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# GMAT Club's Reading Comprehension Strategy Guide

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Reading Comprehension Tips, Resources, Materials, Books, and Strategies

RC is one of the hardest areas to improve and probably the most challenging of all sections. I hope this thread will be a starting point for RC improvement and also a place to swap strategies/tips, and ask RC-specific questions.

Resources Available:

1. Read the entire passage very carefully first.
I prefer this strategy (it helped me to get from inconsistent 50% correct RC to about 80-90% and eventually in 96th percentile in verbal). It is outlined in various amount of details in Kaplan, PowerScore, and MGMAT books.
The idea is fairly straightforward - while critically reading the passage, you build a mental map, stopping to paraphrase after each paragraph and at the end to quickly summarize the passage. The strategy also involves critically reading - meaning constantly asking why a certain sentence/phrase is there, how they add to the development, and change the tone. It is important to master each of these elements before actually trying to put the entire strategy together. At first it does feel awkward - almost like wearing an armor suite that is clunky and seems useless - useless until GMAT shoots an arrow at you that is. Some of my challenges were questions such as - why do I need to stop (waste valuable time) and paraphrase the passage? (that answer comes in gradually). Also, how to actually stay interested and keep my thoughts from wandering around as I read? And finally - how to read critically? It took a while to learn to pick every word and notice subtle differences in tone (words such as however, but, still, and examples help reveal author's true intention). I trusted the strategy and strangely enough it worked. I could see improvement within just a week. My performance became a lot more consistent and the strategy was becoming a lot more natural. I was also starting to catch little traps planted in the text and noticing tone a lot more than before.

It is also good if you can start reading regularly to train your ear. (See this post for my recommendations on reading material I call GMAT Fiction). If you are not a native speaker, you should keep a notebook and a dictionary handy to keep track of all the new words you encounter. Some of them you will meet over and over in the book, so it will be much faster to look up. For international students, my recommendation is 1-2K pages within a month to get your mind tuned and prepped to absorb large quantity of English passages. Also, many recommend WSJ, Economist, NY Times, and other magazines, but I found those too short and very boring. Though the passages were hard, i could force myself to read only a few articles before my mind would start wondering somewhere else. with books this did not happen, so I preferred that option.

2. Skim the passage briefly.
This is another RC strategy. As Princeton Review puts it - "spend no more than a minute or two reading the entire passage." (Cracking the GMAT Cat)
The goal is to create a mental roadmap of the passage and get a very general idea about the tone and layout and then go back to the passage to answer each of the questions. This strategy works for a number of people but did not work for me. I could only use it if I were really short on time and had to pick my battles. In my experience GMAT passages are always tricky and it is not easy to figure out if the author is arguing for or against a certain point by simply skimming the text.

Tips
1. Always read the First and Last sentence more carefully no matter what. GMAT passages are very structured and the first stence will always contain the main idea and set the tone.
2. Watch for trigger words such as "but, however, still, regardless, nevertheless, although" and others
3. Always ask yourself why the author put this example here
4. Pretend that you are very interested in the reading material or another option is to play a game with the author and try to prove the author wrong - pick at every word
5. Always know what the main idea of the passage is, even if the questions are not asking for it
6. It helps to know the vocabulary but you can make it - as long as you know all of the tone and general words, you will be able to tell author's direction. Specifics may not matter, though again, I have found that good vocabulary helps on RC
7. Do whatever it takes to help you read/remember the passage better - write summary notes (even if you never go back to them), paraphrase each paragraph or even sentence, etc.

