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# Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers

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Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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01 May 2015, 23:38
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Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers for their brilliance and consistency, are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

A. so dense and convoluted as to pose

B. so dense and convoluted they posed

C. so dense and convoluted that they posed

D. dense and convoluted enough that they posed

E. dense and convoluted enough as they pose

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by souvik101990 on 05 May 2015, 12:05, edited 1 time in total.
Removed poll, changed format
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 02:40
Please could you double cehck the OA.

The OA meant that Kant's writings purposely posed a hurdle for many reader interested in his work.

Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers for their brilliance and consistency, are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

so dense and convoluted as to pose
so dense and convoluted they posed
so dense and convoluted that they posed
dense and convoluted enough that they posed
dense and convoluted enough as they pose

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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 22:25
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This is a very good question IMO.
Let me give an explanation of my choice.

A) Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers for their brilliance and consistency, are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

Kant's writings - Subject.
are characterized - verb
sentences - object noun
so dense and convoluted as to pose- modifier
The sentence has an appositive. We can read the sentence without it. It would read-
Immanuel Kant's writings are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

Correct verb "are" is used. The choice is in the present tense. The underlined portion refers to sentences. It makes sense. We can keep it and look at other choices

Choice B, C & D have a tense error. Since the subject of the sentence is in present tense, we cannot use past tense to modify the object - sentences
"they posed" - past tense is there in all three choices. Therefore, all three should be eliminated.

Choice E
dense and convoluted enough as they pose

Meaning error- The intended meaning is that because the sentences are so dense and convoluted, they become a major hurdle for people who are interested to read his writings. However, this choice gives an impression that because the writings pose a major hurdle for readers the sentences are dense and convoluted enough.

So A is the best choice.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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04 May 2015, 10:32
in C it is the past tense, but this is not the intended meaning.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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05 May 2015, 12:07
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Your success on Sentence Correction will depend much more on your ability to recognize what is wrong than to recognize what is right. This question offers an excellent example – you know that the structure “so X that Y” is a commonly accepted idiom.

You’ve become accustomed to seeing that structure and so when you see the phrasing “so X as to Y” in choice A and the much-more-familiar “so X that Y” in choice C, your inclination is to quickly eliminate A. But A is the correct answer.

Simply because “so X that Y” is correct does NOT mean that “so X as to Y” is incorrect. Idioms are commonly accepted ways to phrase an idea – but they are not exclusive. There are many – or several, or quite a few – ways to express any idea. And much like there is no “greatest prime number” (ask your instructor for the proof, using what you learned in Arithmetic) there is no “one and only” correct idiom. You can almost always find one more. So you can study idiomatic expressions for months and not have them mastered, and what’s worse – you’ll likely only lead yourself astray from your core competencies like verb tense. In this example, the past-tense in choice C (and B and D) is illogical. It’s wrong. So the not-as-common idiom in A, attached to the “correct” usage of verb tense, provides the correct answer. It’s not what you want to see – but the author knows this and constructed a question in which what you wanted to see was bait.

The authors of these questions are grammar experts and they know this about you – you will never know all of the correct idiomatic expressions, accepted sentence structures, or allowable ways to phrase an idea. So they use them. They take the common phrasing and attach it to an incorrect answer – one containing a major-category error that you should know – and correct that problem in a choice that uses an awkward, unexpected, but still correct structure or idiom. They know that you want to choose “what you know to be right” but that in doing so you’re apt to also wed yourself to something that is hidden, but wrong.

Also see the following thread from Brian at Veritas discussing this same question.

- OE from Veritas Prep
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2015, 04:40
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Immanuel Kant's writings are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose[/u] a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

Meaning: Kant's writings contain complex sentences and these sentences are so complex that readers face problems to understand them.

This sentence is presented as a general fact or statement.

A. so dense and convoluted as to pose.............answer

B. so dense and convoluted they posed..........they don't pose only in past they can be difficult even now. Changes the intended meaning.

C. so dense and convoluted that they posed..............so that indicates purpose.
There is no purpose here i.e., neither difficulty is intentionally induced nor hurdles for reader are intentional.
posed repeats here.

D. dense and convoluted enough that they posed.........enough error is introduced here.
posed issue repeats here.

E. dense and convoluted enough as they pose...............changes the intended meaning as if they become complex when they pose hurdles for reader.

There are few aspects to be noted here.
1. here convoluted is an adjective not a verb in past tense.
Meaning of convoluted as per Oxford dictionary is as below.

