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Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay

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Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 20 Aug 2019, 22:42
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Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay, insists that the values of certain tasks performed in dissimilar jobs can be compared. In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so.

This widespread institutional awareness of comparable worth indicates increased public awareness that pay inequities—that is, situations in which pay is not "fair" because it does not reflect the true value of a job—exist in the labor market. However, the question still remains: have the gains already made in pay equity under comparable worth principles been of a precedent-setting nature or are they mostly transitory, a function of concessions made by employers to misled female employees into believing that they have made long-term pay equity gains?

Comparable worth pay adjustments are indeed precedent-setting. Because of the principles driving them, other mandates that can be applied to reduce or eliminate unjustified pay gaps between male and female workers have not remedied perceived pay inequities satisfactorily for the litigants in cases in which men and women hold different jobs. But whenever comparable worth principles are applied to pay schedules, perceived unjustified pay differences are eliminated. In this sense then, comparable worth is more comprehensive than other mandates, such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Neither compares tasks in dissimilar jobs (that is, jobs across occupational categories) in an effort to determine whether or not what is necessary to perform these tasks—know-how, problem-solving, and accountability—can be quantified in terms of its dollar value to the employer. Comparable worth, on the other hand, takes as its premise that certain tasks in dissimilar jobs may require a similar amount of training, effort, and skill; may carry similar responsibility; may be carried on in an environment having a similar impact upon the worker; and may have a similar dollar value to the employer.


1. According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy?

(A) Comparable worth policy decisions in pay-inequity cases have often failed to satisfy the complaints

(B) Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules

(C) Comparable worth as a policy has come to be widely criticized in the past decade

(D) Many employers have considered comparable worth as a policy but very few have actually adopted id

(E) Early implementations of comparable worth policies resulted in only transitory gains in pay equity



2. Which of the following most accurately states the central purpose of the passage?

(A) To criticize the implementation of a new procedure

(B) To assess the significance of a change in policy

(C) To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures

(D) To explain how a new policy is applied in specific cases

(E) To summarize the changes made to date as a result of social policy



3. According to the passage, comparable worth principles are different in which of the following ways from other mandates intended to reduce or eliminate pay inequities:

(A) Comparable worth principles address changes in the pay schedules of male as well as female workers

(B) Comparable worth principles can be applied to employees in both the public and the private sector

(C) Comparable worth principles emphasize the training and skill of workers

(D) Comparable worth principles require changes in the employer's resource allocation

(E) Comparable worth principles can be used to quantify the value of elements of dissimilar jobs



4. Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?

(A) The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.

(B) The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.

(C) The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.

(D) The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.

(E) The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.



5. It can be inferred from the passage that application of "other mandates" (see highlighted text) would be unlikely to result in an outcome satisfactory to the female employees in which of the following situations?

I. Males employed as long-distance truck drivers for a furniture company make $3.50 more per hour than do females with comparable job experience employed in the same capacity.

II. Women working in the office of a cement company contend that their jobs are as demanding and valuable as those of the men working in the cement factory, but the women are paid much less per hour.

III. A law firm employs both male and female paralegals with the same educational and career backgrounds, but the starting salary for male paralegals is $5,000 more than for female paralegals.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) I and III only


Originally posted by solarzj on 17 May 2012, 00:25.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 20 Aug 2019, 22:42, edited 9 times in total.
Updated complete topic (11).
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New post 19 Jul 2012, 23:01
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C states that the policy has been widely "criticized", meaning that people are skeptical of the effectiveness of the policy. The passage states, however, that the policy has become citical social policy issue, meaning the policy has become critically important. This is a classic example of the GMAT shifting the meaning of the word - it looks the same but means something very different.
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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 07:35
6
According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy?
a. Comparable worth policy decisions in pay-inequity cases have often failed to satisfy the complaints
b. Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules
c. Comparable worth as a policy has come to be widely criticized in the past decade.
d. Many employers have considered comparable worth as a policy but very few have actually adopted id.
e. Early implementations of comparable worth policies resulted in only transitory gains in pay equity.

In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so.