Common Pitfalls:
• More often than not, the most typical second best answer choice on the RC will be out of scope. I found it quite amusing and made a game out of it (I know, I am a bit over the top with RC but it was the hardest section for me to master). After a while, I can very quickly (i.e. immediately) pick out an answer choice that goes outside of the scope of the passage as a general question (purpose/title/etc) or even a more specific one.
• Another catch/trap you will see quite a bit is reliance on "trigger" words. For example, the passage will spend 2-3 sentences on one point and then at the end will flip it with a "but", "however", or another "trigger" word. This is designed to catch those who skim/skip or don't read attentively and is really a big reason to read the passage attentively (in my view) vs. just rushing through it. For example, a passage may talk about how the number of accidents has been growing and that many people have been injured in the last year in car accidents and at the end, say "but death rates have declined" and an example of a trap would be an answer choice that would say "Injuries and fatalities are rising as the result of car accidents."
• Finally a more subtle way to get many of us to pick the wrong answer choice is making the text very heavy fact-based with long complex words and terminology, which distracts from the simple task of analyzing the passage and asking why each sentence is put where it is put. Sometimes, you can get to the answer by just looking at why a certain sentence is in a certain spot. However, most focus on facts, understanding/remembering which minerals or microbes live in which environment, etc. The facts and dry details are there not to test your memory/knowledge of the subject but rather to distract and not let you see the passage structure clearly.

 ! Common Mistakes with RC1. Not following a strategy or changing it on the test - biggest issue 2. Poor English vocabulary/skills - if you don't know what you are reading, how do you expect to answer the questions?3. Taking too much time to answer each question4. Having to re-read the passage multiple times

"New Reading Comprehension Strategy" by Spiridon

I just developed a new strategy for RC and here it is available to you as well.
I tried several strategies but nothing has worked for me, I could not answer questions if I just skim through the passage or I would lose time reading the whole thing and ended up losing focus when answering question anyway.

So, here is the deal.
The good thing this technique really works for me and I want to share it with anyone whose brain works in a similar way. The bad news is that this strategy require you to take notes but very simple tho.

Lets start...

First, mark your paragraphs with Roman numbers I, II, III, IV etc... (Hope passage wont be longer then VIII cuz i forgot the Roman numbers lol)

Second, start reading your passage but (IMPORTANT!) from the last passage (eg IV) towards first (eg I)

Now, while you are reading take very simple notes as illustrated in this example: (remember to start from the bottom paragraph IV)

I
Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than \$500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.

II
Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from \$77 million in 1972 to \$1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

III
A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as “fronts” with White backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.

IV
Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming—and remaining—dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases: when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Notes:
I intro-civil rights activists-access-congress-money-fed n local agencies-percentages
II big corp response-increase 72-77- risks for minors-expanding-fixed costs-morale-financial
III second risk-joint ventures-sometimes legit-sometimes not
IV minority-danger-dependent-example-single benefactor

You can take more or less detailed notes its up to you. Notes act as a compass toretrieve and organize information fast.

Now try questions (IMPORTANT) but read them upside-down as well starting from E D C B A marking off the obvious wrong choices, when you narrow down choices to 2 pick one and proceed

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
(B) describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
(C) propose a temporary solution to a problem
(D) analyze a frequent source of disagreement
(E) explore the implications of a finding
2. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts?
(B) To which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
(C) How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as “fronts” by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
(D) How many more minority-owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
(E) What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?
3. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority-owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have
(A) been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy
(B) been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
(C) not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations
(D) not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to
(A) experience frustration but not serious financial harm
(B) face potentially crippling fixed expenses
(C) have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
(D) increase its spending with minority subcontractors
(E) revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts
5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should
(A) avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding
(B) concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
(C) try to expand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
(D) pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns
(E) use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns
6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by “some federal and local agencies” (lines 14-15) are
(A) more popular with large corporations
(B) more specific
(C) less controversial
(D) less expensive to enforce
(E) easier to comply with
7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in the 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial
(A) Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled \$2 billion in 1979.
(B) Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
(C) The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
(D) The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately \$10 million too high.
(E) The \$1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did \$77 million in 1972.
8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?
(A) Annoyed by the proliferation of “front” organizations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future.
(B) Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970’s, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
(C) The significant response of corporations in the 1970’s is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980’s.
(D) Although corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970’s made substantial response impossible.
(E) The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of over-expansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses

Other Resources:

RC Keywords
Keyword glossary with synonyms
General tips
Reading critically in action (You Tube)
List of all RC Tones (maybe overboard)
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Last edited by bb on 07 Apr 2015, 20:26, edited 17 times in total.
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28 Mar 2010, 09:01
Thanks a lot!

