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01 Aug 2004, 22:39
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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 24
Page: 124
Difficulty:

The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

(A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
(B) In recently years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Narenn on 16 Oct 2013, 07:30, edited 1 time in total.
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02 Aug 2004, 01:31
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I'll go with C. My reasoning:

If C is correct then PZ 1000 is more likely to be involved in an accident than a car from another class. And although the number of injuries per accident for PZ 1000 is low, the percentage of accidents it is involved in is high. Therefore, the number of injuries PER DRIVER-MILE can be high too and that is a good enough reason to believe that PZ 1000 is not the safest car OF ALL
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02 Aug 2004, 05:36
I think it is C.
The next best choice probably is E. If the report is once per annum, the conclusion cannot end 'one of the safest cars available today'

anuramm wrote:
The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?
(A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
(B) In recently years many more PZ 1000â€™s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.

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Common weakening scenarios : need help [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2010, 00:20
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While reading through "Weaken question" section in powerscore CR bible , I came across common weakening scenarios. The book mentions that the following scenarios occur most frequently in this type of questions.

1. Incomplete information : The author relies on evidence which is weak and the conclusion can be weakened by bringing in new info.

2.Improper comparison : The author attempts to consider two or more items that are essentially different.

3. Qualified conclusion : The author qualifies or limits the conclusion in such a way as to leave the argument open to attack.

Now , I have come across questions of type 1(Incomplete info) , but i have rarely come across questions of other types . So would you please elaborate the 2nd and the 3rd type with the help of some questions.
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Re: Common weakening scenarios : need help [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 09:16
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OG-verbal review Q24 might qualify under "Incorrect comparison type"

The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its
class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?
(A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per
accident than did the PZ 1000.
(B) In recently years many more PZ 1000's have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other
types of cars.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its
54 class is quite pronounced.
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.

In this Ques, PZ1000, which has fewest inj/acci in it's class, is declared as one of the safest cars today. The argument "incorrectly" compares PZ1000 to all cars available today

For the "Qualified conclusion" type, I'm not too sure but Q50 (discussed here) in Verbal review seems like a match.
In this Ques, the author concludes that adequate moisture is essential for crop's survival and will result in prices falling sharply. This conclusion leaves the argument to attack with alternate causes, which may impact the crop's survival.
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16 May 2013, 18:52
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone please explain this question Confused between Option C and D.

In D it can go either way. It can go in favour of the argument. Ex if PZ1000 has a ratio of lets say 2 and the other has 5 or vice-versa. In both cases the statement will be true. Hence it can't be the answer. C directly contradicts the conclusion. Hence C.
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16 May 2013, 21:06
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone please explain this question Confused between Option C and D.

(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars. More accidents means more injuries even if injuries per accident are lower than for other vehicles.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced. Does not say if the PZ 1000 has more or less injuries per accident than other cars in it's class. The pronounced difference could go either way.
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09 Sep 2013, 09:15
D specifically assumes the difference that may have been present whereas we are bothered more about the # of accidents. Hope that helps
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17 Mar 2014, 05:20
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Conclusion of the argument:
The PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.
Premise:
The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class.

There are two assumptions that the author takes while stating the conclusion.
1. The class to which PZ 1000 belongs is the safest among all classes of cars.
2. The number of accidents that happen in PZ 1000 per number of PZ 1000 that run on the roads is substantially lower than any other car.
If either of these two assumptions are shattered we have the right answer.

The statement C attacks the second assumption and states that the PZ 1000 has lots of accidents and hence even though the number of injuries per accident are less but since the number of accidents are more its not really as safe as mentioned.
Hope this explanation helps

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17 Mar 2014, 05:27
The strategy i follow in weaken type of question is that the answer choice must actually destroy the conclusion.( but the facts or premises are respected)

So, here the conclusion is "The PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today".

And no other option except C, actually destroys the above mentioned conclusion.

So the answer should be C.

Let me know i make sense
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20 Mar 2014, 07:00
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akhil911 wrote:
Conclusion of the argument:
The PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.
Premise:
The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class.

There are two assumptions that the author takes while stating the conclusion.
1. The class to which PZ 1000 belongs is the safest among all classes of cars.
2. The number of accidents that happen in PZ 1000 per number of PZ 1000 that run on the roads is substantially lower than any other car.
If either of these two assumptions are shattered we have the right answer.

The statement C attacks the second assumption and states that the PZ 1000 has lots of accidents and hence even though the number of injuries per accident are less but since the number of accidents are more its not really as safe as mentioned.
Hope this explanation helps

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Hi akhil911,

I agree with your second assumption if we remove the word "substantially" from it.

However, I am not very sure about your first assumption. If the first assumption a must be true statement? What if we negate it? What if all other cars (which have the same category as PZ1000) are not very safe? Does that mean PZ 1000 is not the safest car? If none of the Indian cricketers can score more than 10,000 runs, does it mean that Sachin can also not do that?

