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Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of

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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2017, 14:21
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends -Opening modifier should modify birds, not range.
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending -Correct
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending -Not a sentence
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends -their range is nonsensical.
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends -Wrong usage of their
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2017, 14:40
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warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?


Hi warriorguy,

Let me try to answer. First of all I would like to draw your attention towards the highlighted part in your statement.
The correct construction is "their range extending from X to Y, from A to B." (I have color coded X,Y,A and B in the original sentence).

Now let us take a day to day life example.

People can go from North to South, from East to West to find their missing family members.
--Here we are not trying to quantify that people really go from North to South first and then from East to West, we are just trying to say that people have no bounds.

Similarly, in the given sentence, we are not trying to say that the humming birds actually survive in those regions, it's just that the humming birds survive a wide variety of climatic changes.
If we say that "The humming birds survive a wide variety of climatic changes, their range extending from X to Y and A to B" we literally mean to say that they survive between the regions X and Y and between wide variety of climatic fluctuations.

When we say that - I love you very much. My love knows no bounds, from head to toe, from front to back; I am all yours - we are just expressing the depths of our love.

I hope it helps.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 07:46
amatya wrote:
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends


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The answer is B

A the clause before should modify Hummingbirds not their range
B Correct the structure is changes and we have proper meaning
C The main clause does not have the verb and preposition with is incorrectly used
D Again the main clause does not have verb so this option is a fragment .
E this choice was difficult to eliminate , here the meaning is changed as it just gives facts about the humming birds

I would like Experts to please explain E in more detail .


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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 11:46
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arvind910619 wrote:

A the clause before should modify Hummingbirds not their range
B Correct the structure is changes and we have proper meaning
C The main clause does not have the verb and preposition with is incorrectly used
D Again the main clause does not have verb so this option is a fragment .
E this choice was difficult to eliminate , here the meaning is changed as it just gives facts about the humming birds

I would like Experts to please explain E in more detail .

Here's (E), pasted into the full sentence:

    Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

The easiest way to eliminate (E) is by thinking about parallelism. "And" always indicates some sort of parallelism, right? In this case, "and" is followed by a noun ("their range...").

But that doesn't work here, because the first part of the sentence is setting us up for a list of verbs: "Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends..." Structurally, the list gives us a verb ("are found"), another verb ("survive"), and then a noun ("their range"), and that doesn't work. It might be OK if there was an "and" before "survive", but that's not the case here.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 11:47
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warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?

warriorguy, are you cool with gmatexam439 's excellent explanation above? :) Let me know if that doesn't answer your question, and I'll give it a shot.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 12:06
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GMATNinja wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?

warriorguy, are you cool with gmatexam439 's excellent explanation above? :) Let me know if that doesn't answer your question, and I'll give it a shot.


Wow! Finally I got an appreciation from GMATNinja.
It feels like I am in heaven, trying different cuisines.

Thank you Charles, it really motivated me a lot and I hope to try to answer all the questions directed at you and earn more motivation than before.

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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 13:48
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Lol, glad that I could help keep you inspired! And your definition of heaven is spot-on: I'm pretty sure that heaven is a gigantic food hall, serving cuisine from 170 countries.

I also love that you're following abhimahna's path: he spent a lot of time beating me to the requests for expert replies, especially in the SC forum. That was pretty cool: it's a whole lot more valuable for you guys to figure out the answers than for me to do it. Plus, I may or may not be lazy. ;)

Have fun studying!
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2017, 10:56
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In the correct answer B, Would anyone please explain why not "their range is extending" instead of "their range extending"?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2017, 11:29
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kimhoon27 wrote:
In the correct answer B, Would anyone please explain why not "their range is extending" instead of "their range extending"?


"their range is extending" will make the phrase following the main clause "hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate" a clause, and unfortunately you cannot join two clause with a comma.

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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2017, 18:31
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja and Other Experts,

Even if Option E had "extends" as a verb in the parallelism list, the sentence would still not make sense

It would mean Hummingbird does the following three things
1. Found in...
2. survives....
3. extends...

#1 and #2 are ok for meaning but #3 is describing something about Hummingbirds. Hence Grammatically #3 might make sense, but logically it doesn't make any sense. Is my understanding correct? Please let me know your thoughts

Sorry, pikolo2510, I'm supremely late to the party on this. But yes, you're exactly right! As written, the problem with (E) is the parallelism: "Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends..." That absolutely doesn't work, because we have a verb, another verb, and then a clause -- not just a verb -- in that last spot, after the "and."

And even if you remove "their range" from (E), you'd still have a problem, exactly as you indicated: "Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and extends..." That's still wrong, partly because "hummingbirds extends" has a subject-verb agreement problem, but also because the hummingbirds themselves don't actually "extend".

