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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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Passage-14 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)
Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay, insists that the values of certain tasks performed in dissimilar jobs can be compared. In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so.

This widespread institutional awareness of comparable worth indicates increased public awareness that pay inequities— that is, situations in which pay is not "fair" because it does not reflect the true value of a job — exist in the labor market. However, the question still remains: have the gains already made in pay equity under comparable worth principles been of a precedent-setting nature or are they mostly transitory, a function of concessions made by employers to mislead female employees into believing that they have made long-term pay equity gains?

Comparable worth pay adjustments are indeed precedent-setting. Because of the principles driving them, other mandates that can be applied to reduce or eliminate unjustified pay gaps between male and female workers have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily for the litigants in cases in which men and women hold different jobs. But whenever comparable worth principles are applied to pay schedules, perceived unjustified pay differences are eliminated. In this sense, then, comparable worth is more comprehensive than other mandates, such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Neither compares tasks in dissimilar jobs (that is, jobs across occupational categories) in an effort to determine whether or not what is necessary to perform these tasks — know-how, problem-solving, and accountability — can be quantified in terms of its dollar value to the employer. Comparable worth, on the other hand, takes as its premise that certain tasks in dissimilar jobs may require a similar amount of training, effort, and skill; may carry similar responsibility; may be carried on in an environment having a similar impact upon the worker; and may have a similar dollar value to the employer.
1. Which of the following most accurately states the central purpose of the passage?

A. To criticize the implementation of a new procedure
B. To assess the significance of a change in policy
C. To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures
D. To explain how a new policy is applied in specific cases
E. To summarize the changes made to date as a result of social policy



2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy?

A. Comparable worth policy decisions in pay-inequity cases have often failed to satisfy the complainants.
B. Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules.
C. Comparable worth as a policy has come to be widely criticized in the past decade.
D. Many employers have considered comparable worth as a policy but very few have actually adopted it.
E. Early implementations of comparable worth policies resulted in only transitory gains in pay equity.



3. Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?

A. The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.
B. The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.
C. The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.
D. The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
E. The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.



4. It can be inferred from the passage that application of “other mandate” (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II: women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working outside in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III: a law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the same salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than female paralegals.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I and III only




5. According to the passage, comparable worth principles are different in which of the following ways from other mandates intended to reduce or eliminate pay inequities?

A. Comparable worth principles address changes in the pay schedules of male as well as female workers
B. Comparable worth principles can be applied to employees in both the public and the private sector
C. Comparable worth principles emphasize the training and skill of workers
D. Comparable worth principles require changes in the employer's resource allocation
E. Comparable worth principles can be used to quantify the value of elements of dissimilar jobs



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Originally posted by PiyushK on 12 Aug 2014, 05:56.
Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Jul 2017, 01:30, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2014, 21:30
1

1. Which of the following most accurately states the central purpose of the passage?
A. To criticize the implementation of a new procedure
B. To assess the significance of a change in policy
C. To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures
D. To explain how a new policy is applied in specific cases
E. To summarize the changes made to date as a result of social policy

Ans - B

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy?
A. Comparable worth policy decisions in pay-inequity cases have often failed to satisfy the complainants.
B. Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules.
C. Comparable worth as a policy has come to be widely criticized in the past decade.
D. Many employers have considered comparable worth as a policy but very few have actually adopted it.
E. Early implementations of comparable worth policies resulted in only transitory gains in pay equity.
Ans - B

3. Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?
A. The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.
B. The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.
C. The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.
D. The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
E. The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation

Ans - D

4. It can be inferred from the passage that application of “other mandate” (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II: women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working outside in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III: a law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the same salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than female paralegals.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I and III only

Ans - B

OAs please.

Originally posted by desaichinmay22 on 12 Aug 2014, 07:44.
Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 21:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2014, 08:59
11 mins 5 secs :x
1.B
2.B
3.D
4.B
5.E
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2015, 10:48
Found the fourth question confusing. The passage says: "other mandates that can be applied to reduce or eliminate unjustified pay gaps between male and female workers have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily for the litigants in cases in which men and women hold different jobs".

In other words, when men and women hold "different" jobs:

(i) "other mandates" (such as "Equal Pay Act of 1963" and "Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964") have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily
(ii) whenever comparable worth principles are applied to pay schedules, perceived unjustified pay differences are eliminated

So, it is clear that "other mandates" would not provide satisfactory outcome, when men and women hold different jobs.