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16 May 2014, 15:46
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C : I think is strengthening instead of weakening it. Can somebody explain the right answer???

The answer will be clear, if you re-read the question. Argument states "PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today." Not that it is comparing PZ1000 from all the cars available in the market.

But, we are only given info about the cars that belong to the class PZ1000 belongs to. PZ1000 is the safest car in its class, but that does not make it the safest of all the cars available in the market today.
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27 Jul 2014, 06:11
Thoughtosphere wrote:

The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of anycar in
its class. This showsthat the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

(A) The HighwayTraffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
(B) In recent years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
(C) Cars in the class to which thePZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other typesof cars.
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.

The question is discussed above.
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22 Sep 2014, 23:23
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Prem:
The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class.
Conc:
This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.

IMO C:
Reason, if the mentioned class itself is unsafe then PZ might be unsafe compared to the car in other classes.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

A. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
>>In a way strengthen.
B. In recent years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
>>Irrelevant.
C. Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.
D. The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
>>Not sufficient.
E. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.
>>Irrelevant.
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22 Sep 2014, 23:41
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Fact : The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class.
Conclusion: This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.

The key here is in its class. It can be clearly inferred from fact 1 that it is the safest car in its class.But if it has to be the safest car of all the available cars then the class also has to be safest.
If we can find that the class is not the safest then it will weaken the argument.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

A. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
Incorrect. We are trying to find safe cars rather than accident prone cars.
B. In recent years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
Irrelevant.. The sale is high doesn't mean safe/non-safe
C. Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.
CORRECT.
D. The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
Incorrect.If it is pronounced than it actually strengthens the argument rather than weakens.
E. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.
Irrelevant.We are not concerned about the frequency of reports.[/quote]
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23 Sep 2014, 19:39
Automobile Dealer's Advertisement: The Highway Traffic Safety Institute reports that the PZ 1000 has the fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class. This shows that the PZ 1000 is one of the safest cars available today.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument in the advertisement?

A. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000.
This actually strengthens the argument.
B. In recent years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.
Does not matter because we are talking about injuries per accident so if there is 10 cars or 100 cars it is the same.
C. Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.
Best choice-This weakens the conclusion because if this class of cars is more prone to accidents than the PZ 1000 can still have a lot of accidents and have the fewest injuries per accident but it will not necessarily be the safest car on the road because this class of cars is the most accident prone...Example. You would not consider the best "amateur" tennis player in the world to be the best tennis player in the world just because he is the best in his class.
D. The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced.
This could be good or bad its just saying there is a big difference between the amount of injuries per accident.
E. The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year.
This does not weaken the conclusion perhaps if it were every 10 years but once a year is sufficient.
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16 Dec 2014, 11:18
PZ1000 has the fewest injuries in it's class (let's say SUV ) then Dealer is claiming its one of the safest cars ( i.e. in all class - SUV, Hathcback, Sedan, Sports etc. ) . Argument seems stupid .

A) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute report listed many cars in other classes that had more injuries per accident than did the PZ 1000. (It strengthens)
(B) In recently years many more PZ 1000s have been sold than have any other kind of car in its class.( Report is based on more car i.e. sample size is more, it means report is more accurate. It strengthens.)
(C) Cars in the class to which the PZ 1000 belongs are more likely to be involved in accidents than are other types of cars.) Correct, it tells that fewest in higher number)
(D) The difference between the number of injuries per accident for the PZ 1000 and that for other cars in its class is quite pronounced. ( Is difference is +ve or -ve not clear. hence wrong )
(E) The Highway Traffic Safety Institute issues reports only once a year. (That's good to know it does not weaken.)
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08 Sep 2015, 14:12
scorpionkapoor77 wrote:
How could the OA be C, since C only talks about the class to which PZ 1000 belongs. It may still be the safest car despite the fact that the group has high accident rate. Someone please throw the light !

C is a correct answer since this answer gives alternative explanation why car PZ 1000 has lower accident rate. Accident rate is low not because PZ is a safe car but because other cars are more likely to be involved in a car accident. In Weaken questions try to look for an answer that provides alternative explanation.
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10 Sep 2015, 08:38
Let's get this in this way.

Ask yourself that under what conditions, the claim of the argument is no longer valid. The claim of the argument is PZ 1000 is the safest car today.
The choice C tells that The class to which PZ 1000 belongs to the group are more likely to be involved in accident.

Add this option to argument and then see what happens. The conclusion will be dubious that PZ 1000 is the safest car.
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14 Apr 2016, 12:15
Conclusion: PZ is one of the safest cars available today
Premise: PZ has fewest injuries per accident of any car in its class

Assumption: fewest injuries per accident --> safe ( what about deaths ?), PZ's class is the safest class of any class.

Something along the lines of more deaths or along the lines of PZ is not in the safest class will undermine the assumption.

Alternatively, negate the conclusion& look for choices which support this negated conclusion
Negated conclusion: PZ is not one of the safest cars available today.

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