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Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 21:01
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Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months


(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are

(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is

(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are

(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are

(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2012, 09:47
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oldstudent wrote:
Can you please also explain why the subject "Declining Revenues" is plural according to you. I believe it is a subject phrase and shud be singular. I do not see any convincing explanation.


Hi there,
Verb-ing words are modifiers that define certain entities, depending on their placement in the sentence. Also, verb-ing words act as gerunds. Gerunds are formed by adding “ing” to any verb but they are nouns.

Now when a gerund is the subject of a sentence, then it is singular. Let’s understand this with the help of few examples:

1. Swimming is my favorite sport.
2. Listening to music works as the best stress buster for me.

In the above two sentences, “swimming” and “listening” are gerunds. They are nouns that form the subject of the sentence. Since “swimming” and “listening” are gerunds, they are singular in number and take singular verbs “is” and “works” respectively.

Now, if the sentence has two or more gerunds as subjects connected with proper conjunctions, then the verb will become plural. For example:
1. Swimming and listening to music relax me the most after a long day at work.

Now let’s take a look at the original sentence:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months.

Now here “declining” is a verb-ing word. Notice that “declining” is not a gerund here. It is modifier or an adjective that is modifying the noun “revenues”. It is showing one of the qualities of the revenues. So, technically the subject of the sentence is “revenues”. And since it has an adjective before it that cannot be left out as it shows one of its features, the subject becomes “declining revenues”. Now, since “revenues” is plural, we need plural verb. Answer choice A has the correct verb “are” that agrees in number with “revenues” or rather “declining revenues”. :)

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2010, 21:19
[quote="devashish"]Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, arebest option
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, isSubject verb agreement problem.
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are the usage of "it" is ambiguous.
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, aretoo wordy
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, iscan be eliminated because of "is"

I hope my explanation is right!!
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New post 25 Oct 2010, 22:51
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Except A, all the rest suffer from some kind of a fault.

(B) Declining revenues is – SV number disagreement

C) A fragment without a verb in the first part.

D) Commercial airlines – who--- wrong pronoun to denote a thing.

E) Declining revenues …. Is –SV disagreement

What is the problem in A?
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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:38
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Please advise if I am wrong ?
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 02:18
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Quote:
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Look at the given sentence

Going from strength to strength, Indian athletes have gathered more than a hundred medals in CWG.
The sentence starts with a present participial and the verb is the plural -have gathered – Any thing wrong?

May be MGMAT SC is being quoted out of place.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 07:55
Step1: Look for S-V agreement error if any.
In the questions yes: Subject is: declining revenues; verb must be "are"

(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is - out(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are - we do not need to independent clauses. eliminate
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are - the restrictive pronoun "which" is not modifying the correcr noun. out
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is -same as D
So in A, all os this is taken care.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 11:46
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This question is a perfect platform for a Modifier strategy we call "Use It or Lose It":

When you're presented with a modifier on the GMAT, you either "Use It" to eliminate that answer choice (because it's an incorrect modifier) or you "Lose It" (read as though it weren't there to get a better sense of subject-verb agreement and other errors.

Here, "a source of income..." logically modifies "business travel", so we can "Lose It' with that modifier and bring the rest of the sentence closer together:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel ARE/IS going to force...

Now we can look at the remaining sentence and again eliminate a modifier: "resulting from..." modifies "declining revenues", so really this sentence is just saying that:

Declining revenues ARE going to force...

By eliminating that modifier we know that the subject is plural and we'll need "ARE" as the verb to match.

C and D each contain multiple errors (C uses "it" as a pronoun that really needs to refer back to the subject "revenues", plus it ends a statement with a preposition "with"; D is just horrendously long and uses redundant terms throughout), so the only potential answer is A. A is much easier to get to if you're seen that you can ignore the modifier that seeks to separate the subject from the verb. Because we couldn't "Use It" to eliminate the answer choice, we can "Lose It" to make a much shorter, easier-to-dissect sentence, leading us to A.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 12:20
Hi all,

Try to split and resplit the asnwer choices by looking at the begining and at the end of the sentence.
Read It vertically. Scan and Kill it. (RiSK) (c)

So what do you see here. Look the following splits:
1) A, B - begin with a source of income, C- with and, D, E- begin with which
2) Plural A, C, D/singular - B, E

Decide what is wrong let say in 2). subject "Declining revenues" - they are or it is???! Must be they are. So cross out B, E.
now go to 1) we have still 3 different subsplits A, C and D.
which must refer to the noun just before it. Is travel is a source of income? not for us. Kill D and move on.
Make sure you have crossed out B,E and D. Now you have 50% probability to get this SC right.

