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By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree,

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By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop prematurely.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Vyshak on 28 Jun 2017, 02:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 07:40
I think the answer is D.

Tree growth can't "suck", so A and B are wrong. "Which" in C and "this" in E can't indicate the sentence before them.

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 08:15
First I went for C but D makes perfect sense to me. causing needle to change color and to drop prematurely

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 08:46
D is best. A and B have misplaced modifiers problem. C and E improperly introduce conjuntion "and" after the commas at end of sentence
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2011, 04:54
pls, help

the word "this" in E is right or wrong. Pls, explain.

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2011, 08:27
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thangvietnam wrote:
pls, help

the word "this" in E is right or wrong. Pls, explain.


"this" in choice E is totally wrong, this does not refer to anything. If you use "this action (of the woolly adelgid), it will be ok.

Furthermore, choice E make parallelism in the modifier-part with 2 ambiguous items "this" vs "the their dropping".
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2011, 09:33
+1 D
A & B modifier prob
C Which...wrongly modifies the previous noun
E error in maintining II-ism
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2011, 04:50
By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, <<tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop>> prematurely.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
wrong ....

C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping (and dropping is not parallel to any part of the sentence)
D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
(( their refers to what? ))

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2011, 04:11
A and D stands out,

i would go for D for active construction.

-- is there any thing wrong with A, other than the passive construction?

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2011, 07:14
A and in fact B are most certainly grammatically wrong becos they belong to the classic case of misplaced modification.The participial modifier By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree should be followed by the modified noun namely the woolly adelgid rather than the tree growth. A and B mean as if the tree growth is sucking sap.
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2011, 13:01
marine wrote:
By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, <<tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop>> prematurely.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping


Narrow down to C/D/E
Discard C as tree growth can't cause the change of color
Discard E growth, and.. green,and... their dropping?....

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2012, 22:39
Modifier is wrongly placed in A and B. E is wordy. D has to change .... to drop ||ism. D

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 20:08
Can we eliminate E on the grounds that 'their dropping' is awkward

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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knuckleduster wrote:
Can we eliminate E on the grounds that 'their dropping' is awkward


In general a possessive noun / pronoun + gerund is perfectly valid combination.

The following link will probably be helpful to get a better concept on this topic:

http://www.english-for-students.com/Pos ... runds.html

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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The sentence begins with a modifier. So, when we get to the comma, we should stop and ask the question that the modifier raises. Here the question is, "Who or what sucks sap from young twigs?" The part immediately following the comma should answer our question in a logical manner.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
Tree growth sucks sap from young twigs?
Makes no sense. Eliminate A.

B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
Tree growth sucks sap from young twigs?
Makes no sense. Eliminate B.

C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep C for now.

D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep D for now.

E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep E for now.

Now, compare C, D and E for other issues.

Note: The retarded tree growth causes 2 things:
1) needles change color
2) needles drop prematurely.

We need parallelism here.

C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
Not parallel. Eliminate.

D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
Parallel. Keep.

E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
Not parallel. Eliminate.

Answer is D.
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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2017, 23:06
anairamitch1804 wrote:
The sentence begins with a modifier. So, when we get to the comma, we should stop and ask the question that the modifier raises. Here the question is, "Who or what sucks sap from young twigs?" The part immediately following the comma should answer our question in a logical manner.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
Tree growth sucks sap from young twigs?
Makes no sense. Eliminate A.

B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
Tree growth sucks sap from young twigs?
Makes no sense. Eliminate B.

C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep C for now.

D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep D for now.

E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
The woolly adelgid sucks sap from young twigs? Makes sense - keep E for now.

Now, compare C, D and E for other issues.

Note: The retarded tree growth causes 2 things:
1) needles change color
2) needles drop prematurely.

We need parallelism here.

C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
Not parallel. Eliminate.

D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
Parallel. Keep.

E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping
Not parallel. Eliminate.

Answer is D.

Very lucid explanation.
Helpful for people like us weak in SC.

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2017, 23:36
Imo D
The ing modifier causing correctly modifies the preceding clause .
By sucking sap should modify the bird


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By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, tree growth [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 12:07
By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop prematurely.

A. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
B. tree growth is retarded by the woolly adelgid, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and their dropping
C. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, which causes needles to change color from deep green to grayish green, and dropping
D. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, causing needles to change color from deep green to grayish green and to drop
E. the woolly adelgid retards tree growth, and this causes the color of needles to change from deep green to grayish green, and the their dropping

Last edited by broall on 27 Sep 2017, 18:18, edited 1 time in total.
Merged post. Please search before posting

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree, [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2017, 14:56
Hi. I have just started preparing for the gmat.
Can someone explain please

What is the difference between , + ing verb form and directly ing verb form.
Are they different or some and in this question what effect it would have caused to replace one with another.

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Re: By sucking sap from the young twigs of the hemlock tree,   [#permalink] 28 Sep 2017, 14:56

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