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Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat

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Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2012, 11:17
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Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


A. The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.

B. The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity.

C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.

D. In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.

E. People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.



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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2012, 04:00
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Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both. -->Conclusion

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain-->CORRECT


Remember to identify the conclusion whenever you do an CR question. Now use the Negate approach with answer E:

Let's say: Normally Gortland consumes: 1000 Grain and 1000 Meat, equal to what the country can produce; and the exchange rate is 4G --> 1M

If now the consumption is: 800G and 1100M --> Gortland can exchange extra 200G to 50M, so it actually produces 1050M, still need to import another 50M
If now the consumption is: 700G and 1100M --> exchange extra 300G to 75M, so still need to import another 25M
If now the consumption is: 600G and 1100M --> exchange extra 400G to 100M and Tah-da! Gotrland does not have to import anything at all --> against the conclusion

That's why we need to assume the consumption of grain will not decrease radically. The OA is E
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2013, 19:07
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This assumption question asks you to bridge the gap between the conclusion that garland will have to import meat or grain based and the premise that Meat consumption is increasing and meat uses lots of grain. Thus we will have to assume that the increase in meat consumption will mean that grain consumption either remains the same or also increases.
Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially acreage is out of scope because we don't have a connection between grain production and acreage
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperityYou do not have to assume a constant population for the income level to affect the meat consumption
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levelsas long as it is increasing, it doesn't matter which demographic increases more or less
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controlsprice controls are out of scope - as the argument makes it clear meat consumption is increasing with or without the prices
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain[color=#2e3192]This is the assumption because if there were a dramatic decrease in grain then that could make up for the increase in meat consumption and therefore you have to assume this will not happen in order to come to the stated conclusion[/color]

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2018, 04:29
Quote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

#1
I know we can eliminate if use negative skill, but I have no idea where my reasoning is incorrect.
here is my reasoning:
the conclusion is Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both
Although per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, it doesn't necessary mean that whole consumption increases.
for example: if per consumption is 1kg , there are 10m people, then whole consumption is 20m, if per consumption increases to 2kg, but there are 8m people, then the whole consumption is 16m.
we need to know the whole consumption. my assumption is that if whole consumption exceeds production, the Gortland will import.
So i choice B, because if population has remained constant, then i can infer the whole consumption increases and exceeds the production, then Gortland need import.


#2
another question, I am not sure the meaning of "as" in However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,

if it means simultaneous, then there is no causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption
if it means because, then apparently, there is a causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption

genuinely want your clarification.

Have a nice day
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2018, 20:02
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zoezhuyan wrote:
Quote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,

#1
I know we can eliminate if use negative skill, but I have no idea where my reasoning is incorrect.
here is my reasoning:
the conclusion is Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both
Although per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, it doesn't necessary mean that whole consumption increases.
for example: if per consumption is 1kg , there are 10m people, then whole consumption is 20m, if per consumption increases to 2kg, but there are 8m people, then the whole consumption is 16m.
we need to know the whole consumption. my assumption is that if whole consumption exceeds production, the Gortland will import.
So i choice B, because if population has remained constant, then i can infer the whole consumption increases and exceeds the production, then Gortland need import.


#2
another question, I am not sure the meaning of "as" in However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,

if it means simultaneous, then there is no causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption
if it means because, then apparently, there is a causal relationship between per income increase and per consumption

genuinely want your clarification.

Have a nice day
>_~

zoezhuyan, there is some confusion because this thread contains two different questions based on the same passage.

But regarding your first question, the argument does not RELY on the fact that the population has remained stable.

Quote:
B: The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country's years of growing prosperity.

What if the population has increased? The author's argument would still hold in that case. You are right that if the population has decreased, then the argument could fall apart. But that does not make (B) a required assumption.

