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Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both

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Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2012, 11:17
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Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A.The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
B.The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity.
C.The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
D.In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
E.People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.



Verbal OG 2019 ID: CR05554

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2012, 04:00
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Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both. -->Conclusion

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain-->CORRECT


Remember to identify the conclusion whenever you do an CR question. Now use the Negate approach with answer E:

Let's say: Normally Gortland consumes: 1000 Grain and 1000 Meat, equal to what the country can produce; and the exchange rate is 4G --> 1M

If now the consumption is: 800G and 1100M --> Gortland can exchange extra 200G to 50M, so it actually produces 1050M, still need to import another 50M
If now the consumption is: 700G and 1100M --> exchange extra 300G to 75M, so still need to import another 25M
If now the consumption is: 600G and 1100M --> exchange extra 400G to 100M and Tah-da! Gotrland does not have to import anything at all --> against the conclusion

That's why we need to assume the consumption of grain will not decrease radically. The OA is E
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2013, 19:07
This assumption question asks you to bridge the gap between the conclusion that garland will have to import meat or grain based and the premise that Meat consumption is increasing and meat uses lots of grain. Thus we will have to assume that the increase in meat consumption will mean that grain consumption either remains the same or also increases.
Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially acreage is out of scope because we don't have a connection between grain production and acreage
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperityYou do not have to assume a constant population for the income level to affect the meat consumption
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levelsas long as it is increasing, it doesn't matter which demographic increases more or less
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controlsprice controls are out of scope - as the argument makes it clear meat consumption is increasing with or without the prices
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain[color=#2e3192]This is the assumption because if there were a dramatic decrease in grain then that could make up for the increase in meat consumption and therefore you have to assume this will not happen in order to come to the stated conclusion[/color]

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2018, 04:29
Quote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

#1
I know we can eliminate if use negative skill, but I have no idea where my reasoning is incorrect.
here is my reasoning:
the conclusion is Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both
Although per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, it doesn't necessary mean that whole consumption increases.
for example: if per consumption is 1kg , there are 10m people, then whole consumption is 20m, if per consumption increases to 2kg, but there are 8m people, then the whole consumption is 16m.
we need to know the whole consumption. my assumption is that if whole consumption exceeds production, the Gortland will import.
So i choice B, because if population has remained constant, then i can infer the whole consumption increases and exceeds the production, then Gortland need import.


#2
another question, I am not sure the meaning of "as" in However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,

if it means simultaneous, then there is no causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption
if it means because, then apparently, there is a causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption

genuinely want your clarification.

Have a nice day
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2018, 20:02
zoezhuyan wrote:
Quote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

#1
I know we can eliminate if use negative skill, but I have no idea where my reasoning is incorrect.
here is my reasoning:
the conclusion is Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both
Although per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, it doesn't necessary mean that whole consumption increases.
for example: if per consumption is 1kg , there are 10m people, then whole consumption is 20m, if per consumption increases to 2kg, but there are 8m people, then the whole consumption is 16m.
we need to know the whole consumption. my assumption is that if whole consumption exceeds production, the Gortland will import.
So i choice B, because if population has remained constant, then i can infer the whole consumption increases and exceeds the production, then Gortland need import.


#2
another question, I am not sure the meaning of "as" in However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,

if it means simultaneous, then there is no causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption
if it means because, then apparently, there is a causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption

genuinely want your clarification.

Have a nice day
>_~

zoezhuyan, there is some confusion because this thread contains two different questions based on the same passage.

But regarding your first question, the argument does not RELY on the fact that the population has remained stable.

Quote:
B: The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.

What if the population has increased? The author's argument would still hold in that case. You are right that if the population has decreased, then the argument could fall apart. But that does not make (B) a required assumption.

As for your second question, "as" means "at the same time". This does not tell us whether there is a causal relationship between the two. Maybe there is, maybe there isn't:

    "As Alan started to eat more spinach, his GMAT test scores increased." - Those two things happened simultaneously. Perhaps eating more spinach boosted Alan's scores, but we don't know either way.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 01:52
GMATNinja wrote:
But regarding your first question, the argument does not RELY on the fact that the population has remained stable.

Quote:
B: The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.

What if the population has increased? The author's argument would still hold in that case. You are right that if the population has decreased, then the argument could fall apart. But that does not make (B) a required assumption.


I hope that helps!


Thanks so much GMATNinja
Assumption is so important in CR sections, applying to weaken, strengthen and assumption questions.
but it is not easy for me to grasp the required assumption.
I heard that there are necessary assumption and sufficient assumption, although these two knids do not required in CR section.
but I found I always cannot grasp the required assumptions, usually, I grasp unrequired ones or even have no idea about assumption in advance.

Genuienly want your suggestions.

Have a nice day
>_~
Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both &nbs [#permalink] 25 Mar 2018, 01:52
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