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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of

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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2009, 23:19
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A
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C
D
E

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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.

(A) of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

(B) of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

(C) of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

(D) that have a comparable size, and also they emit far fewer of the other gasses having

(E) that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far fewer of the other gasses having

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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2011, 09:17
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Step 1. Kick out C, D and E, because they are vastly distorting or deviating from the text’s intent. Original separates CO2 from the other gases and uses the uncountable comparative less because a gas is uncountable. By explicitly grouping other pollutants together and calling them gasses, the text permits the use of the countable comparative fewer to describe them. C bundles CO2 with other gases while D and E don’t even mention CO2. They can be dropped in one stroke.

Step 2. Between A and B, we have to grudgingly accept A, because of B’s indulgence in using 'having been’. However, it is no great solace that in GMAC quarters the expression ‘as well as’ plus participle is accepted as passable and parallel to a verb, despite its awkwardness.

Lesson: This is a GPREP question. Simply accept the official verdict, which is A
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2011, 10:24
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MISSION CRITICAL MODIFIER (As exception to touch rule of noun modifier)

A modifier need not necessarily modify the immediately preceding noun!!
“A heap of coins weighing more than one ton” - Now, is it the coins which are(each) weighing more than 1 ton or is it the heap which IS weighing more than 1 ton??

A “Mission-Critical” Modifier Falls Between (often an of-phrase that defines the noun). In these cases, the modifier modifies the entire noun phrase.

“He had a way OF DODGING OPPONENTS that impressed the scouts.”
• Without the modifier “of dodging Opponents” the noun “way” is meaningless. Next, The clause “that . . .” modifies the entire noun phrase “a way of dodging …” and not just the word “opponents”. . . Thus “of dodging opponents” is a Mission Critical Modifer

“Kelp is a natural fertilizer that has become popular among growers of heirloom tomatoes, who generally are willing to pay a premium for organic products”
• The clause “that . . .” correctly modifies ‘fertilizer’
• “who . . .” modifies the “growers”, despite the mission critical modifier in-between “of heirloom tomatoes”

Important Example (Mission Critical Modifier)
Q. Agricultural scientists have estimated that the annual loss by erosion of arable land caused by heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls approaches two million acres per year.
A. the annual loss by erosion of arable land caused by heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls approaches two million acres per year
B. the erosion of heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls causes a loss of arable land approaching two million acres per year
C. erosion caused by heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls results in a loss of arable land approaching two million acres per year (ignore "of arable land)(approaching modifies ‘Loss’)
D. an annual loss approaching two million acres of arable land per year results from erosion caused by heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls
E. annually a loss of arable land approaching two million acres per year is caused by erosion due to heavy rainfall and inadequate flood controls

Important Examples (Mission Critical Modifier + parallelism with Past & present Participle)
Q. Industrialization and modern methods of insect control have improved the standard of living around the globe while at the same time they have introduced some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants, having gone virtually unregulated since they were developed more than 50 years ago.
A. while at the same time they have introduced some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants, having
B. while at the same time introducing some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants that have. (ignore the –of phrase, “of living . . . have)(improved parallel to introducing)
C. while they have introduced some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants at the same time, which have
D. but introducing some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutants at the same time that have
E. but at the same time introducing some 100,000 dangerous chemical pollutant, having

Q. Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.
A. of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have (ignore “of comparable . . . as)(burn parallel to emitting)
B. of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having
C. of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have
D. that have a comparable size, and also they emit far fewer of the other gasses having
E. that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far fewer of the other gasses having

NOTE:
Improved = Past Participle and Introducing = Present Participle
Burn = Past Participle and Emitting = Present Participle


Took me a lot of effort to crack this!!

hope it helps all
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2010, 19:20
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Answer is A....wow good question. I found this on another website. I take no credit.

"as well as" is not a truly parallel construction; it creates a modifier that is not part of the skeleton of the original sentence. modifiers, as we know, don't have to be parallel to the main part of the sentence.

your best route here is just to memorize the fact that "...as well as VERBing" is an acceptable construction.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2010, 21:12
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gkslko101 wrote:
A seems correct however as well as construction is troubling.
Present participle is used to show the effect on any action in the previous clause..
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size.....emitting
far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have....

Emitting........ is showing the effect of burning by diesel engines..


noboru wrote:
OA is A. However, burn and emmiting is not parallel. Could anybody clarify?
Thanks.


