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For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2008, 11:45
goalsnr wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect


IMO C is the correct answer here
the issue with usage of E emanates from the fact that it will commit a modifier error
here is how
"Military equipments" to protect

i think this is an OG problem
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2008, 15:57
OA is C.

here is my explanation:
This SC is in the form of DC,IC,DC

"a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears "- is a sentence that can standby itself. We convert the independent clause
to a subordinate clause by adding "participle" -"protecting"

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2009, 07:47
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306. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect

please explain .. how do you know/conclude the answer has to be a regular clause or modifier here? or explain a way how you come to the conclusion to get the answer?

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2009, 09:42
ugimba wrote:
306. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect

please explain .. how do you know/conclude the answer has to be a regular clause or modifier here? or explain a way how you come to the conclusion to get the answer?



C,imo. "protecting" refers to "animal hide-shields"

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2011, 08:32
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.


Hi, could anyone please explain what participle phrases/clauses mean? I am not at all clear on that concept. It'll be great if anyone could help on this. Thanks.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2011, 08:31
prasforgmat wrote:
Is it universal rule that infinitives (to) cannot come just after comma?


No. There are certainly possibilities where this can be done.
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [X] is to [Y]."
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [die] is to [leave your remains for the rest of the ecosystem]."

In this example "to" is right after a comma.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2012, 02:50
Ron said,
abstract noun can refer/modify the preceding clause. So, in A, I can understand that "a method " modify preceding clause.
A is not incorrect.

pls, help explain.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2012, 14:09
In Original text "a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is a noun modifier modifying military equipment, which is certainly not a method.The original intention of this modifier is to modify "animal-hide Shields"

(A) As explained above
(B)same problem
(C)correct.comma with -Ing form correctly modifying the subject of the previous sentence that is "animal-hide Shields" here.Please note that without the comma it would have been wrong.
(D)same problem
(E)with the comma before it does not convey the intended meaning.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2012, 08:24
well the bigger issue with E is that use of 'to+verb' ie to protect changes the meaning of the sentence altogether.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2013, 22:56
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2013, 00:43
thangvietnam wrote:
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.


Unless the phrase is an Absolute Phrase, it cannot modify the preceding clause.
The preceding clause can be entirely modified by:
1) Absolute Phrase
2) ", verb-ing"
Apart from this, I don't think that the preceding clause can me modified.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2013, 23:41
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/



amazing.. Why is D wrong? :shock:[/quote][/quote]

Because comma is fixed before underlined portion, infinitive will not work here.

Pls note: if the clause before comma is non essential then it depends on the main clause.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2013, 02:43
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect (military equipment cannot be a method)

B. as a method protecting ( Method doesn't do protecting instead the animal shields do the protecting)

C. protecting ( This one correctly modifiers the noun in the preceding clause "animal-shields")

D. as a protection of ( Although grammatically correct choice, wordiness is the issue here)

E. to protect ( "to protect " is the purpose and shouldn't follow a comma)

Although I cannot argue against the OG's explanation, I have a query related to answer choice (E):

-ING modifier has three forms:

(1). Modifies NOUN
(2). Modifies verb and verb's subject
(3). Result of the main clause

Here the -ING modifier functions clearly as (1). as it modifies "Shields"

Meaning: Shields protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment

But the option (E) explanation by OG is

Although the infinitive to protect would work if it were not preceded by a comma, it cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival
phrase modifying items


We aren't modifying ITEMS here , we are modifying "SHIELDS" here. So why this explanation?

Furthermore, the explanation for the correctness of option (C) is

Correct. In this sentence, protecting properly
introduces a modifying phrase revealing the
purpose of the items.


Please advise !!

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Last edited by Narenn on 26 Aug 2013, 12:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2014, 12:33
"Animal-hide shields were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears"

Even above sentence is correct, this type of sentence (simplified) is rarely or never read by me before in English. I request you to provide me few similar examples of this type.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 09:38
TGC wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts


'a method to protect' must modify the previous noun- 'military equipment'. But, military equipment is not a 'method'. A and B are out.

'to protect' must not be followed by ','. E is out.

'as a protection of' what?? Not right.

C is the right option.

Infact if we flip the sentence, we see that 'protecting' correctly modifies following sentence.

Protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 23:58
A - Wrong --> "a method" is wrong here.

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment --> it's not a method.

E is wrong because comma before "to" is wrong.

I believe if sentence is written like this:

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment to protect warriors against enemy arrows
and spears. --> then it's right.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 02:07
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 04:38
abhimahna wrote:
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.


I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 05:33
sai897 wrote:
I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

abhimahna egmat


I understand your point but here as per the question the meaning is certain tools are important items and then we are told why are they important/how are they useful. They are important because they protect warriors against enemies.

Also, answer is not 'for protecting' but 'protecting'. Meaning tools are essential as they have a consequence of protecting.

Take these examples:

I want to give GMAT to get an admit in Harvard. Here the purpose/intend is given.

I woke up late in the morning, missing my GMAT exam. Here the consequence is given.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 10:30
Good one to teach me that infinitives are not preceded by COMMAs

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima   [#permalink] 05 Jul 2017, 10:30

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