Quote:

1(Especially of an argument, story, or sentence) extremely complex and difficult to follow:
the film is let down by a convoluted plot in which nothing really happens
When Douglas's character smells a rat, the convoluted thriller plot is set in motion.

convolute..........verb
The data was therefore convoluted with a profile that mimics the image of a microtubule to filter out the vertical coordinate.
Sula challenges us to reconsider how histories of tops and bottoms within American social structures become convoluted into the ironic hierarchies and differences in African American society.

So here dense and convoluted both define the complex nature of sentences.

2.Why option A is correct.

"So X as to Y" means something is SO (big, strong, slow, whatever, but something kind of extreme) that it actually causes something else to happen - something that wouldn't ordinarily happen.

so here the sentences are so difficult that their difficulty resulted in becoming hurdle for readers.

3. For those who feel D or E can be right. This info from Mgmat forum helps.

1. The temperature outside was cold enough to cause frostbite.
2. The temperature outside was so cold as to cause frostbite.
There is a subtle distinction between the idiom "so x as to y" and "x is enough to y."

The original sentence uses the idiom "so x as to y" to indicate that characteristic x is so extreme in the particular case that y results.

In contrast, the idiom "x is enough to y" is used when x is the criteria by which an ability to achieve y is measured.
Thus, if a sentence stated that "The temperature outside was cold enough to cause frostbite." this would convey a different meaning: that the temperature is the criteria by which one measures the ability to cause frostbite."

For one thing, "X enough to Y" has a little more of a connotation of intention -- for example, "I ate enough to win the eating contest" is preferable to "I ate so much as to win the eating contest."

In the former case, I intended to win the contest, and I ate enough to ensure that. In the latter case, I could have simply been on an eating binge, and by accident I wound up winning the contest.

However, in the case, the difference isn't one of intention. In the first case, "The temperature was cold enough to cause frostbite," I'm emphasizing the outcome -- in a way, I'm defining two temperature ranges, one that causes frostbite and one that doesn't, and I'm saying, we're in the former.

But if I say "The temperature was so cold as to cause frostbite," in a sense I'm just tossing out the fact that frostbite would be caused in this case, but I'm not defining a threshold as I am with the "cold enough to cause frostbite."
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2016, 04:10
So X that Y, So X as Y are both correct idiom.

Choice C is incorrect because “they” modifies philosophers, it makes no sense.
Choice A is correct.
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Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2016, 19:29
Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers for their brilliance and consistency, are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

A. so dense and convoluted as to pose

B. so dense and convoluted they posed

C. so dense and convoluted that they posed

D. dense and convoluted enough that they posed

E. dense and convoluted enough as they pose

I did this in 30 secs by checking the differences and zeroing in on the last word--"pose" versus "posed". "Pose" must be in present tense, NOT past tense, because we are talking about Kant's writings being a current hurdle for people wanting to CURRENTLY read his works, not reading in the past but reading now and in the future.

From there, it's easy to rule out E from needing "so" and "as they pose" is the wrong.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2016, 08:07
In Option C, can "they" be used to refer to sentences ??
Or "they" is only used to refer people??
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2016, 08:20
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282552 wrote:
In Option C, can "they" be used to refer to sentences ??
Or "they" is only used to refer people??

Hi,
THEY can refer to both person and objects..
Even sentences can be referred by they..
example..
who wrote those sentences?
they were written by Mr X..
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2016, 16:10
chetan2u wrote:
282552 wrote:
In Option C, can "they" be used to refer to sentences ??
Or "they" is only used to refer people??

Hi,
THEY can refer to both person and objects..
Even sentences can be referred by they..
example..
who wrote those sentences?
they were written by Mr X..

Well I don't know whether I am right or not but for me is clear that "they" don't have a clear antecedent, so straightforward to A.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2016, 11:34
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anonimo wrote:
chetan2u wrote:
282552 wrote:
In Option C, can "they" be used to refer to sentences ??
Or "they" is only used to refer people??

Hi,
THEY can refer to both person and objects..
Even sentences can be referred by they..
example..
who wrote those sentences?
they were written by Mr X..

Well I don't know whether I am right or not but for me is clear that "they" don't have a clear antecedent, so straightforward to A.

Yes, the pronoun they is definitely ambiguous.

In fact because it is subject of a clause (they pose significant hurdle), it actually refers to writings, subject of another clause (writings are characterized), by virtue of parallelism. (GMAT allows such reference if there are more than two possible antecedents). Nonetheless they should actually refer to sentences, not writings.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2016, 18:22
chetan2u wrote:
282552 wrote:
In Option C, can "they" be used to refer to sentences ??
Or "they" is only used to refer people??