Explanation: Passage mentions that Comparable worth is adopted in private as well as public (government) sectors. Hence B is the correct answer

Which of the following most accurately states the central purpose of the passage?
(A) To criticize the implementation of a new procedure
(B) To assess the significance of a change in policy
(C) To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures
(D) To explain how a new policy is applied in specific cases
(E) To summarize the changes made to date as a result of social policy

However, the question still remains: have the gains already made in pay equity under comparable worth principles been of a precedent-setting nature or are they mostly transitory
Comparable worth pay adjustments are indeed precedent-setting.
Explanation: Above sentences say that Comparable worth is a change in policy and the passage discusses the significance of Comparable Worth, hence B is the correct answer


According to the passage, comparable worth principles are different in which of the following ways from other mandates intended to reduce or eliminate pay inequities:
A) Comparable worth principles address changes in the pay schedules of male as well as female workers
B) Comparable worth principles can be applied to employees in both the public and the private sector
C) Comparable worth principles emphasize the training and skill of workers
D) Comparable worth principles require changes in the employer's resource allocation
E) Comparable worth principles can be used to quantify the value of elements of dissimilar jobs

[Comparable worth] Neither compares tasks in dissimilar jobs (that is, jobs across occupational categories) in an effort to determine whether or not what is necessary to perform these tasks-know-how, problem-solving, and accountability-can be quantified in terms of its dollar value to the employer.

Explanation: Passage mentions that Comparable worth quantifies the tasks in dissimilar jobs. Hence E is the answer


Which of the following best describes an application of the principles of comparable worth as they are described in the passage?
(A) The current pay, rates of increase, and rates of promotion for female mechanics are compared with those of male mechanics.
(B) The training, skills, and job experience of computer programmers in one division of a corporation are compared to those of programmers making more money in another division.
(C) The number of women holding top executive positions in a corporation is compared to the number of women available for promotion to those positions, and both tallies are matched to the tallies for men in the same corporation.
(D) The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
(E) The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.

Comparable worth, on the other hand, takes as its premise that certain tasks in dissimilar jobs may require a similar amount of training, effort, and skill; may carry similar responsibility; may be carried on in an environment having a similar impact upon the worker; and may have a similar dollar value to the employer.
Explanation: Passage clearly mentions that Comparable worth takes into account training, effort, and responsibility. Hence D is the answer Though B seems similar but there is a huge difference between job experience and job responsibilities.
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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2014, 18:18
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ronr34 wrote:
shagalo wrote:
43. Which of the following most accurately states the
central purpose of the passage?
(A) To criticize the implementation of a new procedure
(B) To assess the significance of a change in policy
(C) To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures
(D) To explain how a new policy is applied in specific
cases
(E) To summarize the changes made to date as a
result of social policy

.....................
Could any one explain why B is the answer ??? where I can find in the passage the "change in policy" that choice B is talking about ?

I agree....
Couldn't find the answer to this question either.


In the middle of the 2nd paragraph, onto the first sentence of the 3rd:
However, the question still remains: have the gains already made in pay equity under comparable worth principles been of a precedent-setting nature or are they mostly transitory, a function of concessions made by employers to misled female employees into believing that they have made long-term pay equity gains?

Comparable worth pay adjustments are indeed precedent-setting.


Precedent-setting = Never done before ---> Implies that a certain kind of change has occurred.
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New post 17 Jun 2014, 15:22
3
2
junkostem wrote:
ronr34 wrote:
shagalo wrote:
43. Which of the following most accurately states the
central purpose of the passage?
(A) To criticize the implementation of a new procedure
(B) To assess the significance of a change in policy
(C) To illustrate how a new standard alters procedures
(D) To explain how a new policy is applied in specific
cases
(E) To summarize the changes made to date as a
result of social policy

.....................
Could any one explain why B is the answer ??? where I can find in the passage the "change in policy" that choice B is talking about ?

I agree....
Couldn't find the answer to this question either.


In the middle of the 2nd paragraph, onto the first sentence of the 3rd:
However, the question still remains: have the gains already made in pay equity under comparable worth principles been of a precedent-setting nature or are they mostly transitory, a function of concessions made by employers to misled female employees into believing that they have made long-term pay equity gains?

Comparable worth pay adjustments are indeed precedent-setting.


Precedent-setting = Never done before ---> Implies that a certain kind of change has occurred.


You can also see in the first paragraph this section: "In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so".

Comparable Worth is a new policy because it states that entities have adopted the comparable worth policies over the last decade. The adoption of these policies would represent a change in policy (from a different policy or no policy at all)...

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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2014, 22:58
KyleWiddison wrote:

You can also see in the first paragraph this section: "In the last decade, this approach has become a critical social policy issue, as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so".

Comparable Worth is a new policy because it states that entities have adopted the comparable worth policies over the last decade. The adoption of these policies would represent a change in policy (from a different policy or no policy at all)...

KW


Then if you suggest that CW has been adopted as a new policy in the LAST DECADE, then how the below answer choice can be eliminated?