Only option II here talks about men and women holding "different" jobs.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2015, 01:17
hey guys..could someone tell me as to y C cannot be selected for the 2nd qn....the passage clearly says" this approach has become a critical social policy issue"...so the policy
has come under criticism
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2015, 20:50
Time Taken 8 mins. all Correct.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2015, 16:11
manojsundar1 wrote:
hey guys..could someone tell me as to y C cannot be selected for the 2nd qn....the passage clearly says" this approach has become a critical social policy issue"...so the policy
has come under criticism



That could be 2nd best answer. But it is explicitly given in passage that

--- In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so. ---


which concludes the answer as B
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 00:19
Time Taken : 8 min 20 secs. All correct. :)
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2017, 00:40
Question # 4:

It can be inferred from the passage that application of ???other mandate??? (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II: women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working outside in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III: a law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the same salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than female paralegals.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I and III only


I am unable to conclude 'B' as the answer. Can someone please share an explanation.
Thanks!
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2017, 09:57
1
Quote:
Question # 4:

It can be inferred from the passage that application of ???other mandate??? (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II: women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working outside in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III: a law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the same salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than female paralegals.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I and III only


I am unable to conclude 'B' as the answer. Can someone please share an explanation.
Thanks!


Thanks for the question, mbaprep2017!

We are looking for situations where applying the "other mandates" (ie mandates besides comparable worth "that can be applied to reduce or eliminate unjustified pay gaps between male and female workers"), would likely result in unsatisfactory outcomes for the female employees. What do we know about those "other mandates"? According to the second sentence of the third paragraph, those other mandates "have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily for the litigants in cases in which men and women hold different jobs". Thus, we are looking for situations where there is an "unjustified pay gap between male and female workers" and where the "men and women hold different jobs" because those are the situations where the other mandates are unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees:

Option I: Here we are comparing men and women "with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity." Because the men and women involved hold the same job, the situation does not fit our criteria; nothing in the passage tells us that applying the "other mandates" will result in unsatisfactory outcomes in situations where the men and women hold the same job.

Option II: Here we have men and women holding different jobs (the men are working outside in the cement factory and the women are working inside the office); we also have a pay gap between male and female workers ("the women are paid much less per hour"). This fits our criteria perfectly (different jobs, difference in pay between male and female workers), and it is thus unlikely that application of the "other mandates" will result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees. (vs application of comparable worth, which would compare the values of the tasks performed in these dissimilar jobs)

Option III: Here we have men and women with the same job, same education, and same career backgrounds. As with Option I, nothing in the passage tells us that applying the "other mandates" will result in unsatisfactory outcomes in situations where the men and women hold the same job.

So only option II describes a situation where the application of the other mandates "would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees", so the answer is B.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 12:06
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Quote:
Question # 4:

It can be inferred from the passage that application of ???other mandate??? (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II: women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working outside in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III: a law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the same salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than female paralegals.
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I and III only


I am unable to conclude 'B' as the answer. Can someone please share an explanation.
Thanks!


Thanks for the question,

We are looking for situations where applying the "other mandates" (ie mandates besides comparable worth "that can be applied to reduce or eliminate unjustified pay gaps between male and female workers"), would likely result in unsatisfactory outcomes for the female employees. What do we know about those "other mandates"? According to the second sentence of the third paragraph, those other mandates "have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily for the litigants in cases in which men and women hold different jobs". Thus, we are looking for situations where there is an "unjustified pay gap between male and female workers" and where the "men and women hold different jobs" because those are the situations where the other mandates are unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees:

Option I: Here we are comparing men and women "with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity." Because the men and women involved hold the same job, the situation does not fit our criteria; nothing in the passage tells us that applying the "other mandates" will result in unsatisfactory outcomes in situations where the men and women hold the same job.

Option II: Here we have men and women holding different jobs (the men are working outside in the cement factory and the women are working inside the office); we also have a pay gap between male and female workers ("the women are paid much less per hour"). This fits our criteria perfectly (different jobs, difference in pay between male and female workers), and it is thus unlikely that application of the "other mandates" will result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees. (vs application of comparable worth, which would compare the values of the tasks performed in these dissimilar jobs)

Option III: Here we have men and women with the same job, same education, and same career backgrounds. As with Option I, nothing in the passage tells us that applying the "other mandates" will result in unsatisfactory outcomes in situations where the men and women hold the same job.

So only option II describes a situation where the application of the other mandates "would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees", so the answer is B.


