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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2004, 01:18
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchersâ€™ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

Would appreciate an explanation for your choice.

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21 Jun 2004, 01:48
mba wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchersâ€™ hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

Would appreciate an explanation for your choice.

The passage says that

A. Black African ancestors' diets were extremely low in salt; hence the adaptation to low-salt diets.
B. Western diets are high-salt.
C. A & B cause high blood pressure.

Choice B confirms the hypothesis because it clearly shows the relationship between high-salt diets and high blood pressur.

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21 Jun 2004, 06:55
concur with B. Nice explanation ob.
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Paul

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21 Jun 2004, 07:06
Well the problem is I also selected (B),

But the OA is (A). Any idea!!!! (Was completely bold, after I saw the OA).

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21 Jun 2004, 07:11

(B) does not talk about blood pressure in particular.

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=3032

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21 Jun 2004, 07:28
Hi mba:

can you please tell the group abt. the source from where this is taken? I find this CR difficult (infact it was difficult to know what exaclty the author was trying to say!)

Thanks
Vithal

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21 Jun 2004, 07:29
anandnk wrote:

(B) does not talk about blood pressure in particular.

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=3032

Too late... Thanks, Anand!

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21 Jun 2004, 07:45
The question says
'Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would ...'
whereas option A talks about Senegal and Zambia.

A does seem to be the correct answer, if one ignores the part of the question that I have reproduced above.

./abisurd

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21 Jun 2004, 07:58
Stem: high salt diet + gene adapted to an environment of salt scarcity = high blood pressure.

According to author, this is what creates high blood pressure. If the two above conditions are not met, then high blood pressure may not happen.

A) high salt diet + gene adapted to an environment of salt abundance

Just as what author says. High salt diet but no salt scarcity. Hence, low blood pressure. Therefore, this confirm the author's contention that you need both elements to have high blood pressure.

This was a tricky one indeed
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21 Jun 2004, 20:04

A clearly states that Senegal/gambia 's scarcity of salt made inhabitant's genes adapt to it. "interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt" led to high blood pressure levels in westernized black.

refer: http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic ... zed+blacks

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22 Jun 2004, 07:19
Well, I am still not completely satisified with the answer choice.

Paul: Going by your analogy, how will refute choice (D)?

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22 Jun 2004, 07:28
mba wrote:
Well, I am still not completely satisified with the answer choice.

Paul: Going by your analogy, how will refute choice (D)?

D does speak about the proximity to a salt source but DOES NOT relate that to a high salt diet. Remember, living next to a salt source DOES NOT necessarily mean a high salt diet. That would be an unwarranted assumption. Hence, D misses the link between proximity to salt source vis-a-vis high salt diet
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22 Jun 2004, 07:58
May be I am missing a point here, but then in (A) also, I don't see where the author is talking about relation of availability and high salt diet

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22 Jun 2004, 20:20
mba wrote:
May be I am missing a point here, but then in (A) also, I don't see where the author is talking about relation of availability and high salt diet

You got me here mba As you said in original title, I also had a bad day with this CR. Just wanted to make sure I explain it right this time. Please ignore my previous explanation since this one is much better. Here it comes

D) If the Yoruba lived far away from salt sources, did their genes adapt to an environment of salt scarcity? Yes. Yet, the conclusion says that their blood pressure is low. This directly contradicts the argument. As I said earlier:
Genes adapted to an environment of salt scarcity = high blood pressure

A) If people from Senegal and Gambia lived near salt sources, did their genes adapt to an environment of salt scarcity? No. This directly strengthens the argument.

Genes not adapted to an environment of salt scarcity = low blood pressure

Is it better?
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23 Jun 2004, 00:37
Now this explains why your are a CEO.

Thanks! (Well when I said had a bad with CR, I meant not only with this CR but with a bunch of CR's that I answered on that day! Would appreciate if you can share some of the CR strategies here or if you can give some advice, I was pretty much ok with CR's a month back, offlate i am having a problem in understanding the Question's itslef , and that's really bad!
would appreciate any suggestion/help on this!)

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23 Jun 2004, 07:06
As I said many times, try to understand what the question is asking. Try to find why the OA is better than any other answer and how all other answers can be refuted. Don't worry too much for this CR. It is quite difficult. You are allowed to miss a few but if you do miss it, try to understand why. If you are not too sure, post it here
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23 Jun 2004, 07:13
Thanks Paul: That's what I have been trying to do! understanding the OA and for any doubts posting the Q here. Let's see where I land up!!!

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23 Jun 2004, 07:28
Great discussion guys! This one is tough.

I just wanted to add smth. The author of the question, I believe, gives us a subtle hint as to the answer...

Note the question:

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans...

Only A says:

The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia...

This suggests heritage and makes a link with the present-day westernized blacks

While D says:

Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history...

The above suggests a tribe still living somewhere far inland in Africa... not present-day westernized blacks[/b]
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23 Jun 2004, 07:28
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