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Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of

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Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Sep 2018, 21:36
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GMAT® Official Guide 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 126
Page: 697

Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds' range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sea-level rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Hummingbirds

(A) Modifier (found … climate)

(B) CORRECT

(C) Sentence Structure

(D) Sentence Structure

(E) Parallelism (X, Y, and Z)


First glance

The beginning of the first two answers choices is substantially different from the beginning of the other three. Keep an eye out for topics that tend to affect sentences globally: Sentence Structure (including Subject-Verb Agreement), Meaning, Modifiers, and Parallelism.

Issues

(1) Modifier: found … climate

The original sentence begins with an opening modifier: found only in … climate. What is found only in this area?

Hummingbirds themselves, not the range of hummingbirds. The opening sentence contains a misplaced modifier; it is not logical to say that the range is found in a certain area. Eliminate choice (A).

(2) Sentence Structure
Parallelism (X, Y, and Z)


Because the underline in the original sentence contains the main subject and verb (or the core sentence), check the core sentence of the remaining choices.

(A) Hummingbirds’ range extends.

(B) Hummingbirds survive.

(C) Hummingbirds.

(D) Hummingbirds their range extends.

(E) Hummingbirds are found …, survive …, and their range extends.

Answer (C) contains no main verb to go with the subject. The participles found and surviving are modifiers (comma –ed and comma –ing), as is the participle extending (modifying range). Eliminate choice (C).

Answer (D) can be read in two ways—but either way is wrong. Either this choice contains two subjects mashed together (hummingbirds their range) or the subject hummingbirds has no verb to go with it (a correct example might be: hummingbirds are found … and their range extends …). Eliminate choice (D).

The other three choices have appropriate subject-verb pairings, but this examination might have helped you to spot a related problem. In choice (E), the X, Y, and Z parallelism breaks down for the Z element: are found, survive, their range extends. The first two elements are verbs; the third element is a subject-verb pair. In order to be parallel, all three should be verbs or all three should be subject-verb pairs.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (B) contains both a main subject and a main verb (hummingbirds survive) and the opening modifier properly modifies hummingbirds.

The final modifier (their range extending) may sound awkward or odd to your ear. The test writers are hoping to get you to cross off the correct answer because it sounds funny; nobody talks in this way. The construction is acceptable, though likely to be used only in more formal or academic writing. If this choice did fool your ear, write the sentence on a flash card and re-read it periodically to help retrain your ear that this construction is correct. (You might even try writing your own sentence that mimics this sentence structure.)

Originally posted by amatya on 11 Sep 2015, 03:30.
Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Sep 2018, 21:36, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2016, 03:09
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RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
Hi daagh / chetan2u

I am able to eliminate Option A,C and D
Between B and E, I don't find a good option either
Can you please help.

Option E-
Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

2 reasons to eliminate-
1) Highlighted portion seems to modify Western Hemisphere instead of Hummingbird.
2) Parallelism error--> are found , survive , their range

Option B-
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending

Green Part is a modifier so we can eliminate it.
The word EXTENDING in the end is---> End modifier introduced with present participle ( EXTENDING ) without separated by comma

According to me

Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet

First highlighted portion is modifying--> Humming bird
Second highlighted portion is modifying--> Range
So, in the end the only sentence remains is

hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range ---> which is incomplete.


Can you please explain what's wrong in my reasoning.
Please assist. Thanks in advance

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar


Hi,

you have done a good analysis of the statement....
however a few points from my side..
first about E..
E.Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends..
the way E is written, we take all three items mentioned as parallel, but that is not correct..
'are found and survive could have acted parallely and the remaining one as independent clause, with a construction like under..
E. Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere and survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends...
this construction could have been a correct choice..

now choice B..
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending..
you are correct that Found only in the Western Hemisphere modifies hummingbirds..
but their range extending.. modifies the entier clause prior to it-hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate..
Due to this capability to survive in extreme climates, their range extends in varities of location..

Hope this helps
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2016, 02:50
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Hi daagh / chetan2u

I am able to eliminate Option A,C and D
Between B and E, I don't find a good option either
Can you please help.

Option E-
Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

2 reasons to eliminate-
1) Highlighted portion seems to modify Western Hemisphere instead of Hummingbird.
2) Parallelism error--> are found , survive , their range

Option B-
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending

Green Part is a modifier so we can eliminate it.
The word EXTENDING in the end is---> End modifier introduced with present participle ( EXTENDING ) without separated by comma

According to me

Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet

First highlighted portion is modifying--> Humming bird
Second highlighted portion is modifying--> Range
So, in the end the only sentence remains is

hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range ---> which is incomplete.


