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Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

SC19060.02


JOURNAL ARTICLE
How Dinosaurs Ran
R. McNeill Alexander
Scientific American
Vol. 264, No. 4 (APRIL 1991), pp. 130-137
Published by: Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/24936872
Page Count: 8

The graph proved to be even more illuminating because it soon occurred to me that I could use it to estimate the speed of dinosaurs from the stride lengths shown by their footprints. Rath­er surprisingly, great numbers of di­nosaur footprints have survived as im­pressions in mud that turned to stone [see "The Footprints of Extinct Ani­mals," by David]. Mossman and Wil­liam A. S. Sarjeant; SCIENTIFIC AMERI­CAN, March 1983]. These tracks show that dinosaurs walked with their feet directly under their bodies like mammals and birds, not sprawled out to either side in the manner of modern reptiles. Consequently, the relation be­tween relative stride length and Froude number for mammals should also ap­ply to dinosaurs. In contrast, estimat­ing dinosaur speed by comparing these giants with modern reptiles would not be appropriate.

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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2020, 14:06
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yatindra20 wrote:
Please help in this Difficult question GMATNINJA

Plenty of nice juicy errors in this one...

Quote:
(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

The first thing I notice is "them," which has to refer to a plural noun, but there's no plural noun that works here. "Tracks?" Nope. The dinosaur tracks don't show "tracks" walking. A pronoun can be ambiguous, but it cannot be incoherent. So (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

Same problem as (A), but with "they" instead of "them."

Quote:
(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

This one fixes the pronoun issue - "them" can refer to "dinosaurs," but now we've got a meaning problem. This version makes it sound as though the tracks literally showed dinosaurs walking, the way, say, a video might show a toddler walking. That would be neat, but it's not terribly logical. The tracks give us information that allows us to see that the dinosaurs walked a certain way. But we don't get to see the walking itself.

There's also a problem with the usage of "like" here. Remember, "like" has to compare nouns. What nouns are compared? "Mammals and birds" to "their bodies?" That doesn't make sense. It seems far more logical to compare actions: how dinosaurs walked to how mammals and birds do. When comparing actions, we'd want to use "as," so that's another strike against (C).

Quote:
(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

This looks okay. We have the plural "dinosaurs" for "they" to refer to. "As" properly compares actions. No other issues are jumping out, let's hang on to this one.

Quote:
(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

Again, it seems as though the tracks are literally displaying dinosaurs walking. Worse, the dinosaurs appear to be walking now. And then we've also got "like" illogically comparing "mammals and birds" to their bodies," as opposed to (D), which uses "as" to compare actions.

So (D) it is.
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2020, 21:29
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generis wrote:
Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

SC19060.02



The main errors..

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
'Dinosaur tracks' seems to be a name of a track rather than showing possession.. Also, the THEIR in under their bodies does not modify singular dinosaur and illogically points to tracks. There can be many more appropriate ways to use this phrase.
LIKE shows comparison between NOUNs, and it does not fit in here. We are likely comparing actions by dinosaurs and mammals & birds.

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
'as do' is correctly used, but it wrongly compares dinosaur tracks with mammals & birds.
'Dinosaur tracks' seems to be a name of a track rather than showing possession.. Also, the THEIR in under their bodies and THEY do not modify singular dinosaur and illogically points to tracks.

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
Clears the pronoun ambiguity, but construction is not proper.
We are comparing two actions, one by Diosaurs and other by mammals and birds, so LIKE is wrong.

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
Pronoun ambiguity is removed in this choice. Also 'as do' is correctly used for comparing two actions. CORRECT

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like
Like is wrong..
Poorly constructed -- In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking

D
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2020, 10:57
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generis wrote:
Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

SC19060.02


Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like - It should be either in possessive (Dinosaur's tracks) or the tracks of Dinosaur , Also prounoun them being plural has only one antecedent, "them". Also the comparison I believe is between How Dinosaurs walked compared to how mammals walked. Here like is comparing mammals with "their feet directly under their bodies". This should have a helping verb and since like is a preposition it can't be followed by a clause (even with ellipsis) so we would need "as do" - This makes no sense.

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do - Same as A

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like - Comparison error here as A, pronoun ambiguity still can be ignored
as GMAT isn't very fixated and it is clear them refers to Dinosaurs here


D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do - Fixes all the errors in A

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like - Tense seems odd. This is also in passive which is not very suitable in this context
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2020, 05:01
GMATNinja can you help us with this question, please?
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2020, 02:51
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bacseialex wrote:
GMATNinja can you help us with this question, please?

GMAT ninja might be busy... let me explain this to u in a simple way

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
them is referring to tracks(nearest noun)-logic is explained in option C exp.