My experience tells me that if I'm patient enough to read through the passage and jot down key words after each para, I could get the answers right.

So be patient and detail-minded!

Good luck to us!
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3. Be aware of keywords: But, however , yet, since , therefore, because, on the other hand, though , although and many other words help connect two sentences or ideas. the word used tells us the relationship between the sentence we have read and the sentence we are about to read. In fact knowing keywords and their various functions gives you the magical reading power of prediction. For example a however or a but shows a change in reasoning or turnaround of logic whereas a therefore or a because indicate conclusion and reason respectively. ok try this " although Ponting is a great athlete......................." what do you come in the blank ? (a. another positive statement, b. a negative statement). Knowledge of keywords and paying attention and using active reading whenever you encounter them will go a long way in improving your comprehension.

4. Be aware of text structures : your keywords will help you establish patterns at both paragraph and passage level helping you fit all the pieces all together. Quickly identifying the pattern/structure helps you assimilate the information better since you already know what kind of information is going to be presented.A common structure that almost everybody is aware of is chronological where the information is presented in order of time. A passage may have an overall structure and a structure operating at paragraph level. Pattern recognition will go a long way in helping you make a cohesive whole of the ideas in the passage.

5. Improve your Argument analysis/Critical reasoning: Most expository text is trying to make a point , convince you of something so there will be plenty of arguments presented in the text and you will find questions pertaining to understanding , analysis and application of the arguments. Developing your critical reasoning skills is a necessary component of your reading skills.

6. Read as much as possible: Not technically a skill but a habit which is necessary for building great skills since the more you read the more practice you get in the above. You also see the keywords and usage and and hence develop your reading info database. Super Regular reading and from a wide variety of sources can to a certain extent the problem of unfamiliarity and fear. Plus reading is the surest fasted way to increase your intelligence both hardware and software.

Last edited by takshzilabeta on 20 Apr 2010, 10:54, edited 1 time in total.
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20 Apr 2010, 10:48
Reading well can make major improvements in your intelligence , Vocabulary , ideas base , emotional intelligence and your experience of the universe. here we look at some major basic ideas which can make a difference in your reading skills and therfore your ability to comprehend information quickly and accurately. The post is targetted at a test taker and thus the techniques and ideas that are discussed here are specific to expository text , i.e the kind of text you will see in the tests like CAT , GMAT , and other major general aptitude tests.

passages and texts in these tests are typically context less, i.e there is no headline like the way there is in a newspaper , the headline in the newspaper articles sets up the subject for us and even before you read the first line your brain has already localized the information and prepped you for further exploration. Your neurons dealing with the subject matter and related ideas are triggered quick and fast enabling smoother assimilation of information.

Some articles in a newspapers are continued ideas like a story going on for a few days , the newspapers which of course makes reading easier still since besides the neurons activated now the neurons needs were probably just activated the day before and thus being faster , to alight to work on the information. Following a test match of cricket interested readers will read one article after the other without any issues. Simple science so far.

Plus a story goes like our experience of time so that much easier to handle stories, movies , comics are all stories. Any continued bit of information your brain build its own story.

However in the exams following things change making it tougher than your usual paper reading.

1. no headlines , no story , no continuation , you have to read before you even figure out what’s going on
2. subject matter not of preference and liking , somebody who likes cricket does not like finance , somebody who lies finance does not understand history somebody who loves history struggles with philosophy and so on and so forth.
3. time pressure : the clock is ticking and you are not sitting on your pot and the passage
4. The Quality of text goes up :Newspapers are for the masses and the usage of language is colloquial to say the best, but more esoteric matters may be presented using words that you have not heard of or ideas that you are aware of .
5. here are questions: Specific , pointed , questions , checking fact/opinion distinction , ability to look for details , ability to see patterns in text , ability to analyze arguments make deductions , notice elements of style , speculate .

This is why that poor readers just find themselves out of their depths in quality english tests and even regular ficion/newspaper reader struggle to ace the subject. And let us tell you that it is an aceable subject.

