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# Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and

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Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 01:25
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85% (hard)

Question Stats:

48% (01:10) correct 52% (01:12) wrong based on 865 sessions

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Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

(A) Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

(B) Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that causes digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans and other mammals, and in birds.

(C) Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

(D) Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

(E) Arteriviruses, a genus of microorganisms, cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/opinion/the-next-pandemic-is-closer-than-you-think.html

Coronaviruses are a genus of bugs that cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, sometimes mild and sometimes fierce, in humans, other mammals and birds. They became infamous by association in 2003 because the agent for severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, is a coronavirus. That one emerged suddenly in southern China, passed from person to person and from Guangzhou to Hong Kong, then went swiftly onward by airplane to Toronto, Singapore and elsewhere. Eventually it sickened about 8,000 people, of whom nearly 10 percent died. If not for fast scientific work to identify the virus and rigorous public health measures to contain it, the total case count and death toll could have been much higher.

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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2015, 19:47
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Instead of going in tits and bits, let’s look at it in totality and use POE for eliminating as many wrong ones as possible.

1. The prepositional parallelism of ‘in’ is not maintained in B, C and E. We are left with A and D.

In D, the restrictive pronoun ‘that’ limits the coverage to just respiratory infections and leaves out digestive ailments, whereas by virtue of the parenthetical element, in A, both digestive and respiratory ailments are covered. Even if the parenthesis is dropped, it doesn’t matter.

So A is the best.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 01:45
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

A)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.
B)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that causes digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans and other mammals, and in birds.
C)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.
D)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.
E)Arteriviruses, a genus of microorganisms, cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

Can you please explain what is wrong with D?
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 02:17
2
Hi KS15,

Option D: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

If you notice, the "which" relative pronoun is not at all required in the above sentence. The reason:there are two relative pronouns "which" and "that" in the same clause.kind of like a run-on.: which causes X that causes Y.

Option A: ", sometimes benign and sometimes severe" is a non-defining clause which can be completely omitted and still the sentence makes complete sense.

Option A corrects the error of D.

Regards,
Dom.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 02:23
1
dominicraj wrote:
Hi KS15,

Option D: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

If you notice, the "which" relative pronoun is not at all required in the above sentence. The reason:there are two relative pronouns "which" and "that" in the same clause.kind of like a run-on.: which causes X that causes Y.

Option A: ", sometimes benign and sometimes severe" is a non-defining clause which can be completely omitted and still the sentence makes complete sense.

Option A corrects the error of D.

Regards,
Dom.

Hi Dom,

Thanks for explaining. But is it a rule that 'which and that' can't be used in the same sentence? I have not seen this anywhere. Also, it is not which causes X that causes Y. If you read the sentence carefully it says something else.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 02:32
1
A works for me. The reason why I removed D is that when i removed the modifer clause, the sentence didnt make sense at all. The "which" brings in non-restrictive clause which can be removed without alterning the meaning of the sentence, so if we remove the which from D, it looks like "Arterieviruses are ...... in humans..." . This looks completely non-sensical as these viruses dont exist in humans but affect humans. I hope you get the point behind D elimination.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 02:41
Dear KS15

Dominic Raj has correctly explained the situation at hand.
There is no such rule as which and that cant co-exist.
The rule is Which just gives additional info , whereas that gives necessary info.(Check out mgmat sc book)

The concept this question tests is quite apparent , the difference between That and which

Does this all make sense?
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 03:02
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Dear KS15

Dominic Raj has correctly explained the situation at hand.
There is no such rule as which and that cant co-exist.
The rule is Which just gives additional info , whereas that gives necessary info.(Check out mgmat sc book)

The concept this question tests is quite apparent , the difference between That and which

Does this all make sense?

Hi Waterflowsup,

Thanks for the reply. I am aware of the which and that rules that mgmat sc has. But, I am not able to understand what you/Dom mean here. In D, which is used as a non essential modifier along with a comma and this is a correct usage. Also, D says that it is the infections that are benign whereas in A, even though it uses that correctly as an essential modifier, it does not clearly mention what is benign etc.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2015, 06:28
1
KS15 wrote:
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Dear KS15

Dominic Raj has correctly explained the situation at hand.
There is no such rule as which and that cant co-exist.
The rule is Which just gives additional info , whereas that gives necessary info.(Check out mgmat sc book)

The concept this question tests is quite apparent , the difference between That and which

Does this all make sense?

Hi Waterflowsup,

Thanks for the reply. I am aware of the which and that rules that mgmat sc has. But, I am not able to understand what you/Dom mean here. In D, which is used as a non essential modifier along with a comma and this is a correct usage. Also, D says that it is the infections that are benign whereas in A, even though it uses that correctly as an essential modifier, it does not clearly mention what is benign etc.