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
Same as A : they is referring to tracks(nearest noun)

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
Tracks can't show them(even if them=dinos'). Tracks showed us or someone that dinos' did it

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do-perfect eliminates all errors in other options.

E) In the tracks they left, [color#ed1c24]dinosaurs are shown walking [/color]with their feet under their bodies, like
Dinos' are+ v-ing>>> in present tense ??

Apart from the above, there are many other errors too. But let's make this simple :)

Hope this helps.
Thanks :thumbsup:
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2020, 20:52
Please help in this Difficult question GMATNINJA
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 00:11
[quote="generis"]Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

why choice C is wrong.
I dont like "show them walking" but I dont have reason to eliminate this phrase. anyone know this phrase, share here.
regarding "as do" and "like".

ellipsis involve cutting off some words in the second part.if the second verb is cut off, many mistakes could happen. so, if we focus on the second verb, we can realize many mistakes.

if we see a split between a phrase with definite verb (verb which contain tense) and a phrase which dose not contain definite verb (verb which contain no tense such as doing, do-ed, to do) or which contain no verb, normally, the latter phrase will be wrong. the phrase with indefinite verb or without verb will take tense of the main sentence and cover the mistake.

"like" at the end of sentence work as "as", so, "like" in choice C is correct. this is proved by the old question from og book.

"like mammals and birds" contain no verb and ,so, contain no tense and this phrase take tense of the main clause, the past tense and the sentence is

like mammals and animals= as did mammals and animals.

so, "did" is different from "do" in choice D. the meaning in choice C is also different from meaning in choice D. so,, they work as mammals and animals at present walk. choice D is correct.

if we see comparison and ellipsis pattern with "like", "as" and "than', we should focus on the second verb in the ending part of sentence . doing so helps us find many errors in the second verb, which is implicit if it is cut off or which is explicit if it is replaced with "do', 'did", "is/are" or "would.


I think this is hard
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 02:50
What I see major error in using "dinosaur tracks" is that here Dinosaur is acting as adjective. Now pronoun they can't refer back to an adjective. It needs a noun. This error is corrected in option D.

There are multiple examples when a noun can act as adjective. For examples Lemon tea, ladies room, etc.

What is your view on my explanation, chetan2u sir!


chetan2u wrote:
generis wrote:
Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

SC19060.02



The main errors..

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
'Dinosaur tracks' seems to be a name of a track rather than showing possession.. Also, the THEIR in under their bodies does not modify singular dinosaur and illogically points to tracks. There can be many more appropriate ways to use this phrase.
LIKE shows comparison between NOUNs, and it does not fit in here. We are likely comparing actions by dinosaurs and mammals & birds.

B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
'as do' is correctly used, but it wrongly compares dinosaur tracks with mammals & birds.
'Dinosaur tracks' seems to be a name of a track rather than showing possession.. Also, the THEIR in under their bodies and THEY do not modify singular dinosaur and illogically points to tracks.

C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
Clears the pronoun ambiguity, but construction is not proper.
We are comparing two actions, one by Diosaurs and other by mammals and birds, so LIKE is wrong.

D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
Pronoun ambiguity is removed in this choice. Also 'as do' is correctly used for comparing two actions. CORRECT

E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like
Like is wrong..
Poorly constructed -- In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking

D
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 03:23
An interesting question. I would suggest using POE for this one.

A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like - Dinosaur is singular, them is plural. Hence out. Secondly, the use of like here is incorrect, as it used to compare nouns.
B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do - Although this option uses as do correctly, them gives a clear indication to move on.
C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like - Use of like, hence out
D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do - Correct
E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like - Same error as A and C, in addition to the meaning error. Hence out.
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 15:44
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Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

If we compare first few words and last few words,

In A and B, we have "Dinosaur" and in C, D and E, we have "Dinosaurs", its singular-plural noun error.
In A, plural pronoun "them" refers to singular noun "Dinosaur"......Eliminate
In B, plural pronoun "they" refers to singular noun "Dinosaur"......Eliminate

If we look at last few words in C, D and E
We have a split of "Like" vs "As"...."Like" is used to compare nouns and "As" is used to compare Actions


Here we are comparing "How dinosaurs walked" with "how mammals and birds walk", we are comparing actions. We need "As" to compare actions.
Eliminate C and E.

Hence, D is the correct answer.
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2020, 12:01
Hi honorable experts,
VeritasPrepHailey, AnthonyRitz

I'm facing the pronoun issue in this sorta problem! :? :? Can you share your thought, please? I'm expecting both of your thought! :)
(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

In D (the correct choice), how do someone be convinced that THEY does not mean 'the tracks' at all (apart from meaning issue)?