The parallelism is not between burn and emitting. Pay attention to the construction of the sentence
the parallelism is between far less and far fewer .
"as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses"
The parallelism is created by the connecting word and , that connect one type of gas with other types of gas. The verb emitting refers to both parts.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2014, 06:56
noboru wrote:
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of
comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of
the other gasses that have
been implicated in global warming.
A. of comparable size , as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of
the other gasses that have
B. of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the
other gasses having
C. of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses
that have
D. that have a comparable size, and also they emit far fewer of the other gasses
having
E. that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far fewer of the other gasses
having


The sentence is actually taken form NYT
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/27/busin ... iesel.html

I guess option B, D, and E are wrong because of "having been" which acts as a verb (with an incorrect tense)

I found A a little awkward because of the phrase/modifier ", as well as emitting" although it is a valid construction.

I'm not sure why C is wrong. Probably, because of the pronoun but even with that mistake, I would rather prefer C.
The subject of the sentence is "Diesel Engines" and when the sentence says " , and also they emit" it is quite biased to say "they" refers to the subject.

Can someone elaborate why A is preferred more than C? Are there any other mistakes? Is the pronoun usage absolutely invalid or is it okay?
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 12:06
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b2bt wrote:

The sentence is actually taken form NYT
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/27/busin ... iesel.html

I guess option B, D, and E are wrong because of "having been" which acts as a verb (with an incorrect tense)

I found A a little awkward because of the phrase/modifier ", as well as emitting" although it is a valid construction.

I'm not sure why C is wrong. Probably, because of the pronoun but even with that mistake, I would rather prefer C.
The subject of the sentence is "Diesel Engines" and when the sentence says " , and also they emit" it is quite biased to say "they" refers to the subject.

Can someone elaborate why A is preferred more than C? Are there any other mistakes? Is the pronoun usage absolutely invalid or is it okay?



Hi b2bt,

Let us take a look at the sentence structure for option C:

• Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size,
• and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses
o that have been implicated in global warming.

Now, there are two errors in this sentence:

Idiom Error: Using ‘fewer’ with the uncountable noun ‘carbon dioxide’ is incorrect. ‘Fewer’ is used to compare countable nouns. For uncountable nouns, ‘less’ is used.

Joey took fewer steps than I did to reach to the sofa. (Steps- Countable Noun)
Joey took less time than I did to reach to the sofa. (Time- Uncountable Noun)

Redundancy Error: Since the connector ‘and’ is already used in this sentence to represent the additional information, using ‘also’ is redundant.

Also, since the pronoun ‘they’ acts as the subject of the second clause, it refers to the noun that is the subject of the previous clause. (In this very point, the pronoun ‘it’ refers to ‘the pronoun they’.) So, there is no pronoun error in this option.

Hope this helps! :)
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2014, 10:59
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Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.
A. of comparable size , as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have
B. of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

Hi,
Can someone please help me with below queries:
1.less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gases
I understand why to use "less" for CD [CD is un-countable] but what about "far fewer". Like CD, "the other gases" are also UC so why to use fewer,which is countable.
2. In the option B, is "having" modifying "the other gases" ?

I appreciate your inputs on the shared queries.


Just to add..
Another reason why B is wrong :
"emit" is a verb and hence a conjunction is req it to connect with burn.
Also, in option A emitting is the ing-modifier- modifying the preceding clause and makes sense with sub "Diesel engines ".
Regards.

Originally posted by JarvisR on 01 Aug 2014, 07:03.
Last edited by JarvisR on 13 Aug 2014, 10:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2014, 07:12
3
JarvisR wrote:
Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.
A. of comparable size , as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have
B. of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

Hi,
Can someone please help me with below queries:
1.less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gases
I understand why to use "less" for CD [CD is un-countable] but what about "far fewer". Like CD, "the other gases" are also UC so why to use fewer,which is countable.
2. In the option B, is "having" modifying "the other gases" ?

I appreciate your inputs on the shared queries.
Regards.


Hi JarvisR,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

1. The choice says that the car emits less carbon dioxide. This is correct because carbon dioxide as a gas cannot be counted. Hence, use of "less" is correct here. And you completely understand that point.

Now, the second part of the choice says that the car emits far fewer of the other gases. This means that the diesel run car does not emit as many toxic gases as gasoline run cars do. Say for example, if gasoline cars emit 5 toxic gases, the diesel run cars emit only 2 of these gasses. So here the sentence is talking about the number of toxic gases emitted by these two types of cars. Noe the types of gases are certainly countable. hence, use of "fewer" is correct here.