Hi,
THEY can refer to both person and objects..
Even sentences can be referred by they..
example..
who wrote those sentences?
they were written by Mr X..

As soon as I saw the OA, I realized the trick of this question. Just as you said, "they" is ambiguous because it can refer to either "sentences" or " writings". Had I slowed down and thought about it, I probably would have eliminated B, C, D, and E. This is not to mention verb tense error in B, C, and D.

Also, it is good to to learn that idiom "so X as to Y" is not incorrect. Great question from Veritas.
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Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2017, 06:07
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
Immanuel Kant's writings are characterized by sentences so dense and convoluted as to pose[/u] a significant hurdle for many readers interested in his works.

Meaning: Kant's writings contain complex sentences and these sentences are so complex that readers face problems to understand them.

This sentence is presented as a general fact or statement.

A. so dense and convoluted as to pose.............answer

B. so dense and convoluted they posed..........they don't pose only in past they can be difficult even now. Changes the intended meaning.

C. so dense and convoluted that they posed..............so that indicates purpose.
There is no purpose here i.e., neither difficulty is intentionally induced nor hurdles for reader are intentional.
posed repeats here.

D. dense and convoluted enough that they posed.........enough error is introduced here.
posed issue repeats here.

E. dense and convoluted enough as they pose...............changes the intended meaning as if they become complex when they pose hurdles for reader.

There are few aspects to be noted here.
1. here convoluted is an adjective not a verb in past tense.
Meaning of convoluted as per Oxford dictionary is as below.

Quote:

1(Especially of an argument, story, or sentence) extremely complex and difficult to follow:
the film is let down by a convoluted plot in which nothing really happens
When Douglas's character smells a rat, the convoluted thriller plot is set in motion.

convolute..........verb
The data was therefore convoluted with a profile that mimics the image of a microtubule to filter out the vertical coordinate.
Sula challenges us to reconsider how histories of tops and bottoms within American social structures become convoluted into the ironic hierarchies and differences in African American society.

So here dense and convoluted both define the complex nature of sentences.

2.Why option A is correct.

"So X as to Y" means something is SO (big, strong, slow, whatever, but something kind of extreme) that it actually causes something else to happen - something that wouldn't ordinarily happen.

so here the sentences are so difficult that their difficulty resulted in becoming hurdle for readers.

3. For those who feel D or E can be right. This info from Mgmat forum helps.

1. The temperature outside was cold enough to cause frostbite.
2. The temperature outside was so cold as to cause frostbite.
There is a subtle distinction between the idiom "so x as to y" and "x is enough to y."

The original sentence uses the idiom "so x as to y" to indicate that characteristic x is so extreme in the particular case that y results.

In contrast, the idiom "x is enough to y" is used when x is the criteria by which an ability to achieve y is measured.
Thus, if a sentence stated that "The temperature outside was cold enough to cause frostbite." this would convey a different meaning: that the temperature is the criteria by which one measures the ability to cause frostbite."

For one thing, "X enough to Y" has a little more of a connotation of intention -- for example, "I ate enough to win the eating contest" is preferable to "I ate so much as to win the eating contest."

In the former case, I intended to win the contest, and I ate enough to ensure that. In the latter case, I could have simply been on an eating binge, and by accident I wound up winning the contest.

However, in the case, the difference isn't one of intention. In the first case, "The temperature was cold enough to cause frostbite," I'm emphasizing the outcome -- in a way, I'm defining two temperature ranges, one that causes frostbite and one that doesn't, and I'm saying, we're in the former.

But if I say "The temperature was so cold as to cause frostbite," in a sense I'm just tossing out the fact that frostbite would be caused in this case, but I'm not defining a threshold as I am with the "cold enough to cause frostbite."

Hi Nevernevergiveup,

Is there any difference between the below sentences?

The temperature was so cold as to cause frostbite.

The temperature was so cold that it could cause frostbite.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2017, 07:08
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AR15J wrote:
Hi Nevernevergiveup,

Is there any difference between the below sentences?

The temperature was so cold as to cause frostbite.

The temperature was so cold that it could cause frostbite.

so that indicates intention or purpose. Temperature is cold so that it could cause frostbite means that temperature itself becomes cold in order to cause frostbite.

Whereas so........as..........is different and unintentional.
Temperature was so cold as to cause frostbite means temperature was so cold that such low temp resulted in frostbite.

I hope this helps.
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Re: Immanuel Kant's writings, while praised by many philosophers   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2017, 07:08
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