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# Art historians are using a process known as infrared

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Director
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Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2009, 10:36
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61% (01:24) correct 39% (01:30) wrong based on 1591 sessions

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Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

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Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2009, 11:04
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Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.
(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

The structure of sentence clearly implies that scientists are trying to determine something and hence we need to use 'whether'. Secondly, usage of since demands that we use present perfect tense because the action has not completed. Hence C is right..

P.S. Forgot to add one thing since could also be used with past perfect tense but in that case the sentence should indicate that the action has completed at certain point of time before....
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21 Mar 2009, 12:14
Hi mates,

IMO C

A and B out: here "whether" is needed (just the possibility or not)
D out: simple past changes the meaning of the sentence. Also the end is not correct
E out: past perfect is not correct

OA and Source?

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21 Mar 2009, 12:42
Yes OA is C
well done!!
These days I am posting the CR & SC Qs from "Paper Test"

so source is cent % authentic

Btw, I have one related Query

Can we use "Practice" here?
is it modiifying "black"? or the whole clause ?

whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, , a practice employed
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21 Mar 2009, 13:00
nitya34 wrote:
Yes OA is C
well done!!
These days I am posting the CR & SC Qs from "Paper Test"

so source is cent % authentic

Btw, I have one related Query

Can we use "Practice" here?
is it modiifying "black"? or the whole clause ?

whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, , a practice employed

Ok ..."the practice" here is not modifying black but "a process" in which a painter first sketches the figure in black which according to question is the phrase "whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black.". Lets say this phrase is X..
Hence question changes to "whether it has been altered since completion and X, a practice employed ".
so u see how to identify what "practice" is referring to...
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07 Sep 2010, 23:07
nitya34 wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

Spoiler: :: OA
C

the question is testing if/whether and modifier
eliminate answers with "if" -C,D and E left
eliminate D because "was" is singular and "artists" is plural
Choose C since a practice employed is better than a practice done
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12 May 2011, 07:58
Confused between C and E. Messed up the "has been" and "had been". Can someone please explain the difference between the two and when to use what?
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12 May 2011, 08:04
the usage of since requires present perfect tense because the action has not completed.. 'was altered' is past tense, which is not appropriate here.

seems this is the acceptable explanation
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12 May 2011, 20:58
1
A-b clearly out.if is used to indicate hypothetical subjunctive.
Whether is used to indicate uncertainty.
D- is incorrect
between C and D choice is tense.C is indicating past event ,but the effect is still on.painting is present.
C is winner
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12 May 2011, 23:22
Between C & E. I believe Past perfect should be used because the event of "completion of the painting" has already been done. Can anyone explain explicitely ??
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2012, 06:28
1
if vs whether ruled out A and B

E is wrong because it uses past perfect. The activity of determining is after (or since) completion. So, we need to use either past or present perfect.

I believe in this case either present perfect or past is correct. Past is wrong here because SINCE in this context shows a time frame from SINCE till NOW when this could have happened. So, we need to use Present Perfect. I also think you cannot use SINCE with the Pure Past tense. (Somebody correct me here if I am wrong??)

But the fundamental problem with D is the TENSE.
"as WAS DONE by many artists of the time." This is passive voice.
If it is in past tense it should be AS DID MANY ARTISTS.

Second point of flaw here is what does AS EQUATE in the underlined portion of the sentence?
The action sketched, right? But it can easily be mistaken for something else in between like scanning or analyzing (all of which are actions).

So, its only proper to introduce the noun again (A PRACTICE) as in C, which is the answer.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2012, 07:04
Art historians are trying to find out something about Da Vinci from the two choices(altered since completion and first sketched in black). Hence the usage of whether is correct.
Usage of 'Since' requires a present perfect tense.

Option C.
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Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2012, 02:44
1
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.
(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

1. If and Whether usage:

The formal rule is to use if when you have a conditional sentence and whether when you are showing that two alternatives are possible.
The correct usage is Whether in the given sentence.
With this rule we can eliminate A and B.
2. Continuous tense usage:
Since indicates continuous tense. So option D (was altered-past tense) can be eliminated

3. Between option C and E, Practice employed is the correct form, than practice done. With this u can choose C.

kunalm wrote:
Between C & E. I believe Past perfect should be used because the event of "completion of the painting" has already been done. Can anyone explain explicitely ??

There is clue by the use of word "since", that the event started in the past. In the sentence, there is no clue, that the event is closed in the past. The event may be continuing also. C & E can be correct, but C is the answer because of "Practice employed".
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2013, 05:10
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done ->"whether" is preferred over "if" and "a practice employed" makes more sense than "as done".
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed ->"whether" is preferred over "if"
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed ->"whether" , "practice employed" and correct use of "has been",
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done -> "as was done"
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done->had been...since is wrong, past tense is not required.

