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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 00:48
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Project SC Butler: Day 192: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to

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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 00:49
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 192: Sentence Correction (SC2)



• HIGHLIGHTS

What is as vital in an icy land as the igloos OF [that belong to!] the Innuits? Their [the Innuits'] winter clothing.

This kind of sentence is called "inverted."
In English, the typical order is subject - predicate [verb + phrase], this way:
A brilliant but reclusive writer lived in the small apartment above me.

We can invert the subject and predicate.
In the small apartment above me lived a brilliant but reclusive writer.

To deal with inverted sentences, find the main subject and verb.

• Parsing this sentence

As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

From the introduction, we know that something is (or somethings are) as vital to the Innuits as their igloos are.
The igloos keep the Innuits warm.
The only noun that makes sense is winter clothing.
We know that winter clothing keeps the Innuits warm from reading the phrase that modifies winter clothing (so perfect in design . . .))

We can do a short and basic rewrite with the words in the "regular" order.
The Innuits' winter clothing ARE [?] as vital as their igloos.

Quote:
As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and materialas to be made nearly impervious to

• Split #1: subject/verb agreement

Winter clothing is singular. The verb should be IS.
Their winter clothing IS as vital as their igloos . . . .
As vital as their igloos . . . and as ingenious, IS their winter clothing ...

Eliminate A and B, which both use are and should use is.

• Split #2: nonsensical meaning

E) . . . the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to any arctic weather.

Option E suggests that the clothing itself is made impervious to any arctic weather. Nonsense.
The people, not the clothes, are made impervious to arctic weather.

Eliminate E

(Option E also contains a verb tense issue. No reason exists to switch from the non-underlined present tense in the which-clause to the present perfect "has been."
GMAC prefers simple present and simple past most of the time. You don't have to decide this issue, however, because the nonsensical meaning is fatal.)

• split #3: Option C is better than Option D

(1) Idiom
The correct idiom is impervious to rather than impervious against, but we can say that D is not as good as C for other reasons.

(2) Redundancy: There is no need to repeat "of the Innuits"in Option D.
-- As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

Analyze the pronouns and antecedents from their placement in this inverted sentence.
(I am trying to figure out why antecedents are hard. The only thing that strikes me is that you must be trying to rearrange the sentence.)

We might temporarily rewrite inverted sentences in order to find subjects and verbs, but we do not analyze inverted sentences as if they were in "regular" form.
In this case, "of the Innuits" is redundant because we have just read the first part of the sentence that mentions "the Innuits,"
We have just read this part: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits . . .

(3) So X that Y is preferred to So X as to Y
-- so perfect ... that in (C) is better than so perfect . . . as to in (D)
-- Both constructions are proper in standard written English, but GMAC has not been consistent about so X as to Y.
-- By contrast, GMAC has consistently accepted so X that Y.
-- GMAC has a marked preference for So X that Y.
-- GMAC's inconsistency will probably get cleared up, but until then, choose "so X that Y" if you are down to two options.

I have seen one expert announce a rule with respect to So X as to Y and So X that Y.
Based on analysis of official questions, I do not agree with the content I saw.
I would not worry about trying to distinguish between these two; on the rare occasion that they are tested together, you have another way out (except for that one problem from OG2015 or OG2016, but I think that one question is an anomaly).

The issues in D are redundancy, lack of concision, an idiom about which GMAC has not been consistent,and unidiomatic usage (impervious against is not correct).
Eliminate D

The answer is C

Let's check option C for meaning and pronoun clarity, since I see some confusion.

As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, a is their winter clothing, [clothing that is] so perfect in design and material that it [the clothing] makes them [the Innuits] nearly impervious to any arctic weather.

• The verb is correct. On the GMAT and in standard U.S. English, clothing is singular.
(Pants and trousers are not singular. That usage is too controversial to test.)

• The subject of the sentence is? Their winter clothing.

• In option C, all the pronouns have only one logical antecedent.

-- their igloos? To whom or to what does "their" refer?
Only two plural nouns exist in this sentence: igloos and Innuits.
-- their cannot refer to igloos. Igloos do not belong to igloos! They belong to people!

And indeed, the next phrase tells us who lives in the igloos. The igloos "permit the Innuits to live" in reasonable comfort in an icy land.
Their igloos = the Innuits' igloos.
The Innuits live in the igloos. The igloos belong to the Innuits.

-- to whom or what does their refer in "their clothing"?
Igloos? No. Igloos do not wear clothing!
We have just read about the only other plural noun, "the Innuits."
Their in their clothing refers to the Innuits.