2. Yes, "having been..." modifies preceding noun entity "other gases". However, this expression is not as precise as "that have been implicated..."

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2017, 03:26
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tejal777 wrote:
. Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have been implicated in global warming.

A. of comparable size , as well as emitting far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses that have

B. of comparable size, as well as emit far less carbon dioxide gas and far fewer of the other gasses having

C. of comparable size, and also they emit far fewer carbon dioxide and other gasses that have

D. that have a comparable size, and also they emit far fewer of the other gasses having

E. that have a comparable size, as well as emitting far fewer of the other gasses having


I found this explanation and thought I should share. Here it goes:

In C and E, fewer carbon dioxide is incorrect. Fewer is used to refer to something countable; carbon dioxide is not countable. (Please note that fewer other gases also is incorrect; the correct wording is fewer OF the other gases.) Eliminate C and E.

In D, less...other gases is incorrect. To discuss the NUMBER of the other gases, the correct wording is FEWER of the other gases.
To discuss the AMOUNT of the other gases, the correct wording is LESS OF the other gases. Eliminate D.

In B, having been implicated is used -- incorrectly -- to modify gases. Having + past participle is used to indicate an action that:

-- is completed before the primary action attributed to the modified noun
-- provides context for the primary action attributed to the modified noun

For example:

Having enjoyed the book, John cannot wait to see the movie.

In the sentence above:
Having enjoyed refers to John.
Cannot wait is the primary action attributed to the modified noun John.
Having enjoyed was completed in the past; John cannot wait in the present.
Having enjoyed the book explains why John cannot wait.

In B, the other gases (the modified noun) are not performing a primary action. Hence the use of having + past participle is inappropriate. Eliminate B. [/color]

Hope this is helpful.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2017, 04:10
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sleepynut wrote:
Hi expert,
I couldn't comprehend the usage of "as well as emitting".What emitting refer to?
At first,I think the sentence require another verb:emit.

Please help clarify
Thanks :-)


"Emitting...." is a present participle modifier. Comma + present participle modifier can refer to the subject of the previous clause or the entire previous clause. Here "Emitting..." refers to "Diesel engines" (subject of the previous clause).

"As well as" is not a substitute for "and" - it cannot be used to join two verbs. As a rule, remember that the verb after "as well as" comes in present participle (verb+ing) form. Hence it would be wrong to say "as well as emit".
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Aug 2017, 17:46
sayantanc2k wrote:
sleepynut wrote:
Hi expert,
I couldn't comprehend the usage of "as well as emitting".What emitting refer to?
At first,I think the sentence require another verb:emit.

Please help clarify
Thanks :-)


"Emitting...." is a present participle modifier. Comma + present participle modifier can refer to the subject of the previous clause or the entire previous clause. Here "Emitting..." refers to "Diesel engines" (subject of the previous clause).

"As well as" is not a substitute for "and" - it cannot be used to join two verbs. As a rule, remember that the verb after "as well as" comes in present participle (verb+ing) form. Hence it would be wrong to say "as well as emit".


As indicated by the above post: 'As well as' is one of the most frequent misused conjunction. 'As well as' can NEVER be a synonym for 'and.'

To add some more details:
You can also have a NOUN after 'as well as'; In this case 'as well as' behaves as an additive phrase and the subject/noun that follows 'as well as' does not become a part of the main subject.
Jeff, as well as Rebecca, has left for the day.
Students ,as well as the principal, were busy helping the hurt animal.

Verbs after 'as well as' can only come in ING form
Rebecca is happy as well as dancing on the stage.
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Originally posted by colorblind on 10 May 2017, 09:03.
Last edited by colorblind on 25 Aug 2017, 17:46, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2017, 03:57
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It is an idiomatic usage that when we use a verb after 'as well as', we always use and verb+ing form. Emitting is a gerund here because as well as is preposition rather than conjunction in this context and a preposition is always followed by a noun of an action noun 'gerund'. A question of parallelism arises only when a coordinate conjunction is involved and not with a prepositional phrase.

For further info, pl. look at the following link.
http://site.uit.no/english/grammar/aswellas/
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Re: Diesel engines burn as much as 30% less fuel than gasoline engines of &nbs [#permalink] 11 May 2017, 03:57
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