Can you please explain what's wrong in my reasoning.
Please assist. Thanks in advance

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 03:31
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My main doubt in this question was why C is incorrect because I was confused in B and C only
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 04:33
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Quote:
B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending


Where is the verb in C? It's a fragment
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 05:56
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amatya wrote:
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends


Press Kudos if you like the post



Hummingbird's range - noun in pocessive form can't be antecedent of "Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate"
Cross out A

Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
Remove highlighted modifer, sentence is not making any sense.
Cross out D


Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
Ungrammatical
Cross out E

Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
"With" changin the meaning.

Only Plausible - B
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 11:26
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(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
HBird's range is not found in.. and is not surviving the extremes. Kick this option out.
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
Don't see any problem with this one
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
HBirds with their range..not logical. Kick this option out.
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
It's an illogical construction - HBirds, modifier, <pronoun> <noun><verb> . Kick this option out.
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
The third in the list (i.e. 'their range extends') is not parallel with the rest two. Kick this option out.

Option B is the right option.

Cheers. :wink:
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2016, 21:30
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amatya wrote:
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.


(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
the opening modifier should modify the hummingbirds and not their range. incorrect.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
looks good. noun+noun modifier used correctly.

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
birds with their range ... no bonafide verb. so out.
found only - is a noun modifier, and not a verb.

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
subject, modifier, subject - double subject error here. out.

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
survive through extremes of climate - looks like a verb, but not properly connected. thus, E is out.

took me 40 seconds.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2016, 03:26
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Hi chetan2u,

I really appreciate you for such a quick response.

So, you mean "their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet" is modifying ---> Complete clause ( hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate)

I have learnt that we can modify a complete sentence using abstract noun.
For eg--
Government plans to introduce ABC technique, an strategy which can BLAH BLAH BLAH....
Here "an strategy which can BLAH BLAH BLAH"... is modifying the complete sentence.

But in this question we are using THEIR which is a pronoun stands for hummingbirds.
Sentence structure-

Subject + Predicate , Pronoun + Noun (Range) + modifier

How can we modify preceding sentence using a pronoun in the following sentence.
Can you please give few more examples..??


Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2016, 03:39
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RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
Hi chetan2u,

I really appreciate you for such a quick response.

So, you mean "their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet" is modifying ---> Complete clause ( hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate)

I have learnt that we can modify a complete sentence using abstract noun.
For eg--
Government plans to introduce ABC technique, an strategy which can BLAH BLAH BLAH....
Here "an strategy which can BLAH BLAH BLAH"... is modifying the complete sentence.

But in this question we are using THEIR which is a pronoun stands for hummingbirds.
Sentence structure-

Subject + Predicate , Pronoun + Noun (Range) + modifier

How can we modify preceding sentence using a pronoun in the following sentence.
Can you please give few more examples..??


Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar


Hi,
in very simple terms..
there are verious modifier and their role depends on the structure of the sentence...
extend is a verb and by adding -ing, a modifier is formed..
comma verb-ing modifier does two jobs...
(1) simultaneous actions or
(2) a result of the actions of previous clause..

here it does (2)... their range is the result of their ability to adapt to various extreme climates..

......, their range extending from... to..., from... to...
will mean the same as..
......, extending their range from... to ...., from...to...
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Jul 2016, 13:49
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RAHKARP27071989
Hi
The problem in your analysis is that you have tried to split a modifier phrase into its components and left out something because as per rule, a modifier can be dispensed with. Nope. We can dispense with a modifier only when the modifier is non-essential and is set off with a comma.
That is why we cannot separate their range and extending. The modifier extending is an essential one. You see it is not set off from noun their range.
Let’s look at a simple example.
Jack and Jill went down the hill, jack falling first and Jill following—In this sentence, can we afford to drop ‘falling first’ because it is a modifying Jack and drop ‘following’ because, it is modifying Jill.
HTH
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Originally posted by daagh on 09 Jan 2016, 03:53.
Last edited by daagh on 30 Jul 2016, 13:49, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2016, 06:08
Though I could easily see how the misplaced modifier was corrected in B, I demurred at "their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet."
Is that an absolute phrase? It always sounds like 'a fragment' to me. Can you pls help me understand this type of construction? What is its purpose and what alternatives writers have over it? This will help me train myself to spot it. What else I should do to train my ear to get comfortable with it?

