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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of

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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 09:27
‘that have comparable size’ is needlessly wordy, when ‘of comparable size’ is perfectly correct. Get rid of the last two. B has ‘having’ at the end which makes the complete sentence incorrect with the phrase ‘that having been implicated…’ It just isn’t correct, doesn’t make sense. C uses ‘fewer’ in relation to ‘carbon dioxide’ but ‘carbon dioxide’ is a non-countable noun, like ‘ice’. So it is incorrect.



This leaves us with just A, which is the best of the bunch.
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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2019, 06:48
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

I can’t complain about this one. “Carbon dioxide gas” is a singular, non-countable noun, so “less” works fine as a modifier. And this part is a little bit tricky, but the second part of the sentence refers to several different “gasses” – a countable, plural noun – so “fewer” is appropriate.

The phrase beginning with “that” (“that have been implicated…”) correctly modifies “other gasses.” It’s also completely fine to use the “-ing” form of the verb after “as well as.”

So I guess we’ll keep (A).

Quote:
(B) of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

It’s a funny quirk of English: if “as well as” were changed to “and” then we’d want the verbs “burn” and “emit” to be in parallel form. But since we have “as well as”, we’re better off using “emitting”, as we did in (A).
More importantly, I can’t make any sense of the “having been” at the end of the underlined portion. For that reason, we can scrap (B).

Quote:
(C) of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

You could argue that the pronoun “they” is ambiguous here, since it could refer to “diesel engines” or “gasoline engines”, but I’m not convinced: since “they” is the subject of the second clause, it can generally refer back to the subject of the first clause on the GMAT without causing any trouble.

But we definitely have a modifier problem here: “fewer carbon dioxide” doesn’t make any sense, since “carbon dioxide” is a non-countable noun, and “fewer” can only be used with countable nouns. (If you’re not clear about that concept, try counting the noun out loud: “one carbon dioxide, two carbon dioxides, three carbon dioxides…” That makes no sense at all, right? So “carbon dioxide” is non-countable.)

So (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) that have a comparable size, and also they emit far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses that have

The first part of the underlined portion isn’t necessarily WRONG, but it definitely isn’t great: “gasoline engines that have a comparable size” is a really crappy way to say “gasoline engines of comparable size.” I just don’t think it makes sense to use the word “have” in this context, since gasoline engines don’t really possess size.

More importantly, we have a problem with the non-countable modifier “less”, since it seems to be modifying both “carbon dioxide gas” (non-countable) and “other gasses” (countable) – and “less” can’t modify a countable noun.

So (D) is out, too.

Quote:
(E) that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and other gasses having

The first part of the underlined portion suffers from the same problem as (D): “that have a comparable size” is a lousy way to say “of comparable size.” But again, I wouldn’t necessarily eliminate (E) based on that issue by itself.

The other problem is the same as in (D): “less” seems to modify “other gasses”, and that doesn’t work. Plus, I’m really not sold on the idea of using “having” to modify “gasses” at the end of the underlined portion – the version in (A) (“gasses that have…”) seems a little bit better.

In any case, (E) can be eliminated, and we’re left with (A).

Hello GMATNinja

Can you please explain the highlighted portions? I fail to understand how "burn" and "emitting" are parallel. Also, how do we make parallel sentences whenever "as well as " is present? Is it an exception to the rule of the normal parallelism?

Please help me out. Would be grateful.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2019, 09:32
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applebear wrote:
Hello GMATNinja

Can you please explain the highlighted portions? I fail to understand how "burn" and "emitting" are parallel. Also, how do we make parallel sentences whenever "as well as " is present? Is it an exception to the rule of the normal parallelism?

Please help me out. Would be grateful.
Burn and emitting are not parallel, nor do they have to be, because as well as is a preposition in that sentence, and it is followed by a gerund (the -ing form, though not all gerunds are -ings). You can take a look at some examples here and here.

Saying
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas...

is the same (structurally) as
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, in addition to emitting far less carbon dioxide gas...

To sum up: putting the -ing form of a verb is perfectly acceptable after as well as. This is something that you'll have to commit to memory, as the GMAT has used it in a few questions.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2019, 21:06
AjiteshArun wrote:
applebear wrote:
Hello GMATNinja

Can you please explain the highlighted portions? I fail to understand how "burn" and "emitting" are parallel. Also, how do we make parallel sentences whenever "as well as " is present? Is it an exception to the rule of the normal parallelism?

Please help me out. Would be grateful.
Burn and emitting are not parallel, nor do they have to be, because as well as is a preposition in that sentence, and it is followed by a gerund (the -ing form, though not all gerunds are -ings). You can take a look at some examples here and here.

Saying
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas...

is the same (structurally) as
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, in addition to emitting far less carbon dioxide gas...

To sum up: putting the -ing form of a verb is perfectly acceptable after as well as. This is something that you'll have to commit to memory, as the GMAT has used it in a few questions.

Hello,

Got it! Thank you so much. Indeed very helpful. :)
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of   [#permalink] 22 Mar 2019, 21:06

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