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# Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite

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Director
Joined: 07 Aug 2011
Posts: 532
GMAT 1: 630 Q49 V27
Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2015, 07:20
5
10
00:00

Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

62% (01:26) correct 38% (01:23) wrong based on 443 sessions

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Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite and other ores using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, making aluminum an energy-dense resource with a huge carbon footprint.

A. using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, making

B. by means of the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, making

C. by means of using the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, is making

D. by means of the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, makes

E. using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, makes

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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2017, 23:07
Aluminium is more reactive with other elements such as silicon and oxygen than iron. There is too little silicon and oxygen in the Earth to bind all available metals, so preferentially bonds to the more reactive metals leaving free iron metal. Because Iron metal is far denser than silicate rock, all of the free iron metal differentiated in to the Earth's core, leaving the silicate Earth (which includes the crust) heavily depleted in iron.

The crust is also ultimately derived by partial melting of the mantle. The Al-rich minerals tend to melt out of the mantle in preference to the Fe-Mg ones (principally olivine), so the magmas that ultimately formed the crust, are further enriched in Aluminium. more: kingaluc
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2017, 02:29
Lucky2783 wrote:
Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite and other ores using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, making aluminum an energy-dense resource with a huge carbon footprint.

using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, making
by means of the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, making
by means of using the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, is making
by means of the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, makes
using the Hall-Héroult process, with a vast amount of electrical energy separating the element from aluminum oxide, makes

Press +1 Kudos , if you like this question .

thanks.

A- fragment
B- fragment
C-wrong tense
D-fine
E-"with " is wrong here ...it must be in which
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2017, 06:32
by means of the Hall-Héroult process, in which a vast amount of electrical energy separates the element from aluminum oxide, makes

All other choice are fragments and do not contain verb for the main sentence
Choice E on the other hand changes meaning it is saying that the process along with high electrical energy makes the aluminum an energy-dense resource with a huge carbon footprint..
But that is not what the original sentence intends.
The electrical energy is consumed in the process therefore making the aluminium energy dense resource.

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Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jun 2018, 08:53
mikemcgarry

I have come across from an OE of Manhattan GMAT question (link given below) that 'by means of' is redundant.
https://gmatclub.com/forum/parallelism- ... 93464.html

Thinking that I ruled out option B, C, and D at first sight.

Do you think that it is correct?
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Hasan Mahmud

Originally posted by Mahmud6 on 15 Jul 2017, 21:21.
Last edited by Mahmud6 on 16 Jun 2018, 08:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2017, 09:43
kingpanel wrote:
Aluminium is more reactive with other elements such as silicon and oxygen than iron. There is too little silicon and oxygen in the Earth to bind all available metals, so preferentially bonds to the more reactive metals leaving free iron metal. Because Iron metal is far denser than silicate rock, all of the free iron metal differentiated in to the Earth's core, leaving the silicate Earth (which includes the crust) heavily depleted in iron.

The crust is also ultimately derived by partial melting of the mantle. The Al-rich minerals tend to melt out of the mantle in preference to the Fe-Mg ones (principally olivine), so the magmas that ultimately formed the crust, are further enriched in Aluminium. more: kingaluc

Thank you very much for the information
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 22:31
1
I feel that the current question and the question in your link test 2 different concepts.

The question here is testing the correct usage of the idiom "by means of". We use the term "by means of" to refer to actions that involve processes/methods and the term "with" to refer to actions that are carried out using a tool. For example, aluminum is extracted by means of the HH Process but Aluminium is cut with a pair of scissors etc.

Even otherwise, redundancy is NOT a way to eliminate options, unless we are stuck with 2 entirely correct options and can't decide between them.

Hope this helps. Thanks!

Mahmud6 wrote:
mikemcgarry

Dear Mike,

My friend, I have come across from an OE of Manhattan GMAT question (link given below) that 'by means of' is redundant.
https://gmatclub.com/forum/parallelism- ... 93464.html

Thinking that I ruled out option B, C, and D at first sight.

Do you think that it is correct?
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Posts: 1606
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2018, 10:49
1
"by means of" = use => "by means of using" in C is redundant.
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2018, 04:51

Official Explanation Magoosh:

While it's not directly relevant to solving the question, you may find this blog on "means of" vs. "means to" helpful.

Split #1a: the "missing verb" mistake. The subject is the gerund phrase beginning with the gerund "extracting" has no verb in choices (A) & (B).

Split #1b: verb tense. Choices (C) & (D) & (E) provide a proper verb, although the present progressive "is making" in (C) is inappropriate — there is no contextual reason to emphasize simultaneity. Only (D) & (E) contain the correct verb "makes".

Split #2: phrasing. The participial "using" is awkward because there is no explicit noun it modifies: in this context, the phrase "by means of" is far superior. BTW, the phrase "by means of using" in (C) is an abomination — awkward, repetitive, and incorrect.

Split #3: preposition phrase vs. clause. The prepositional phrase beginning with "with a vast amount…" is also awkward — it is meant to describe an action, a process, that takes place within the Hall-Héroult process. A preposition such as "with" is not appropriate for describing an action contained within something else. We need a full subordinate clause, with its own subject + verb — this is precisely what the construction "in which a vast amount…" supplies. This is the problem with (A) & (E).

For all of these reasons, (D) is the strongest answer.
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Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2018, 03:54
we need a clear reason for using continuous tense. the action which is temparary or happen during a period can be in continuous tense.
Re: Extracting pure aluminum from bauxite &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jul 2018, 03:54
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