I don't quite understand why in Option I they have the same job. It seems as they have similar jobs, but different. Dont quite get why this option is incorrect
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New post 18 Jul 2017, 12:38
1
karek77 wrote:
I don't quite understand why in Option I they have the same job. It seems as they have similar jobs, but different. Dont quite get why this option is incorrect

Quote:
I: males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

The males and females in option I might not have the same exact job experience, but "they are employed in the same capacity," which means that they have the same role (long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company). In option I, the males and females have the same job and similar experience, but the males earn more money.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2018, 05:05
7 mins..
all correct
a 650 level passage
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 21:43
GMATNinjaTwo For Question 3 I chose option E, but ,in hindsight ,I realized that option E compares jobs with similar environments and not jobs that have similar impact on the workers - can we use this subtle shift in the meaning to eliminate E?
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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 14:01
DogGoesWoof wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo For Question 3 I chose option E, but ,in hindsight ,I realized that option E compares jobs with similar environments and not jobs that have similar impact on the workers - can we use this subtle shift in the meaning to eliminate E?

Quote:
3. Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?

A. The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.
B. The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.
C. The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.
D. The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
E. The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.

As stated in the final paragraph, comparable worth "takes as its premise that certain tasks in dissimilar jobs 1) may require a similar amount of training, effort, and skill; 2) may carry similar responsibility; 3) may be carried on in an environment having a similar impact upon the worker; and 4) may have a similar dollar value to the employer. The whole point of comparable worth is, as described in the first sentence, to compare the "values of certain tasks performed in dissimilar jobs."

So we apply comparable worth when the jobs are dissimilar but the tasks are comparable. Yes, the environmental impact upon the worker is mentioned as possible similarity. However, the fact that two tasks are performed in similar environments does not necessarily mean that those tasks are comparable.

Comparing "all workers" who work in a hazardous-materials environment would involve comparing a wide variety of tasks. This is not the application of comparable worth described in the passage, so (E) should be eliminated.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2018, 12:51
10 mins


2 wrong..

can anyone pls explain me ques 3?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2018, 00:14
Bob2018 wrote:
10 mins


2 wrong..

can anyone pls explain me ques 3?
Can anyone explain question 3?? Why is it D??

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 11:31
Ananyaroy27 wrote:
Bob2018 wrote:
10 mins
2 wrong..

can anyone pls explain me ques 3?
Can anyone explain question 3?? Why is it D??

Sure! We've already gotten into this a bit, so let's go ahead and lay it all out.

Quote:
3. Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?

As explained earlier, comparable worth "takes as its premise that certain tasks in dissimilar jobs 1) may require a similar amount of training, effort, and skill; 2) may carry similar responsibility; 3) may be carried on in an environment having a similar impact upon the worker; and 4) may have a similar dollar value to the employer."

The whole point of comparable worth, as described in the first sentence, is to compare the "values of certain tasks performed in dissimilar jobs." So we apply comparable worth when the jobs are dissimilar but the tasks are comparable. Let's run through our answer choices to see which one matches this application:

Quote:
A. The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.

This choice compares female mechanics to male mechanics. These are not dissimilar jobs. Therefore, eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.

Like (A), this choice compares programmers to programmers. These are not dissimilar jobs. Therefore, eliminate (B) as well.

Quote:
C. The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.

Choice (C) compares the number of available candidates for a range of top executive positions. This tally of men and women available for promotion doesn't involve any comparison of tasks, so it doesn't match the application of comparable worth described in the passage. So let's eliminate (C).

Quote:
D. The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.

Choice (D) lines up with the way the author applies comparable worth almost word for word. In this case, the skills, training, and responsibilities required for one job (clerkship in the tax assessor's office) are compared to those of engineers (who are getting paid better than the clerks). We're looking for a comparison of tasks across dissimilar jobs, and this fits the bill nicely. We'll keep (D) around.

Quote:
E. The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.

As I wrote earlier: The environmental impact upon the worker is mentioned as a possible similarity. However, the fact that two tasks are performed in similar environments does not necessarily mean that the tasks themselves are comparable. Furthermore, comparing "all workers" who work in a hazardous-materials environment would involve comparing a wide variety of tasks. This is not the application of comparable worth described in the passage, so we eliminate (E).

(D) remains the best answer choice.

I hope this helps!
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Comparable worth, as a standard applied &nbs [#permalink] 20 Jul 2018, 11:31
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