Thanks
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 13:21
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NoHalfMeasures wrote:
Though I could easily see how the misplaced modifier was corrected in B, I demurred at "their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet."
Is that an absolute phrase? It always sounds like 'a fragment' to me. Can you pls help me understand this type of construction? What is its purpose and what alternatives writers have over it? This will help me train myself to spot it. What else I should do to train my ear to get comfortable with it?

Thanks


You identified correctly - it is indeed an absolute phrase. An absolute phrase consists of a noun and a noun modifier. Here:
noun: their range
noun modifier (present participle) : extending......

Another simpler example (from Manhattan SC guide):

His head held high, Owen walked out of the store.

An alternative way would be to convert it into a main clause and separate by a conjunction or a semicolon. But absolute phrases are stylistically better.
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New post 30 Jul 2016, 13:58
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A) Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends ---incorrect because of wrong modification. Hummingbirds should appear immediately after the climate,

B) Found only in the western hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending —correct choice; ‘their range extending’ is a modifier of the birds surviving through extremes.

c.) Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending – a fragment without a verb for the subject humming birds

D.)Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extending from- same error as in C

E.)Hummingbirds are found only in the western hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends – This choice is running into structural problems and therefore a violation of intended meaning. The range that extends is descriptive of the birds’ survival through extremes of climate and not a disparate feature. Therefore, the range has to be subordinated to the surviving act and not be equated with another action verb
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New post 23 Oct 2016, 05:10
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shonakshi wrote:
Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds's range extends from Alaska to Tierra el Fuego,from sea- level rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
A) Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds's range extends
B) Found only in the western hemisphere, humingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
C.) Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate , with their range extending
D.) Hummingbirds, found only in he western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,their range extending from
E.) Hummingbirds are found only in the western hemisphere , survive through extremes of climate ,and their range extends

Edit: Added underlining, corrected typos



Answer for this is B. You can eliminate A, C and D.
With E the highlighted portion is the modifier for Western hemisphere and not the Humming birds.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 00:24
daagh wrote:
(
Quote:
B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending


Where is the verb in C? It's a fragment



Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 10:53
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SOUMYAJIT_ wrote:
Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?

Dear SOUMYAJIT_,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I hope you don't mind if I answer in the place of my brilliant colleague daagh.

Here's the OA, version (B).
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
As always, a brilliantly written question--the official questions always are superb!

As I believe you understand,
Found only in the Western Hemisphere = participial phrase, noun-modifier modifying the subject
hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate = MAIN CLAUSE of the sentence
hummingbirds = the main subject
survive = the main verb, in fact, the only full verb in the entire sentence

Now, what is going on after the word "climate"? We have a [noun] + [participle] structure. If we were trying to construct a second clause, we would have failed utterly here. Nevertheless, this is neither a clause nor a poor attempt at a clause. Instead, we have a very sophisticated grammatical structure known as an absolute phrase. See:
Absolute Phrases on the GMAT

Read that blog article, and let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike :-)
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 12:21
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My analysis.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
This sentence says the humming birds' range is found in the western hemisphere - Incorrect

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
After the first noun modifier we stop and ask, who or what is found in the western hemisphere? Hummingbird. this answer is correct.

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
Here if you ignore the noun modifier, the sentence becomes 'Hummingbirds with their range extending from..' - Incorrect

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
Same as D

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
, and is used to separate two independent clauses. If there was no comma after hemisphere but there was a conjunction 'and', it would be grammatically correct since there would be two independent clauses. Since there is a comma it is Incorrect.
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New post 14 Sep 2017, 10:28
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 12:07
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
- opening modifier implies "hummingbirds' range" is found only in western hemisphere...should be "hummingbirds are found there"

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
- correct as is

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
- "hummingbirds"..."with their range..." = incorrect.

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
- same as "C". "hummingbirds"..."their range" = incorrect.

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
- "and their range extends" = incorrect. "their range ..." = modifier

key here is to READ FOR MEANING. the main idea here is that hummingbirds survive through extreme climate -- then sentence goes on to give examples (Alaska to Tierra, sealevels to snowfields, etc.)
> understand everything after "extreme climate", aka those examples, are all less important than the main point -- they're all examples/modifiers, etc.

Kudos please if you find helpful :)
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of &nbs [#permalink] 14 Sep 2017, 12:07

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