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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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01 May 2008, 09:00
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
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01 May 2008, 09:15
For me it's between A and D... I'm gonna go with A because it proves the hypothesis by taking into account the reciprocal of what's being said.

So, A for me.
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01 May 2008, 09:30
(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. [Hold it]

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. [Certain areas of Africa is not the intent of the argument – eliminate it]

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. [What most White Africans do is irrelevant to the argument – eliminate it]

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. [This weakens the argument – eliminate it]

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. [This weakens the argument – eliminate it]

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01 May 2008, 12:17
A by POE for me
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01 May 2008, 16:59
A

The arguments says that the westernized Black Africans' high blood pressure comes from genes that adapted to environments that are scarce in salt. Answer A says that Africans from areas with high amounts of salt have low blood pressure.

Plentiful salt=low blood pressure
Scarce salt=high blood pressure
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01 May 2008, 17:28
carlson2010 wrote:
The arguments says that the westernized Black Africans' high blood pressure comes from genes that adapted to environments that are scarce in salt. Answer A says that Africans from areas with high amounts of salt have low blood pressure.

saravalli wrote:
may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

I think, the argument claims that the interaction, not from genes only, btw high-salt diets and genes...is responsible for the high blood pressure

And E confirms this hypothis by saying that there is no significant difference in salt metabolism.... E means that difference in salt methobolism is not considerable, and therefor it confirms the hypothis.

What do you think?
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01 May 2008, 17:40
Straight C . Will explain further if correct.
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01 May 2008, 19:17
bsd_lover wrote:
Straight C . Will explain further if correct.

Let be confident attaching with your choice the explaination, no matter what it is wrong or correct!

And pls comment on my reasoning! Welcome all the comments!
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01 May 2008, 19:34
Haha ok , here's the arguement :

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure
. <-- support 1

This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. <-- support 2

Support two interests me a LOT, since white africans will need to adapt to the LOW levels of salt of africa (their genes are predisposed to higher salt remember). Hence with option C, Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption, strengthens the connection between genes and blood pressure levels.

Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. <-- hypothesis (i.e. conclusion of this argument)
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01 May 2008, 19:47
bsd_lover wrote:
Haha ok , here's the arguement :

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure
. <-- support 1

This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. <-- support 2

Support two interests me a LOT, since white africans will need to adapt to the LOW levels of salt of africa (their genes are predisposed to higher salt remember). Hence with option C, Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption, strengthens the connection between genes and blood pressure levels.

Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. <-- hypothesis (i.e. conclusion of this argument)

Hehe, thank you, your reasoning points out my weakness that almost quicly swep my eyes on the text. Only when reviewing your reasoning, I recognized "White african". My god!

Anyway, I got the point!
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01 May 2008, 20:09
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Premise
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure.

Premise
This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.

Conclusion
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

The conclusion is saying that in the past blacks had no salt, their genes adapted, and now they're coming into contact with high salt and this process causes them to have high blood pressure.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

This tell us that blacks who had salt in the past don't have high blood pressure

No salt = genes adapt = high blood pressure when introduce to high salt
High salt = genes don't adapt = low blood pressure when introduced to high salt again
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01 May 2008, 20:17
bsd_lover wrote:
Haha ok , here's the arguement :

Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure
. <-- support 1

This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. <-- support 2

Support two interests me a LOT, since white africans will need to adapt to the LOW levels of salt of africa (their genes are predisposed to higher salt remember). Hence with option C, Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption, strengthens the connection between genes and blood pressure levels.

Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. <-- hypothesis (i.e. conclusion of this argument)

I think you missing the point of what a westernized Black African is. You support 2 is comparing Black Africans that came to America to White Africans that are still in Africa. So both the westernized Black Africans and White Africans genes probably have adapted to low salt levels of Africa, but only the westernized Black Africans are exposed to the high salt diet in America while the White Africans are still in Africa with low salt diets.
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01 May 2008, 20:36
gixxer1000 wrote:
I think you missing the point of what a westernized Black African is. You support 2 is comparing Black Africans that came to America to White Africans that are still in Africa. So both the westernized Black Africans and White Africans genes probably have adapted to low salt levels of Africa, but only the westernized Black Africans are exposed to the high salt diet in America while the White Africans are still in Africa with low salt diets.