Animesh Srivastava wrote:
I have a doubt in option B, "their range" does not have a verb . I mean "Hummingbirds" have their subject as "survive" but their range does not have

A lot of (proverbial) ink has been spilled in the SC forums on this sort of structure. The main (independent) clause in (B) is "hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate", right? The thing that follows should NOT be another independent clause, though! That would be wrong: you can't join two independent clauses with only a comma.

And in (B), the thing after the comma isn't a clause at all: it's actually a modifier, specifically a noun phrase (with its own modifiers attached) that modifies the previous phrase. So the phrase "... their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego..." is just a noun phrase that modifies the main clause, "hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate." No problem there.

For broadly similar examples, check out these two QOTDs:


I hope this helps!
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2018, 09:29
Is it possible to eliminate answer choices based on parallelism in the opening modifier? Answer choices A, C and D all contain the phrase, "Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,...". Are these two pieces parallel even though one is a past participle and one is a present participle?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2018, 06:59
egmat VeritasPrepKarishma GMATNinja

What shall be optimum way to write (E) correctly as per GMAC?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 13:33
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tommyg wrote:
Is it possible to eliminate answer choices based on parallelism in the opening modifier? Answer choices A, C and D all contain the phrase, "Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,...". Are these two pieces parallel even though one is a past participle and one is a present participle?



Hello tommyg,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is the answer nonetheless. :-)

Let's begin from the basics. Those entities make a list that play the same role in a sentence.

In this official sentence, found is a verb-ed modifier and surviving is a verb-ing modifiers. Both are noun modifiers and modify the same noun entity hummingbirds. Hence, these modifiers are perfectly parallel.

See, being parallel does not mean that the entities in the list must look identical. They must have the same role in the sentence. Another official example of such parallelism is as follows:

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier's pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.

The two highlighted modifiers fall in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.

For more details on such "Imperfect List" and official examples, please review our popular article in the following link:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/parallelism-imperfect-list-142791.html


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 13:37
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adkikani wrote:
egmat VeritasPrepKarishma GMATNinja

What shall be optimum way to write (E) correctly as per GMAC?



Hello Arpit/ adkikani,

Choice E can be corrected in the following way:

Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere and survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 04:05
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending

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one question here........
Is this not a fragment? where is the coordinating conjunction (FANBOY) ?
conjunction between ........extremes of climate, their range extending.......

Is a conjunction not needed coz "their range extending from several ...." is, in fact, not a clause at all ? its a phrase !
If so, what is the phrase modifying or describing??

this is a good question, got tricked so easily :dazed :dazed !
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 06:39
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grsm wrote:
Is a conjunction not needed coz "their range extending from several ...." is, in fact, not a clause at all ? its a phrase !
If so, what is the phrase modifying or describing??

Hi grsm, you are correct. their range extending from several.... is not a clause.

It is (what's called) an Absolute modifier whose construct is:

Noun (their range) + Noun modifier (extending from several ....)

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute modifier, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 20:38
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Sentence Analysis
As we read the sentence, we see that something is found only in the Western Hemisphere and that this thing survives through extremes of climate. As we reach the comma after this couple of modifiers, we expect the thing which is modified. However, we come across “hummingbird’s range”. Clearly, it doesn’t make sense to say that the range is found in a region and that the range survives through extremes of climate. It is clear that we want to modify hummingbirds. So, here we have our first error in the sentence.

Then as we read further “extends from A to B, from C to D”, we realize that this part is definitely referring to a range. So, in this context, the subject of the sentence “range” makes sense.

Therefore, we have one error in the original sentence.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2018, 14:58
mikemcgarry wrote:
SOUMYAJIT_ wrote:
Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?

Dear SOUMYAJIT_,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I hope you don't mind if I answer in the place of my brilliant colleague daagh.

Here's the OA, version (B).
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
As always, a brilliantly written question--the official questions always are superb!

As I believe you understand,
Found only in the Western Hemisphere = participial phrase, noun-modifier modifying the subject
hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate = MAIN CLAUSE of the sentence
hummingbirds = the main subject
survive = the main verb, in fact, the only full verb in the entire sentence

Now, what is going on after the word "climate"? We have a [noun] + [participle] structure. If we were trying to construct a second clause, we would have failed utterly here. Nevertheless, this is neither a clause nor a poor attempt at a clause. Instead, we have a very sophisticated grammatical structure known as an absolute phrase. See:
Absolute Phrases on the GMAT

Read that blog article, and let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike :-)




Dear Mike,
this is a brilliant article. thank you soo much...... Now to apply this concept I was looking at some questions and came across this one.... can you please confirm that absolute Phrase is, in fact, at play here -

OG 2018, SC Q776
Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.


Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, [wasps] + [that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females] .......

noun + noun modifier structure......... and ultimately an absolute phrase describing social wasps?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of &nbs [#permalink] 21 Aug 2018, 14:58

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