Hence C
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2013, 07:23
Few of the replies here explain why whether is the correct word choice. Here's a great excerpt that details that logic:

Although in informal writing and speech the two words are often used interchangeably, in formal writing, such as in technical writing at work, it's a good idea to make a distinction between them because the meaning can sometimes be different depending on which word you use. The formal rule is to use if when you have a conditional sentence and whether when you are showing that two alternatives are possible. Some examples will make this more clear.

Here's an example where the two words could be interchangeable:

Squiggly didn't know whether Aardvark would arrive on Friday.

Squiggly didn't know if Aardvark would arrive on Friday.

In either sentence, the meaning is that Aardvark may or may not arrive on Friday.

Now, here are some examples where the words are not interchangeable.

Squiggly didn't know whether Aardvark would arrive on Friday or Saturday.

Because I used whether, you know that there are two possibilities: Aardvark will arrive on Friday or Aardvark will arrive on Saturday.

Now see how the sentence has a different meaning when I use if instead of whether:

Squiggly didn't know if Aardvark would arrive on Friday or Saturday.

Now in addition to arriving on Friday or Saturday, there is the possibility that Aardvark may not arrive at all. These last two sentences show why it is best to use whether when you have two possibilities, and that is why I recommend using whether instead of if when you have two possibilities, even when the meaning wouldn't change if you use if. It's safer and more consistent.

Here's a final pair of examples:

Call Squiggly if you are going to arrive on Friday.

Call Squiggly whether or not you are going to arrive on Friday.

The first sentence is conditional. Call Squiggly if you are going to arrive on Friday means Aardvark is only expected to call if he is coming.

The second sentence is not conditional. Call Squiggly whether or not you are going to arrive on Friday means Aardvark is expected to call either way.

So to sum up, use whether when you have two discrete choices or mean "regardless of whether," and use if for conditional sentences.

From: http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/if ... ether.aspx
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2013, 09:42
IMO Answer is C. Let me explain why.
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
There are two errors in this sentence.
First, WHETHER is required instead of IF. IF in GMAT is used for Conditions.
Second, "as done" means that many other artists also sketched the Mona Lisa in black. Instead, 'a practice employed' is correct. It means that the practice of sketching in black was employed by many other artists. INCORRECT

(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed:
This one corrects one error but puts in another one. Using 'IF' instead of 'WHETHER' is not correct. Also, present perfect tense should have been used because the intended meaning is whether the sketch was altered from the time it was made till present. Presence of SINCE is a clear indication here. INCORRECT

(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed: 'Whether' used; 'present perfect tense' used; 'a practice employed' used. All three errors discussed so far have been corrected in this sentence. Let's go through the remaining two before choosing this one.

(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done: Brings back the tense error. Also, uses 'as was' instead of 'a practice employed'. Therefore INCORRECT.

(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done: Past perfect is incorrectly used here. INCORRECT

Hence, C is a clear winner here. This question is also about finding errors in wrong choices rather than searching for one right answer.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2013, 22:13
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nitya34 wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

Straight C.
Idiom: to determine whether..... and whether --> narrow down to C, D, E.
D is wrong, because "since completion" --> must use present perfect tense, not past tense; "as was done" is not a good modifier.
E is wrong, same reason like D. "since completion" --> must use present perfect tense, not past perfect tense.
So C is correct.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2013, 00:06
Ans: c

Classic case of “Split and choose” type question.

Can split on either of two categories:
a) Usage of “if” or “whether”
b) Usage of Present perfect or Past / Past Perfect

Since difficult to choose whether to use “if” or “whether”, went with latter category. Since the Mona Lisa painting was done in past, and historians want to determine whether it has been altered since its first creation, they are going to check any changes till the current date. An action may been performed with its reactions even visible at this point of time. So we need to choose Present Perfect.

Option (a) and (c) left.
Option a: “as done” is the incorrect modifier used to modify the preceding phrase / action (if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black.) . Sketching in black was a practice popularly used by the sculptors in early eras. Option C correctly states this fact.

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01 Apr 2013, 07:28
Eden wrote:
nitya34 wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

Spoiler: :: OA
C

the question is testing if/whether and modifier
eliminate answers with "if" -C,D and E left

eliminate D because "was" is singular and "artists" is plural
Choose C since a practice employed is better than a practice done

hi mate your explanation is correct but i think there is one flaw in your explanation i.e D is incorrect because of tense and not because of "WAS"...because it is talking about monalisa painting which is singular.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2015, 02:02
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
if_clause is used inappropriately to express the intended meaning of the sentence
"done" must be converted to "did"

(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed

(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed

(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done

(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done
Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared &nbs [#permalink] 10 Mar 2015, 02:02

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