To explain how a new policy is applied in specific
cases


New policy=CW
Specific cases= Cases of comparing dissimilar jobs

Please advise !
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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 12:24
4
himanshujovi wrote:
Hello

not clear on the last question. Why not option E ?



Hi,

We need an option which can compare two dissimilar jobs in types but similar in skill set used.But both the professions have different salaries that is where comparable worth is useful as a policy

Coming to options:

(D) The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
Clerks are compared in skill set with engineers, but the engineers are paid more.=>PERFECT
(E) The working conditions of female workers in a hazardous-materials environment are reviewed and their pay schedules compared to those of all workers in similar environments across the nation.
Working conditions and pay schedules of workers in similar environment across nation, we aren't using Comparable worth here.

Comparable worth is applied to dissimilar jobs using similar skill set.

Hope that helps
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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2014, 06:29
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supratik wrote:
Demoralized.
Got them all wrong :(


Identify what strategy is good for you, then attempt the RC.

Don't blindly start reading the passage.

You should have well versed strategy before attempting the RC.
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New post 15 Jul 2014, 15:59
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RC is a matter of process and practice. Your first read needs to be "complete". By complete I don't mean that you understand every bit of the passage and have all parts perfectly stored in your short term memory. You should have a really good sense of the main point of the passage and the sub-points as well. You should have a good feel of the location of key elements of the passage. In short, after your first read you should be able to answer general questions about the passage (main point, author would agree with, etc.) without having to look back at the passage and you should know where to go back to re-read (in more depth) the passage to answer specific detail and inference questions. This first read should be 3-5 minutes. You have to focus on structure, not details, to hit this time.

Practice RC passages consistently as you go through the other GMAT areas.

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Re: Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2014, 08:09
Hey,

I have a problem with question 23. I do understand it and I have answered it correctly, but lost quite some time (about 2 mins) to decide whether (B) is NOT a booby trap. Let me tell you why:

The passage states: "as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so.". Answer choice (B) says: "b. Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules". Now, I clearly have a problem with "or have begun to consider doing so" as on other passages I have encountered similar traps that just make you choose something and then twist the context a little bit and define it wrong.

Do you have any tips how to tackle these kinds of situations?

Thanks!
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New post 17 Sep 2014, 12:57
2
bgpower wrote:
Hey,

I have a problem with question 23. I do understand it and I have answered it correctly, but lost quite some time (about 2 mins) to decide whether (B) is NOT a booby trap. Let me tell you why:

The passage states: "as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so.". Answer choice (B) says: "b. Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules". Now, I clearly have a problem with "or have begun to consider doing so" as on other passages I have encountered similar traps that just make you choose something and then twist the context a little bit and define it wrong.

Do you have any tips how to tackle these kinds of situations?

Thanks!


You are right to be careful about falling into GMAT traps. Here are a few points to consider. First, on RC questions (really all verbal questions), you will eliminate your way to the correct answer. The other four questions here are clearly wrong, so you are left with answer choice B. Next, look carefully at the wording of the question: "Which of the following is TRUE of comparable worth as a policy?". Sure, the passage includes the phrase "consider to do", but does the information in the passage state that the policy has been applied to both private/public sectors? The passage says that LARGE numbers of private-sector firms and [public entities] have adopted comparable worth policies... The GMAT is careful to use a word like large and to include both sectors in the sentence so it is clear that the policies have been adopted by both entities.

You might not feel 100% comfortable with the correct answer, but the statement is true and the other options can be confidently eliminated.

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New post 08 Aug 2015, 09:59
supratik wrote:
TGC wrote:
supratik wrote:
Demoralized.
Got them all wrong :(


Identify what strategy is good for you, then attempt the RC.

Don't blindly start reading the passage.

You should have well versed strategy before attempting the RC.


I believe i was going quite good with the attempts. And yes i am quite thorough with the strategies. I have found myself with this failed outcome whenever i tried to over-pace myself. Any solution to work out with that or is it sheer practice? :)


Practice will really help you. Working quickly through problems will typically give a negative result. When you say "out pace" do you mean moving faster than standard pacing or faster than you are used to in order to hit standard pacing?

You can also spend time reading materials that are similar to GMAT passages. There are plenty of threads in this forum discussing reading material on which to practice. Let me know if you can't find a thread.

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New post 29 Oct 2015, 13:00
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"... as large numbers of private-sector firms and industries as well as federal, state, and local governmental entities have adopted comparable worth policies or begun to consider doing so."

B-Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public-sector and private-sector employee pay schedules

How can we conclude that B is true? Maybe private sector has applied it but the public sector has just started to consider it. I mean B cannot be 100% true.