What if someone says:
"The students that teachers left in the old school show that they were totally able to get golden award for their versatile tasks......."
^^ In this example, THEY refers back to 'the students (the main subject; NOT the subject that is in modifier part, 'teacher')
But, in choice D, THEY refers to 'dinosaurs' (the subject that is in modifier part, 'dinosaurs'; NOT the main subject, 'the tracks'.

In E, 'dinosaurs are shown' surely indicates a time-frame which happens in the present time, but unfortunately there is no existence of 'dinosaurs' now-a-days. So, can I remove this sorta choice by thinking this way?

Appreciating your help.
Quote:
Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like
(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2020, 16:24
GMATNinja wrote:
yatindra20 wrote:
Please help in this Difficult question GMATNINJA

Plenty of nice juicy errors in this one...

Quote:
(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

The first thing I notice is "them," which has to refer to a plural noun, but there's no plural noun that works here. "Tracks?" Nope. The dinosaur tracks don't show "tracks" walking. A pronoun can be ambiguous, but it cannot be incoherent. So (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

Same problem as (A), but with "they" instead of "them."

Quote:
(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

This one fixes the pronoun issue - "them" can refer to "dinosaurs," but now we've got a meaning problem. This version makes it sound as though the tracks literally showed dinosaurs walking, the way, say, a video might show a toddler walking. That would be neat, but it's not terribly logical. The tracks give us information that allows us to see that the dinosaurs walked a certain way. But we don't get to see the walking itself.

There's also a problem with the usage of "like" here. Remember, "like" has to compare nouns. What nouns are compared? "Mammals and birds" to "their bodies?" That doesn't make sense. It seems far more logical to compare actions: how dinosaurs walked to how mammals and birds do. When comparing actions, we'd want to use "as," so that's another strike against (C).

Quote:
(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

This looks okay. We have the plural "dinosaurs" for "they" to refer to. "As" properly compares actions. No other issues are jumping out, let's hang on to this one.

Quote:
(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

Again, it seems as though the tracks are literally displaying dinosaurs walking. Worse, the dinosaurs appear to be walking now. And then we've also got "like" illogically comparing "mammals and birds" to their bodies," as opposed to (D), which uses "as" to compare actions.

So (D) it is.


Hello GMATNinja, VeritasKarishma
greetings. I am hoping you can point me to right direction as I have one question about non underline part.

Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

what is the last portion of the sentence? To me it appears as the IC ( extended is parallel to walked- 2 actions that dinosaurs did or didn't, and if it is, then how can we join 2 IC with comma+Not ?

on the other hand, if this is a ed-modifier phrase, how can we tell the difference in the context of this particular question.

thank you in advance for all the great help.

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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2020, 16:04
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

[u]Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like[/b] mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

After a quick glance over the options, we have 2 main areas we can focus on:

1. How each option begins (Clarity / Verb Tense)
2. like vs. as do (Idioms & Comparisons)


Since #2 is an either/or split, let’s start there because it’ll eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. We need to make sure we’re creating a parallel comparison. This sentence is intended to compare the actions of dinosaurs walking with the actions of mammals and birds walking. Let’s see how each option handles this:

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

We can eliminate options A, C, & E because “like” is only used to compare two things, whereas “as do” is used to compare two actions. Since we’re supposed to compare the two walking styles, which are actions, we need to stick with “as do.” Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let’s focus on clarity:

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
This is INCORRECT because the pronoun “they” is referring back to “dinosaur tracks,” which makes no logical sense. Tracks cannot walk. The pronoun needs a clearer antecedent (dinosaurs, perhaps?).

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do
This is CORRECT! By naming the dinosaurs earlier in the sentence, we can use the pronoun “they” here because it can be clearly attributed to the dinosaur, not the tracks.

There you have it - option D is our winner! By starting with an easier “either/or” split, we were able to narrow down our options quickly, leaving us more time to focus on more complex issues!

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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2020, 19:52
[quote="generis"]Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like mammals and birds, not extended out to the side in the manner of modern reptiles.

(A) Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(B) Dinosaur tracks show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(C) Dinosaurs left tracks that showed them walking with their feet directly under their bodies, like

(D) The tracks that dinosaurs left show that they walked with their feet directly under their bodies, as do

(E) In the tracks they left, dinosaurs are shown walking with their feet under their bodies, like

SC19060.02

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(A) Dinosaur tracks show them (Why would it show them). Walking - continuous form does not fit the meaning. Comparision error tracks v/s mammals
(B) Looks ok initially but read D
(C) walking and comparison error (Check A above)
(D) Resolves issue of (B) and comparison-Correct
(E) In tracks, Dinosaurs are shown walking really? Meaning
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Re: Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2020, 19:52

Dinosaur tracks show them walking with their feet directly under their

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