Now, even if you are stuck between choices A and C, read C carefully. Do you see smth wrong ?
first, it is ambigous here, to what does it refer? seems to business travel, is it really so ? nope.
second, to survive with - is awkward ask yourself with what??! why infinitive?
third, and is used in either parallel structures or enumeration, do you see that neither of cases is applicable to C? Cross it.
So answer is A.


Quote:
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

I do not agree with the OA Posted, can someone please have a look and advise ?

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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 04:52
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
This question is a perfect platform for a Modifier strategy we call "Use It or Lose It":

When you're presented with a modifier on the GMAT, you either "Use It" to eliminate that answer choice (because it's an incorrect modifier) or you "Lose It" (read as though it weren't there to get a better sense of subject-verb agreement and other errors.

Here, "a source of income..." logically modifies "business travel", so we can "Lose It' with that modifier and bring the rest of the sentence closer together:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel ARE/IS going to force...

Now we can look at the remaining sentence and again eliminate a modifier: "resulting from..." modifies "declining revenues", so really this sentence is just saying that:

Declining revenues ARE going to force...

By eliminating that modifier we know that the subject is plural and we'll need "ARE" as the verb to match.

C and D each contain multiple errors (C uses "it" as a pronoun that really needs to refer back to the subject "revenues", plus it ends a statement with a preposition "with"; D is just horrendously long and uses redundant terms throughout), so the only potential answer is A. A is much easier to get to if you're seen that you can ignore the modifier that seeks to separate the subject from the verb. Because we couldn't "Use It" to eliminate the answer choice, we can "Lose It" to make a much shorter, easier-to-dissect sentence, leading us to A.



Can you please also explain why the subject "Declining Revenues" is plural according to you. I believe it is a subject phrase and shud be singular. I do not see any convincing explanation.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2012, 23:07
devashish wrote:
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

I do not agree with the OA Posted, can someone please have a look and advise ?


First of all, remove the non essential modifier. The rest of the sentence becomes "Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months"
So the correct answer must be an option, which uses "are". Eliminate B and E.
D incorrectly uses "which". "Which" if used to introduce a relative clause, must be preceded by a comma. There is no referent for "it".
C tries to use ", and" as a conjunction to add two independent clauses, a construction where the two clauses are given equal status. But here the requirement was of a relative clause. Also it incorrectly uses "it". Eliminate C
A remains.
Hope that helps.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2018, 10:08
Quick method to solve this:

"Declining revenues" is the subject.

It must be followed by a plural verb.
Only A,C and D have plural verb. Eliminate B and E.

C has Comma + and. This must only be used to connect two independent clauses. However, in C, after Comma + and, the rest of the part is fragment. Eliminate C.

D is too wordy.

Thus A.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2018, 03:38
devashish wrote:
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months


(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are

(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is

(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are

(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are

(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is


KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



No, this isn't the most eloquent sentence that one could write, but it is grammatically correct and uses modifiers correctly. In the original sentence, the clause beginning a source modifies business travel, and follows it immediately, as any well placed modifier should.

Answer choices (C) and (D) create an error by altering that clause so that it no longer acts as a modifier, though it must for the same reasons that Scribner's needed its modifier above. The remaining choices differ with respect to the final verb: is is or are correct? Since the subject of the sentence is declining revenues, itself plural, then the verb should be are. Eliminate (B) and (E). Only (A) remains.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2018, 13:36
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months


(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are

(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is

(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are

(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are

(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

A is correct choice by elimination,
B is using 'is'
C is using 'it' but its not clear what is it refering to
D wrong formation
E is using 'is'
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel &nbs [#permalink] 04 Aug 2018, 13:36
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