Could anyone clear this for me, please?
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New post 09 Nov 2015, 09:50
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rohitmanglik wrote:
Hi KyleWiddison

In Q2 OA we have "assess" word. As per my understanding, "assess" shows Author showed some opinion in the passage. However, passage just listed down the facts and no opinion was shown.

Please help.



'Assess' by definition is not necessarily an opinion. To asses is "to evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of". The assessment would be an outlining of the different factual components of a situation, like what you see in that problem...

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New post 12 Nov 2015, 06:51
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supratik wrote:
Demoralized.
Got them all wrong :(



A good strategy can be reading the first line of each para and making a gist of the line given on a paper.

Then, read the question, come back to the para to find the location of the answer, and start attempting.

Hit Kudos, if that helps you. And happy to answer other doubts! :) :-D
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New post 16 Dec 2015, 20:59
Hi Everyone,

I have a quick question that I'm wondering someone can quickly help me with.

For the question

"According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy", why is the correct answer B or:

"Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public sector and private sector employee pay schedules". I guess what I'm confused about is why we can definitively conclude that comparable worth has been applied both to public and private pay schedules.

The first paragraph says that public/private has adopted comparable worth policies, but does not necessarily indicate that public/private have applied comparable worth policies to pay schedules specifically?

I was thinking that it is possible policies could be applied to things other than pay schedules, and hence we can't guarantee from the passage that the policies were applied to both public/private pay schedules. It it possible that pay schedules were only evaluated in either public or private settings? The passage doesn't explicitly say whether the policies were applied to the pay schedules for public, private, or both, and therefore I felt selecting answer choice B would be incorrect.

Appreciate any help from the group as I still can't seem to get a handle on this question even after looking at everyone's responses.

Thanks.
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New post 24 Dec 2015, 16:13
quietreader wrote:
Hi Everyone,

I have a quick question that I'm wondering someone can quickly help me with.

For the question

"According to the passage, which of the following is true of comparable worth as a policy", why is the correct answer B or:

"Comparable worth policies have been applied to both public sector and private sector employee pay schedules". I guess what I'm confused about is why we can definitively conclude that comparable worth has been applied both to public and private pay schedules.

The first paragraph says that public/private has adopted comparable worth policies, but does not necessarily indicate that public/private have applied comparable worth policies to pay schedules specifically?

I was thinking that it is possible policies could be applied to things other than pay schedules, and hence we can't guarantee from the passage that the policies were applied to both public/private pay schedules. It it possible that pay schedules were only evaluated in either public or private settings? The passage doesn't explicitly say whether the policies were applied to the pay schedules for public, private, or both, and therefore I felt selecting answer choice B would be incorrect.

Appreciate any help from the group as I still can't seem to get a handle on this question even after looking at everyone's responses.

Thanks.


I can understand the hang up due to the shift in terms, but you have to go back to what Comparable Worth really means - getting paid fairly for the work provided. Since it has everything to do with getting paid, it is not an illogical stretch to say that the implementation was part of the pay schedules.

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New post 26 Dec 2015, 07:59
I took 6:15 to get all 4 correct. However I don't quite understand the passage after the 2mins initial read, I dont even exactly get what comparable worth is after finishing the questions (which are kinda straightforward imo)

This is the case for quite a few "boring" topics for me. Should I allocate more minutes for the initial read to have a clearer idea? Usuall I jump straight to the questions as soon as the GMATTimer dings
Short reading time (2mins) + long answering time (avg 1:10 each) OR vice versa? Please advise
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New post 26 Dec 2015, 09:35
Yeah - you could probably handle a bit longer read time, but you have to be careful about where you invest that time. You aren't trying to understand every detail on that initial read, but you should understand the main point of the passage. A good way to stay "active" on your read is to do some type of note taking during your read. The style of note taking isn't super important, the act of writing things down as you read can help your mind stay engaged on what you are reading.

I would say 2-3:30 on the passage and 1-1:30 on the questions...

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 11:48
I don't understand this one.

"We need an option which can compare two dissimilar jobs in types but similar in skill set used. But both the professions have different salaries that is where comparable worth is useful as a policy

Coming to options:

(D) The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the much better-paid township engineers.
Clerks are compared in skill set with engineers, but the engineers are paid more.=>PERFECT"

How does being a clerk in the assessor's office require similar skills to being an engineer? Shouldn't we be comparing two roles that require the same set of skills?

Wouldn't this be correct only if it were worded "(D) The skills, training, and job responsibilities of the clerks in the township tax assessor's office are compared to those of the clerks in the office of engineering."

Can someone help?
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Comparable worth, as a standard applied to eliminate inequities in pay

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