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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines

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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 12:19
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34% (01:02) correct 66% (01:17) wrong based on 908 sessions

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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.


(A) of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

(B) of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

(C) of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

(D) that have a comparable size, and also they emit far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses that have

(E) that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses having


https://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/27/business/it-gets-78-miles-a-gallon-but-us-snubs-diesel.html

The A2 is part of a powerful movement in Western Europe, where gasoline prices are often three times what they are in the United States. Diesel engines burn as much as 30 percent less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which have been implicated in global warming. After being disparaged for years because they were noisy, smelly, smoke-belching and sluggish, a new generation of much cleaner, more nimble diesel-powered cars is suddenly the height of fashion in Europe.


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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 18:51
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(A) of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

I can’t complain about this one. “Carbon dioxide gas” is a singular, non-countable noun, so “less” works fine as a modifier. And this part is a little bit tricky, but the second part of the sentence refers to several different “gasses” – a countable, plural noun – so “fewer” is appropriate.

The phrase beginning with “that” (“that have been implicated…”) correctly modifies “other gasses.” It’s also completely fine to use the “-ing” form of the verb after “as well as.”

So I guess we’ll keep (A).

Quote:
(B) of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

It’s a funny quirk of English: if “as well as” were changed to “and” then we’d want the verbs “burn” and “emit” to be in parallel form. But since we have “as well as”, we’re better off using “emitting”, as we did in (A).

More importantly, I can’t make any sense of the “having been” at the end of the underlined portion. For that reason, we can scrap (B).

Quote:
(C) of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

You could argue that the pronoun “they” is ambiguous here, since it could refer to “diesel engines” or “gasoline engines”, but I’m not convinced: since “they” is the subject of the second clause, it can generally refer back to the subject of the first clause on the GMAT without causing any trouble.

But we definitely have a modifier problem here: “fewer carbon dioxide” doesn’t make any sense, since “carbon dioxide” is a non-countable noun, and “fewer” can only be used with countable nouns. (If you’re not clear about that concept, try counting the noun out loud: “one carbon dioxide, two carbon dioxides, three carbon dioxides…” That makes no sense at all, right? So “carbon dioxide” is non-countable.)

So (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) that have a comparable size, and also they emit far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses that have

The first part of the underlined portion isn’t necessarily WRONG, but it definitely isn’t great: “gasoline engines that have a comparable size” is a really crappy way to say “gasoline engines of comparable size.” I just don’t think it makes sense to use the word “have” in this context, since gasoline engines don’t really possess size.

More importantly, we have a problem with the non-countable modifier “less”, since it seems to be modifying both “carbon dioxide gas” (non-countable) and “other gasses” (countable) – and “less” can’t modify a countable noun.

So (D) is out, too.

Quote:
(E) that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses having

The first part of the underlined portion suffers from the same problem as (D): “that have a comparable size” is a lousy way to say “of comparable size.” But again, I wouldn’t necessarily eliminate (E) based on that issue by itself.

The other problem is the same as in (D): “less” seems to modify “other gasses”, and that doesn’t work. Plus, I’m really not sold on the idea of using “having” to modify “gasses” at the end of the underlined portion – the version in (A) (“gasses that have…”) seems a little bit better.

In any case, (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).
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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2018, 07:37
[quote="souvik101990"]Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.


(A) of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

(B) of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

(C) of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

(D) that have a comparable size, and also they emit far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses that have

(E) that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses having


That was hard but a quality question. Questions such as these need to be bookmarked and revised.

Anyone who is careful can eliminate "having been". This has two reasons

1. The myth that "having been" is not in a correct option goes well here. Though, the myth is utterly false.
2. Having been really doesn't make sense here.

Having been does not make sense here because "Having been implicated in global warming"... tells you that diesel engines started emitting fewer gasses because of the implication in the global warming. Are you telling me hours of innovation by Engineers in the automotive industry did not result in emission of fewer harmful gasses? Rather you are saying implication resulted in diesel engines emitting fewer gasses.

Now another interpretation is Diesel engines somehow had the sense to stop emitting gasses after the implications imposed by the Government. That my friend is a bull-**** story.

(Though I am stretching here a bit) this can also be interpreted as the gases somehow knew that they were implicated and did not want to come out of the diesel engines.

One must learn how having been is used properly to detect this meaning error. I encourage the readers to read more on the proper usage of having been, rather than just eliminating having been.

We are left with A,C&D. Immediately, one eliminates C. You can't have fewer CO2 and other gasses...

Now A vs D. Though very very subtle... A wins by saying-- less CO2 and fewer of other gases... here the author says less volume of CO2 and fewer (in number) gasses are emitted.

Fewer gases here means: some gases are emitted, while some are not. Technically speaking .. a Diesel engine emits many "countable" gases of Hydrocarbons (it could be methane, ethane, propane),(even water vapor is emitted)... probably fewer gases were emitted ... such as ethane was not emitted..or NOX was not emitted...

This question reminds me to be careful as heck...
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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines &nbs [#permalink] 04 Dec 2018, 07:37
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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines

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