Skilled readers however will manage fairly easily no matter what text presents itself. The need is to separate the skill from the habit. This is not to say that regular reading will not make a difference. parts of The skills required to overcome the above are bit by bit built and get developed automatically and the skill level should be almost directly proportional to the exposure. As mentioned earlier regular readers do fair better than poor readers for this very reason. remember it takes regular reading of couple of years at least to develop even sufficient skills.

Core reading skills however can be learnt fairly quickly by focusing on the broad major ideas that go into effective analytical reading. Post learning the core skills regular reading will work in an exponential manner in improving your skills and exam handling ability.
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20 Apr 2010, 10:49
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Understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as effectively as possible. "Required information" depends on what we are reading and why we are reading. For example , the approached used while looking for 'computer peripherals" in the classified section would be very different from the one used in reading a harry potter novel. That is we automatically and without too much formal training use multiple reading strategies depending on what we are reading and why we are reading it.

* Newspapers and Magazines (headlines, articles, editorials , opinions , classifieds , score cards, tv/movie listings)
* Specialized articles , reports , reviews , essays , business letters
* Handbook ,Textbook guidebooks
* Novels , short stories, tales , other literary texts and passages
* Recipies , how to instructions , posters , road signs , graffiti, menus , price lists , tickets and so much more.

1. Reading for pleasure and general information, to keep your self updated with the world , novels , books , articles on your interest areas.

Extensive reading : Reading longer texts like Novels , short stories for your own pleasure. Typically this is a fluency activity and the focus is on global understanding that is following the major elements of the story with sometimes a lot of detail only at the periphery of active focus. Though the details are not at the center of focus the overall data is going into the brain in a sequential , chornological manner and so memeory is of some significance her. Not remembering what happened in prisoner of Azkaban will be of some hindrance in reading latter Harry Potter books.

Intensive reading: Reading shorter texts to extract specific information. This is an accuracy activity with focus on detailsas well as global understanding , however memory is associated only till the act of intensive reading i.e you can read , analyze and forget the text.

Skimming :Quickly running one's eye over the text to gather the subject , general topic , global idea. This is what you do typically with newspapers in the first run through before you decide what articles to read and in what order.

Scanning: Quickly going through a text to find a specific piece of information , this is what you do when you look for a specific dal in the classifieds, much like the skill required to go through a dictionary .

The strategies are not mutually exclusive with each other and often work with each other and are needed to work together if one needs total control over his reading skills. For example while reading an exciting novel the reader would often skim through parts of the story and use extensive reading only in the portions that really excite the reader. Or while reading intensively one might need to go back a couple of paragraphs to better understand the data or answer a question and the reader would use his scanning skills to look for the general area of that information.

Reading as a skill is made up of small tasks and activities which mesh together to give you the view of the text. If we need to improve our Reading Skills it is paramount that we understand what are the mini skills that go into making this over skill.Not surprisingly all the questions that come in the reading sections of aptitude tests , are designed to test these very skills and an examiner uses this very list to create menacing questions so take your time with this list and try and acquire most if not all of the following sub skills

* deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar words using context and inference
* Understanding Explicitly stated information
* Understanding information when not explicitly stated
* Understanding relations within the sentence
* Understand relations between parts of text
* Understanding cohesion between parts of text through grammatical cohesion devices
* Interpreting text by going outside it
* Identifying main point and most important information in a text
* Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details
* Extracting important points to summarize
* Selective extraction of relevant point in the text
* Basic reference skills
* Skimming
* Scanning for specific information
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20 Apr 2010, 10:52
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Keyword and transition phrases in reading.
Attachments

keywords glossary1.pdf [270 KiB]

rc keywords.pdf [416.02 KiB]

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14 May 2010, 09:43
Apart from Newspapers, I used to read online contents:
1. The Economist
2. Fast Company
3. Scientific America
4. Weird
5. Economic Times
6. Times of India

I really find articles on these sites exhaustive enough to practice for GMAT
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14 May 2010, 09:50
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takshzilabeta wrote:
Keyword and transition phrases in reading.