As for your second question, "as" means "at the same time". This does not tell us whether there is a causal relationship between the two. Maybe there is, maybe there isn't:

    "As Alan started to eat more spinach, his GMAT test scores increased." - Those two things happened simultaneously. Perhaps eating more spinach boosted Alan's scores, but we don't know either way.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 18:29
I chose B as well but GmatNinja's explanation helped.


Now help me understand this, if I reword B, will it become a required assumption as well?

The author assumes that "The population in Gortland will not decrease".


I understand why E is a required assumption as well though.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2018, 22:15
A2MBB wrote:
I chose B as well but GmatNinja's explanation helped.


Now help me understand this, if I reword B, will it become a required assumption as well?

The author assumes that "The population in Gortland will not decrease".


I understand why E is a required assumption as well though.



Hey i don't think it would still be the correct answer.
Even though population won't decrease, we would want to find out whether the consumption will increase.
As the conclusion is related to imports, we should have information about consumption in the given option.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 23:32
My passage analysis:

Gortland has been barely self-sufficient in both grain and meat.
Per capita income(PCI) and per capita consumption(PCC) have increased.
PCI= TOTAL INCOME/TOPTAL POPULATION
PCC= TOTAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT/ TOTAL POPULATION.
SEVERAL POUNDS OF GRAIN= 1 POUND OF MEAT
Domestic grain production is NOT increasing.
CONCLUSION: Considering above statements, Gortland will have to begin importing either grain or meat or both.

Arriving at assumption:

Negating this conclusion: Gortland will NOThave to begin importing either grain or meat or both.

GIVEN: THE ABOVE STATED FACTS in passage analysis.

FALSIFICATION QUESTION: What if the population of Gortland has decreased over the past years?

This will imply that rise in PCI AND PCC is because of decrease in population(denominator). Hence there will be no need to import. As domestic production will be sufficient.

ASSUMPTION: The population of Gortland has NOT decreased over the past years.

DOUBT: Is the assumption correct?
I totally understand that Option B is incorrect because the Population might increase or decrease. But if It specifically decreases , can we say that the conclusion breaks down
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 07:48
A. The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
total area will decrease , then might have to import. hence opposite

B. The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity.
even if pop not remain constant, then it can either increase/decrease.

C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
indicidual consumption may b different, but overal is what we are using. hence not relevant

D. In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
pricing is out of scope

E. People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.
if either way decreasing the consumption, then overal consumption may decrease. hence import not req
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Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2019, 05:12
Hi, can I know why C is not the answer?

Looking at this part: "However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,..... Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both." -> Here I see the author assumes as if meat consumption will keep increasing as the capita income increases - however I believe that's not necessarily the case as their will be some 'limit' to how much meat intake you can take.
I mean, being the richest guy doesn't make Bill Gates the largest consumer of meat, right?
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2019, 23:54
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aidyn wrote:
Hi, can I know why C is not the answer?

Looking at this part: "However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average,..... Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both." -> Here I see the author assumes as if meat consumption will keep increasing as the capita income increases - however I believe that's not necessarily the case as their will be some 'limit' to how much meat intake you can take.
I mean, being the richest guy doesn't make Bill Gates the largest consumer of meat, right?

Let's take a look at answer choice (C):
Quote:
C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.

This is telling us that, regardless of income, people eat about the same amount of meat. If this were true, the very poorest people would eat just as much meat as the very richest. Is this an assumption required by the author's argument?

Not at all -- the author's argument still holds if people eat more meat at different income levels. We know that overall per capita income is increasing, and that there is a corresponding increase in the amount of meat eaten. There could still be a segment of the population at a low income level that cannot afford to eat meat, or a segment at the top that eats much more meat than most other people. Even if the Gortlandian equivalent of Bill Gates isn't consuming the largest amount of meat, it is very possible that people at different income levels eat different amounts of meat.

Because the author's argument doesn't require the information in (C) to be true, it is not an assumption on which the argument depends.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self‐sufficient in both grain and meat   [#permalink] 15 May 2019, 23:54
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