What about the antecedent for THEM?
-- Their = the Innuits' clothing . . . is so perfect ... that it [the clothing!] makes them almost impervious to arctic weather.
-- What is the only logical antecedent of THEM? Who or what is impervious to arctic weather?
Igloos? I think not.
-- Igloos do not wear clothing. Igloos are not made nearly impervious to cold by clothing.
Them can refer only to Innuits.
Their [the Innuits'] clothing keeps them [the Innuits] warm.

Similarly, in the italicized phrase, IT logically refers to clothing.
The antecedent is not material. The clothing is [appositive] so perfect in design and material -- those two words would require a "they," not an it.

If you think that IT confusingly refers to material, make your case. To me. :)
I will listen.

We are dealing with an inverted sentence. Do not rewrite it "forwards" except to get the bare bones idea of subject and verb.

COMMENTS
mohammadzain , welcome to SC Butler.

I grant you all: this question is a bit of a bear.
You did pretty well. A couple of you did extremely well.


Nice work.
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 02:20
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I think (C).

"winter clothing" is singular -> A, B out
The original sentence describes a fact -> use simple present tense -> E out

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to: correct

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against
-> no need to repeat Innuits here, "their winter clothing" like in (C) is good enough
-> impervious against: wrong idiom
-> "so X as to Y" changes the meaning a bit
Here is what I know about the difference between "so X as to Y" and "so X that Y"
so X as to Y implies that Y seems to be true
Ex:
Climatic shifts are so gradual as to be indistinguishable from ordinary fluctuations in the weather.
so X that Y implies that Y actually happens
Ex:
Everyday life is so brisk that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds
=> As the original sentence conveys a fact, I think it's better to use "so X that Y"
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against. The correct answer

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to so perfect in design and material should refer to winter clothing. The pronoun they can refer to winter clothing or innuits

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to this option clear the meaning error by placing the winter clothing next to so perfect in design but the use of IT creates a pronoun error

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against same error of B

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to same error of B

IMO A the modifier is correctly placed and removes any ambiguity the plural verb correctly refers to Innuits
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 06:24
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

We have a split between are/is and has been. Firstly, the subject of are/is/has been is clothing,a singular noun,which must take a singular verb "is". Additionally the use of the present perfect is unwarranted. We need the present tense here. The most important thing is the meaning .Its the Innuits who are made impervious not the clothing.Finally we have the idiom impervious which naturally goes with to and not against


A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.
butchers the subject verb agreement by using "are" rather than "is"

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to
Also butchers subject verb agreement by using "are" rather than " is". Another issue

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to
the subject verb agreement is great and we have no pronoun ambiguity or meaning issue. Their and them refer unequivocally to Innuits

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against
While there is no meaning or pronoun ambiguity error we have an idiom error. impervious goes with "to" and not "against"

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to
the present perfect is not needed here. We want the present tense here. The meaning is also misconstrued. It's the Innuits who become practically impervious to cold not the clothing itself
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 13:51
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

Meaning: The winter clothing of the Innuits is as vital as their igloos and just as ingenious. The clothing is perfect in design and material. As a result, the Innuits are impervious to any arctic weather.

Splits#1: Subject-verb agreement. are vs is
Split#2: impervious to vs impervious against

Split#1: The subject of the sentence is clothing, which is singular because it is uncountable. It should, therefore, take a singular verb is rather than the plural are. Based on this split, we can eliminate options A and B.
Split#2: The right idiom is impervious to. Impervious against is illogical. Against suggests opposition or some kind of hostility. It suggests that the Innuits and any arctic weather are in some hostility of some sort which does not make much sense. Eliminate option D based on this. Option A also has the same issue.

Based on these two splits, we are left with options C and E. We can use meaning to eliminate option E. Option E suggests that the winter clothing is so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to any artic weather. It is the Innuits that are made impervious to any artic weather by their winter clothing and not the clothing as suggested by option E. Eliminate option E.

The right answer is option C.


A: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

B: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to any arctic weather.

C: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to any arctic weather.
It unambiguously refers to clothing.

D: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

E: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to any arctic weather.
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 14:15
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.>>> clothing requires a singular form of verb.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to>>> same as A

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to>>> no error.

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against>>>sentence is comparing Innuits' igloos to their winter clothing. Here the comparison is broken.

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to>>> perfect tense isusually used to indicate two activities which are done in phases, here no two activities are given. So we can eliminate it.

I think C is the answer.
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 18:02
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to[/quote]

A - "are their" is wrong since clothing is singular
B - "are" is wrong since clothing is singular
C - To me it's not clear who "their" is referring to. This sentence says "as vital as their igloos is their clothing" and then says "it makes them nearly impervious". Their, their, and them but no subject. Although this is more parallel than other choices.
D - This says "as vital as their igloos is the winter clothing of the Innuits". You can argue that now we know that we're discussing the Innuits. However, "so perfect in design and material" seems to be modifying the Innuits, which seems wrong.
E - "so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious" either says that Innuits are perfect in design such that they're impervious or that the clothing is perfect in design such that it's impervious. Both are wrong.