Hi KS15,

I eliminated D for another reason altogether. Hopefully this can help you. Consider the below with option D
Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

If you remove the modifier clause, you get a sentence which makes no sense at all. The sentence does not intend to say that Arteriviruses are present in humans, other mammals, and birds; but it intends to say that Arteriviruses causes digestive and respiratory infections in them.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2015, 04:44
2
noTh1ng wrote:
Whats the matter with C?

Hi,

Consider Option C as below:

Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

Here, the pronoun "that" is used to refer to 2 different items:
- genus of microorganisms
- digestive and respiratory infections

However, as a rule, a pronoun can only refer to one and only one antecedent. Hence this choice is eliminated for pronoun error.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2015, 05:25
sagar2911 wrote:
noTh1ng wrote:
Whats the matter with C?

Hi,

Consider Option C as below:

Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

Here, the pronoun "that" is used to refer to 2 different items:
- genus of microorganisms
- digestive and respiratory infections

However, as a rule, a pronoun can only refer to one and only one antecedent. Hence this choice is eliminated for pronoun error.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

if the above analysis true what about that?? Does the first that does not refer to microorganisms and the second that refer to infections?
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2015, 06:29
1
pictureperfect wrote:
sagar2911 wrote:
noTh1ng wrote:
Whats the matter with C?

Hi,

Consider Option C as below:

Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

Here, the pronoun "that" is used to refer to 2 different items:
- genus of microorganisms
- digestive and respiratory infections

However, as a rule, a pronoun can only refer to one and only one antecedent. Hence this choice is eliminated for pronoun error.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

if the above analysis true what about that?? Does the first that does not refer to microorganisms and the second that refer to infections?

Correct, the first that refers to genus of microorganisms and the second that refers to digestive and respiratory infections.
The point I am trying to make is that you cannot use the same pronoun in a sentence to refer to 2 different items. You should use different pronouns to refer to different antecedents.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2015, 07:21
sagar2911 wrote:
pictureperfect wrote:
sagar2911 wrote:

Hi,

Consider Option C as below:

Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.

Here, the pronoun "that" is used to refer to 2 different items:
- genus of microorganisms
- digestive and respiratory infections

However, as a rule, a pronoun can only refer to one and only one antecedent. Hence this choice is eliminated for pronoun error.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

if the above analysis true what about that?? Does the first that does not refer to microorganisms and the second that refer to infections?

Correct, the first that refers to genus of microorganisms and the second that refers to digestive and respiratory infections.
The point I am trying to make is that you cannot use the same pronoun in a sentence to refer to 2 different items. You should use different pronouns to refer to different antecedents.

Hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

thanks, thats exactly what i was also wondering about. You say "you should use different pronouns", does that mean I have to or is it just better to do so?
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2015, 05:47
noTh1ng wrote:

thanks, thats exactly what i was also wondering about. You say "you should use different pronouns", does that mean I have to or is it just better to do so?

You have to and its better to do so. It is a rule, and GMAT strictly follows all the rules
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2015, 22:25
Can someone explain what is wrong with option E ? Is it the "In birds vs Birds" at the end of sentence ?

Regards.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2015, 23:30
2
2
Hi,

Parallelism is lost.

in X, Y and Z (or) in X, in Y and in Z is correct.

Regards,
Dom.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2015, 23:43
Thank you dominicraj for confirming that.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2015, 15:07
dominicraj wrote:
Hi,

Parallelism is lost.

in X, Y and Z (or) in X, in Y and in Z is correct.

Regards,
Dom.

Hi Dom,

Correctly said but just for food for thought IF in option E the above anomaly be fixed , wouldn't it be the better choice than A.

Please let me know If I am wrong here

I missed the last part and marked E as answer
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2015, 14:04
In the original sentence, "that" refers to "a genus of microorganisms" and not to "microorganisms". Hence "that" refers to a singular subject "a genus". So the verb "cause" in the "that" dependent clause should also be singular and hence "causes". So the correct option, or in this case, the best option should be B.

If someone has a better explanation, please share.
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Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 19:41
1
Basic split is between Correct parallelism in ending and Not Correct. Either it should be in humans, other mammals, and birds OR it should be in humans, in other mammals, and in birds.

WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds.

A)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds. - Correct because the modifiers are more clear and straight forward.
B)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that causes digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans and other mammals, and in birds. - Incorrect parallelism
C)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds.- Incorrect parallelism
D)Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms, which cause digestive and respiratory infections that are sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and birds. - Which is referring to genus (because if it was referring to microorganism it should be THAT.
E)Arteriviruses, a genus of microorganisms, cause digestive and respiratory infections, sometimes benign and sometimes severe, in humans, other mammals, and in birds - Incorrect parallelism.
Re: Arteriviruses are a genus of microorganisms that cause digestive and &nbs [#permalink] 07 Dec 2015, 19:41

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