No I think westernized black Africans refers to Africans who are still in Africa but have been "westernized".

By your logic of white Africans "adapting" to low salt levels of Africa, black Americans should also adapt to high salt levels of America, which is NOT the case.
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02 May 2008, 05:50
bsd_lover wrote:
gixxer1000 wrote:
I think you missing the point of what a westernized Black African is. You support 2 is comparing Black Africans that came to America to White Africans that are still in Africa. So both the westernized Black Africans and White Africans genes probably have adapted to low salt levels of Africa, but only the westernized Black Africans are exposed to the high salt diet in America while the White Africans are still in Africa with low salt diets.

No I think westernized black Africans refers to Africans who are still in Africa but have been "westernized".

By your logic of white Africans "adapting" to low salt levels of Africa, black Americans should also adapt to high salt levels of America, which is NOT the case.

Regradless of where they're at (i.e. In America or in Africa with American culture) The westernized Black Africans are exposed to high salt diets and White Africans are not.

The Black Americans are originally from Africa. So there genes have adapted to low salt.
The westernized Black Africans are from Africa. So there genes have adapted to low salt.
White Africans are from Africa. So there genes have adapted to low salt.
White Americans are not from Africa. So there genes have NOT adapted to low salt.

The Black Americans are in America. So they have high salt diets.
The westernized Black Africans use westernized culture. So they have high salt diets.
White Africans are in Africa. So they have low salt diets.
White Americans are in America. So the have high salt diets.

The conlusion is that if you go from low salt to high salt you will develop high blood pressure.

The only groups going from low salt to high salt are the Black Americans and the westernized Black Africans.

Statement A help to confirm this by stating that the Black Africans from regions where salt was originally high now have low blood presssure.

Statement C indicates that White Africans have high blood pressure. But White Africans have never been introduced to high salt diets. So this weakens the researchers hypothesis.
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02 May 2008, 06:23
C

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02 May 2008, 06:40
bsd_lover wrote:
gixxer1000 wrote:
I think you missing the point of what a westernized Black African is. You support 2 is comparing Black Africans that came to America to White Africans that are still in Africa. So both the westernized Black Africans and White Africans genes probably have adapted to low salt levels of Africa, but only the westernized Black Africans are exposed to the high salt diet in America while the White Africans are still in Africa with low salt diets.

No I think westernized black Africans refers to Africans who are still in Africa but have been "westernized".

By your logic of white Africans "adapting" to low salt levels of Africa, black Americans should also adapt to high salt levels of America, which is NOT the case.

you may have a point, but don't you think the question is asking us to look into statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans?
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans
I think there are different ways of strengthening the researcher's hypothesis.But the question is directed towards present-day, westernized Black Africans.
C is talking about cause/effect relationship between White Africans and their salt consumption.

OA is A.
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02 May 2008, 06:40
A
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02 May 2008, 08:05
why is D wrong..?
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02 May 2008, 11:24
fresinha12 wrote:
why is D wrong..?

I don't think D is wrong per-se, it just happens that A strengthens the assumption much more than D, because A is reaffirming what the text is saying by explaining that when "X" isn't present, then "Y" doesn't happen. It's about cause and effect; D takes into account a much lesser proportion than A.
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02 May 2008, 11:38
fresinha12 wrote:
why is D wrong..?

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.

In order for the researchers hypothesis to hold true there has to be an environmental scarcity of salt in Africa. This contradicts the hypothesis by stating that there are multiple sources of salt in Africa (sea salt and salt mines).
Re: CR - Salt   [#permalink] 02 May 2008, 11:38

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