Thanks for posting these! This is the right stuff for RC.
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14 May 2010, 11:50
Great post..
thanks
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26 May 2010, 10:48
Wow, BB, I just read your strategy as well as Rhyme's. They are quite the opposite, nevertheless, you both got similar verbal scores in the GMAT.

I think that each person should first get informed about the different alternatives of how to tackle each section, then try out the different strategies, and find out with which you one feels more comfortable, since the strategy that works for one person may not work well for other. So each should see for his own benefit what is best.

The good news is that in this forum there is so much information, a lot of tips and very well defined strategies for each section. If you really want to do well, everything is available. It just depends on you.

So thank you BB and all others who constantly post advice, tips, strategies, and stimulate in different ways each of us prospect GMAT takers.
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To understand see text analysis in action

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04 Jun 2010, 08:41
wow .. this is realy very useful .. thx a ton ..
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05 Jun 2010, 01:28
I tried following the strategy by BB. One way it helped me is that I didn't have to struggle to find the line/para where the answer might be located. However, I somehow take more than the required time to take notes. For a short passage (aprrox 45 lines) it takes me approx 5 minutes 30 seconds to take notes and then I am left with little time to asnwer the passage questions. The net result is that I mess up the RC

The notes are no doubt helpful but I guess I am not preparing them in a right way
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19 Jun 2010, 12:53
This comparable to the amount of time I used to spend (maybe faster on short passages) but generally, I saved time on SC and CR to be able to use it for the RC. Either way, would suggest you get used to reading unfamiliar text and spend as much time reading as you can afford.

P.S. Kaplan, MGMAT, and PowerScore all suggest reading the entire passage. Not sure if it is a better approach but it is definitely more recommended one
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30 Jun 2010, 04:15
i am weak in RC, thank you for sharing Tips.
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12 Jul 2010, 09:30
cano wrote:
Wow, BB, I just read your strategy as well as Rhyme's. They are quite the opposite, nevertheless, you both got similar verbal scores in the GMAT.

I think that each person should first get informed about the different alternatives of how to tackle each section, then try out the different strategies, and find out with which you one feels more comfortable, since the strategy that works for one person may not work well for other. So each should see for his own benefit what is best.

The good news is that in this forum there is so much information, a lot of tips and very well defined strategies for each section. If you really want to do well, everything is available. It just depends on you.

So thank you BB and all others who constantly post advice, tips, strategies, and stimulate in different ways each of us prospect GMAT takers.

I definitely agree with this observation. I think the best process isn't to fall in love with a particular strategy at the outset. The prudent approach is to try as many strategies as possible (i.e., not reading to skimming to full reading to full reading + note taking) and determine for youself which strategy works best.

To be honest, I'm guilty of not following my own advice. I've tried probably only one approach -- albeit couple flavors of that one approach -- and it's very difficult to overcome my old "habits."

Like what my tennis coach always says to me: you always have to re-invent yourself to become better (essentially, breaking old habits to relearn new tricks so you can improve/expand your toolkit).
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01 Aug 2010, 15:26
the strategies posted here sound pretty effective...but what if my vacabularies are limited...sometimes i found myself had no idea what the passage was about because i didn't know a few key words in the paragraph...any way to improve the amount of vacabularies for the GMAT in a short period of time ( 1 month)? thanks!
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06 Aug 2010, 16:14
I ll definitely try the strategy!!!
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07 Aug 2010, 08:21
thanks for the great tips. really helpful.
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18 Aug 2010, 07:51
Even I agree that reading Paragraph properly and making notes in your own words helps (though it takes ample time but performance increases and one have a proper idea about the RC) but if someone has weak Vocab(as I am Non Native Speaker) it results in wrong answer choices selected so due you know any document that might cover most the Words that are common to GMAT.
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22 Aug 2010, 02:30
This RC Strategies thread has been updated, mostly with links to various resources including the newly discovered You Tube videos about RC.
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Re: GMAT Club's Reading Comprehension Strategy Guide   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2010, 02:30

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