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Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate

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Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 01:02
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Question Stats:

56% (01:37) correct 44% (01:59) wrong based on 375 sessions

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Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.

For 1st question, go here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/despite-impr ... l#p1802980
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by broall on 16 May 2017, 22:56, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted question, added link between two questions

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2017, 07:47
Nahid078 wrote:
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the
death rate from this disease has doubled during the past
decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations
for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of
deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and
accurate in the past decade than it had been previously.
Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution.
However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has
increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing,
comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban
pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of
increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma
sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on
which the argument depends?
(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past
decade.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role
of allergies in asthma.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used
according to the recommended instructions.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other
diseases that frequently occur among asthma
sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes
even when the asthma itself does not.
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording
of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial
inhalers are the only possible explanations of
the increased death rate due to asthma.


My take is E.
The author reaches to the conclusion just by saying that not P and Q that lead to asthma,but R.
Hence,the assumption is these are only three possible causes.

I think C is close,but with the presence of E,it is inferior.

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2017, 20:30
Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths - serve as counter premise in the argument. Option C hits directly on the author's conclusion so isn't C the correct answer?
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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2017, 22:42
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Pattern recognition is one of the keys to speedy points on test day; after all, standardized tests like the GMAT are all about patterns.

In CR, one of the most frequently occurring argument patterns is causation.
Any argument that can be summarized to "x caused y", and there are lots of them on the GMAT, fall into this category.

This question's argument can be summarized as:

A phenomenon occurred. I have ruled out 2 possible causes of the phenomenon. Therefore, this third cause must be responsible.

In every causal argument, the author is making the following assumption: there are no other possible causes for the event.

With that prediction in mind, we aggressively move through the choices. (E) clearly matches our prediction.

If this had been a weakening question, we would have looked for an answer that provided an alternative cause; if this had been a strengthening question, we would have looked for an answer that eliminated an alternative cause.

guess Kudos is in order...

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2017, 07:19
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nazgulISB wrote:
Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths - serve as counter premise in the argument. Option C hits directly on the author's conclusion so isn't C the correct answer?


This is an assumption type question, not an inference type question. Option C could be an inference, i.e. option C follows FROM the conclusion, not that it leads TO the conclusion.

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2017, 09:00
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the
death rate from this disease has doubled during the past
decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations
for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of
deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and
accurate in the past decade than it had been previously.
Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution.
However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has
increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing,
comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban
pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of
increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma
sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on
which the argument depends?
(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past
decade.
The premise clearly mentions that the pollution has changed for some cities but not for all the cities,But if we do negation test that the pollution has doubled even then the argument provides premise that the deaths due to asthma has increased in the cities where the the pollution has not increased.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role
of allergies in asthma.
This option is also discussed in the argument premise that the deaths happen even in the cities where the mediacal documentation is appropriate and the patients are aware of the problems.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used
according to the recommended instructions.
this does not make a assumption question since this is a clear conclusion and not leading to the conclusion.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other
diseases that frequently occur among asthma
sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes
even when the asthma itself does not.
The information provided in the option is clearly linking the premises and the conclusion of the argument and addresses why the bronchial inhalers are unsafe.but if we do the negation test that bronchial inhalers does not aggravate other diseases.....,but this does not beark the argument as one can say that the inhalers might aggravate the issues related to asthma itself.
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording
of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial
inhalers are the only possible explanations of
the increased death rate due to asthma.
Increased urban pollution ,improved records and use of bronchial inhalers are only possible explanations and if we negate this that the argument will be invalid since it then suggest that ther may be naother reason for the deaths..so this is the correct answer.

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2017, 01:36
Nahid078 wrote:
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.

For 1st question, go here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/despite-impr ... l#p1802980



In this case, in order to conclude that it must instead be that the cause of the increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers, we must rule out all possible alternative causes. Otherwise, it's not true, that we must come to that conclusion. So answer choice (E) does represent a necessary assumption of the reasoning underlying the argument.

Lets look at the incorrect answer choices:

(A) would weaken the argument by providing an alternative explanation.
(B) provides one way in which the conclusion would have its impact, but doesn't represent the only way the inhalers could have caused the deaths.
(C) doesn't have to be true in order for the conclusion to be drawn from the evidence. The specific means is not important - instead it's whether the inhalers must represent the cause of the increased deaths.
(D) again provides one of many possible means by which the inhalers would cause the damage, but doesn't need to be the means by which the inhalers actually do lead to death.

So the important thing is that we're relating the evidence to the conclusion, and in order for the conclusion to follow from the evidence (in order for the reasoning to be sound), answer choice (E) does have to be assumed.
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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2017, 22:02
Skywalker18 wrote:
Nahid078 wrote:
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade.
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma.
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions.
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not.
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.

For 1st question, go here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/despite-impr ... l#p1802980



In this case, in order to conclude that it must instead be that the cause of the increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers, we must rule out all possible alternative causes. Otherwise, it's not true, that we must come to that conclusion. So answer choice (E) does represent a necessary assumption of the reasoning underlying the argument.

Lets look at the incorrect answer choices:

(A) would weaken the argument by providing an alternative explanation.
(B) provides one way in which the conclusion would have its impact, but doesn't represent the only way the inhalers could have caused the deaths.
(C) doesn't have to be true in order for the conclusion to be drawn from the evidence. The specific means is not important - instead it's whether the inhalers must represent the cause of the increased deaths.
(D) again provides one of many possible means by which the inhalers would cause the damage, but doesn't need to be the means by which the inhalers actually do lead to death.

So the important thing is that we're relating the evidence to the conclusion, and in order for the conclusion to follow from the evidence (in order for the reasoning to be sound), answer choice (E) does have to be assumed.


Hi Skywalker18,
Option E uses the structure X,Y and Z causes death rate due to asthma. This means a combination of X, Y and Z incident cause death rate . We are not using an "OR' structure. So, how can be a combination of 3 do this to support the argument.
E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma.

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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2017, 06:11
Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate. Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade. -Even if the population increased, the increase doesn't explain the cause of asthma related deaths
(B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma. -out of scope
(C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions. -Then these wouldn't have been prescribed by the doctors
(D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not. -other diseases are out of scope
(E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma. -Correct
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Re: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate   [#permalink] 23 Dec 2017, 06:11
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