Touch call between C & D for me. I chose D.
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2019, 04:11
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 192: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to


Winter Clothing is singular so require a singular verb. A/B out , D- Has been is not the right tense in here coz no two past events in here.
B/w C&D .....C- is correct because crisp and clear composition.
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2019, 10:42
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Quote:
As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.


There is quite a lot going on in this sentence. Quick read-through shows that the sentence tests Subject-Verb agreement, meaning, and idiom (lets try to solve without worrying too much about the idiom). Let's simplify the sentence first. The Innuits (people who live in the cold climate) have igloos, which are very important (vital and ingenious), and winter clothing, which is also awesome and helps these people to stay warm.

Also, we have a 2-2 split that contains "is clothing" and "are clothing". The noun clothing is a group noun, and I would argue that it can be both plural and singular. So, it is not correct to eliminate (A) and (B) by saying that "clothing" is singular. We need to look for other errors.

Last but not least, one may be terrified by the word impervious. Well, I did not know the word. But I thought hard about the meaning of the sentence and realized that this word is a synonym to "resistant" or "protective".

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.
Let's think about what "Innuits are made" really means. These people have the fancy clothing that allows them to stay warm. So, Innuits are not made by the fact that they have clothing... We could say "Innuits are impervious to cold weather". Also, the correct idiom is "impervious to" not "impervious against". But as we just discussed, option (A) can be eliminated because of other factors even if one does not know the correct idiom.

B) are the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material that they are made nearly impervious to
This option has the same problem with "made" as option (A). Also, we have a strange situation with pronoun they. Since clothes are plural, technically, they can refer either to Innuits or clothes. So, option (B) is out.

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to
Their and them refer to people, while it refers to a group noun clothing which is used in a singular form in this case. Last, the idiom "impervious to" is used correctly.

D) is the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to make them nearly impervious against
This option looks decent, too. However, I would argue that the usage of "make" is again not optimal. Also, the idiom "impervious against" is incorrect (see discussions above).

E) has been the winter clothing of the Innuits, so perfect in design and material as to be made nearly impervious to
Not sure why we need the Present Perfect here. It is better to use a Simple Present tense because we talk about facts. Also, as to be made does not make too much sense. Winter clothing as to be made?..

I spent 2:30 on this problem - the longest I have spent on a SC problem ever :dazed
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2019, 12:49
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As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonable comfort in an icy land, and just as ingenious, are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against any arctic weather.

Options B, D and E can straightaway be eliminated as all three of them have parallelism error. "winter clothing of the Innuits" (prepositional phrase) is not parallel to "their winter clothing" (non-prepositional phrase).

A) are their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that the Innuits are made nearly impervious against.
I believe "impervious against any arctic weather" is not correct idiomatic usage. It should be "impervious to" instead.
I am not sure if "are their winter clothing" is incorrect though.


C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to
CORRECT.
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New post 17 Nov 2019, 22:42
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At first we see a simple split of "is" vs "are", when we look back there can be three subjects

1. igloos
2. Innuits
3. ingenious


However, we need to ask "what are their clothing Lines ?"

The clothing lines cannot be igloos or innuits; but they can be Ingenious (meaning clever or inventive)
Hence, as Ingenius is singular our verb will be "is".

C,D,E Remains

C) is their winter clothing, so perfect in design and material that it makes them nearly impervious to



So that usage is perfectly fine here, although I am, usually skeptical of both "so as to" and "so that", but over here it seems perfectly fine, as the cause and effect are clearly demonstrated over here.


C seems okay, we can keep it.

D) So as to usage is mostly wrong in GMAT, and C is any day better with the usage of such that.
E) Again So as to usage - C is better because of clear and concise language and appropriate usage of "Such that"



Edit: I am slightly confused whether the subject will be Clothing Lines or Ingenious:

1. The clothing lines are Ingenious and Vital
or
2. Ingenious is the Clothing Line.
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2019, 01:52
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"as vital as x and just as ingenious" must be followed by a verb clause to show comparision. Winter clothing is singular, not plural. Hence A and B are out. In D and E 'so as to make them ' is incorrect in this context since they are already impervious. Moreover impervious against is wrong in my opinion but I am not sure. C is the correct choice as it converys the intended meaning and uses the correct idiom 'so x that y' to show intent.
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New post 18 Nov 2019, 02:32
I have posted the official explanation here
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Re: As vital as their igloos, which permit the Innuits to live in reasonab   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2019, 02:32
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