be heavily advertised the manufacturer hopes that they will attract buyers away from rival manufacturers’ cars. In the longer term, the automaker envisions that customers initially attracted by the discounts may become loyal customers.

In assessing the plan’s chances of achieving its aim, it would be most useful to know which of the following?

(A) Whether the automaker’s competitors are likely to respond by offering deep discounts on their own products


but others are not, such as this one.

I am a little confused,
any difference ?


waiting for your reply

have a nice day
>_~

Zoe

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2016, 08:36
zoezhuyan wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase.

Note: The other question based upon the same argument is already discussed at the following link. Hence modified the thread to keep discussion focused on the mentioned qs.
according-to-the-tristate-transportation-authority-making-151393.html


Hi experts,
this question is about efficiency of a plan. and I picked up C
I have a question about this type.
some are judge efficiency by killing the valid of the plan :
such as OG 13, CR# 30
The Eurasian ruffe, a fish species inadvertently introduced into North America’s Great Lakes in recent years, feeds on the eggs of lake whitefish, a native species, thus threatening the lakes’ natural ecosystem. To help track the ruffe’s spread, government agencies have produced wallet-sized cards about the ruffe. The cards contain pictures of the ruffe and explain the danger they pose; the cards also request anglers to report any ruffe they catch.

Which of the following, if true, would provide most support for the prediction that the agencies’ action will have its intended effect?

(D) The ruffe is one of several nonnative species in the Great Lakes whose existence threatens the survival of lake whitefish populations there.

OG13 CR #40
A new law gives ownership of patents—documents providing exclusive right to make and sell an invention—to universities, not the government, when those patents result from government-sponsored university research. Administrators at Logos University plan to sell any patents they acquire to corporations in order to fund programs to improve undergraduate teaching.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?

(D) Government-sponsored research conducted at Logos University for the most part duplicates research already completed by several profit-making corporations.

OG13 CR# 15
A certain automaker aims to increase its market share by deeply discounting its vehicles’ prices for the next several months. The discounts will cut into profits, but because they will be heavily advertised the manufacturer hopes that they will attract buyers away from rival manufacturers’ cars. In the longer term, the automaker envisions that customers initially attracted by the discounts may become loyal customers.

In assessing the plan’s chances of achieving its aim, it would be most useful to know which of the following?

(A) Whether the automaker’s competitors are likely to respond by offering deep discounts on their own products


but others are not, such as this one.

I am a little confused,
any difference ?


waiting for your reply

have a nice day
>_~

Zoe


It all depends on the question asked.

"Which of the following, if true, would provide most support for the prediction that the agencies’ action will have its intended effect?"
You need to find what will support the plan. The correct answer here is
"(C) Most people who fi sh recreationally on the Great Lakes are interested in the preservation of the lake
whitefi sh because it is a highly prized game fish."

"Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the viability of the college administrators’ plan described above?"
Here you need to cast doubt on the plan i.e. provide a reason why it may not work.

"In assessing the plan’s chances of achieving its aim, it would be most useful to know which of the following?"
In this question, you need to find the option that affects the plan. Whether it strengthens the plan or weakens it is immaterial. But it does need to have an effect on the plan.

Finally in the original question,
"1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?"
you need to weaken the plan.
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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2016, 04:30
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.



Responding to a pm:

The plan is to finance the improvements by increasing the toll on 2 highway bridges. What casts doubt on the plan?
The plan will be in trouble if the increase does not lead to increased collection.

Option (C) says that commuters can 'postpone' the effects of the increase. So it may take a little longer to get in the increased collection but you probably will see the increase.

Option (D) says that commuters switch to another route when toll is increased. So the overall collection may be actually less than before. This certainly casts doubt on the plan.

Hence, answer is (D)


IMO, if the plan takes longer time to execute, then the planned time, which is 5 years, is compromised. So, won't it cast doubt on effectiveness of authority's plan?

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2017, 07:26
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abhishekaqsais wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
garimavyas wrote:
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line
would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five
years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the
proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be
rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no
benefit.

1.. Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to
finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?
(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at
which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated
toll-collecting machines.
(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect,
many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.
(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter
traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong
opposition to the proposed toll increase.



Responding to a pm:

The plan is to finance the improvements by increasing the toll on 2 highway bridges. What casts doubt on the plan?
The plan will be in trouble if the increase does not lead to increased collection.

Option (C) says that commuters can 'postpone' the effects of the increase. So it may take a little longer to get in the increased collection but you probably will see the increase.

Option (D) says that commuters switch to another route when toll is increased. So the overall collection may be actually less than before. This certainly casts doubt on the plan.

Hence, answer is (D)


IMO, if the plan takes longer time to execute, then the planned time, which is 5 years, is compromised. So, won't it cast doubt on effectiveness of authority's plan?


Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

The question is about effectiveness of the "plan to finance" the project, not plan to complete the project. Hence option C is wrong.

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Re: According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain imp [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 21:21
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised.
Choice A, suggest that the plan might face opposition but not that it will be defeated AND not that the anticipated revenue will not be generated. So, INCORRECT.

(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines.

Weighed against five years’ projected revenues, the considerations raised in choices B and C would not have a significant impact. Thus neither B nor C is correct.

(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase.

(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved.
Increasing bridge tolls might not increase revenues if such increases prompt a significant percentage of regular bridge users to switch to alternative routes. Choice D says that a previous increase prompted such switches. Choice D, by establishing a strong precedent for commuters’ responding to higher tolls by avoiding them altogether, raises doubts about the plan’s effectiveness and is thus the best answer.

(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase.
Choice E, suggest that the plan might face opposition but not that it will be defeated AND not that the anticipated revenue will not be generated. So, INCORRECT.
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Varun


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New post 20 Sep 2017, 16:59
According to the Tristate Transportation Authority, making certain improvements to the main commuter rail line would increase ridership dramatically. The authority plans to finance these improvements over the course of five years by raising automobile tolls on the two high-way bridges along the route the rail line serves. Although the proposed improvements are indeed needed, the authority’s plan for securing the necessary funds should be rejected because it would unfairly force drivers to absorb the entire cost of something from which they receive no benefit.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the effectiveness of the authority’s plan to finance the proposed improvements by increasing bridge tolls?

(A) Before the authority increases tolls on any of the area bridges, it is required by law to hold public hearings at which objections to the proposed increase can be raised. Incorrect - Out of scope

(B) Whenever bridge tolls are increased, the authority must pay a private contractor to adjust the automated toll-collecting machines. Incorrect - Out of scope

(C) Between the time a proposed toll increase is announced and the time the increase is actually put into effect, many commuters buy more tokens than usual to postpone the effects of the increase. Incorrect - Shell game ans

(D) When tolls were last increased on the two bridges in question, almost 20 percent of the regular commuter traffic switched to a slightly longer alternative route that has since been improved. Correct - When cause occurs (toll increase), effect does not occur (revenue from vehicle, as 20% will be lost)

(E) The chairman of the authority is a member of the Tristate Automobile Club that has registered strong opposition to the proposed toll increase. Incorrect - Out of scope

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