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# In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of

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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
Please provide explanation for question 3 .
It was a good passage and the language was hard .
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
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In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?
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In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?

The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyse sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.

Originally posted by KarishmaB on 17 Jun 2019, 23:14.
Last edited by KarishmaB on 20 Jun 2019, 22:17, edited 1 time in total.
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sayan640
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?

The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyses sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.

Can you please explain how option D is correct in Question #6 ?
If people had not responded positively towards the reform movements and had not considered child labor as taboo , I don't think it would have caused changes in the assessment of children's worth.
Can you please throw some light ?
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Can some one please explain why option (B) is correct and option (D) is not; both the options reflect economic gain which is characteristic of critique of sociological economists?
For question 7, I assume?

Quote:
7. Which of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage?

We can infer the answer based on the details about sociological economics found in the last paragraph:
Quote:
In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s worth, Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new “sociological economics,” who have analyzed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “surrender” value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.

In other words, these new sociologists tend to think that behaviors are motivated mainly by economic gain, not by social or emotional or cultural values. Which answer choice is the best example of that behavior? As GMATNinja wrote, we should try to eliminate four wrong answers, not look for one right answer and fall in love with it.

Quote:
(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation
According to practitioners of "sociological economics," health care professionals would enter the field not because it's a socially useful occupation, but because it's the most economically (or monetarily) beneficial occupation. Eliminate.

Quote:
(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid jobs available to them
According to practitioners of "sociological economics," most college students would choose majors they believe will result in maximum economic gain, and they would not likely choose majors because of personal interest, altruism, or social or familial pressure. Keep for now.

Quote:
(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed to the relationship
According to practitioners of "sociological economics," most partners would make decisions about marriage and divorce based on what is most economically beneficial to the relationship or to its individuals. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that married partners' relationship commitment is influenced by wanting to maximize economic gain, or vice versa. Eliminate.

Quote:
(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions
There is nothing in the passage to suggest that economic health of educational institutions is influenced by, or influences, maximizing economic gain. I suspect this answer is worded in a tricky way to make us confuse "economic health" with "economic gain," or to make us suspect that maximizing "economic gain" leads to "economic health," which then affects enrollment rates. According to practitioners of "sociological economics," perhaps most colleges and universities would offer popular classes that would lead to greater enrollment in order to maximize profit, but this answer choice does not reflect that motivation, so it is not the best answer for our question. Eliminate.

Quote:
(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents
This answer should be eliminated immediately because it has nothing to do with the question asked. I think it is an answer choice given to trick us into making unsupported logical leaps and assumptions in order to feel that this answer choice is okay, such as "Young people want to maximize economic gain, therefore they live with their parents longer and get married later, in order to make more profit." Eliminate.

We still have B, so that's the best answer to question 7.

Hope that helps.
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sayan640
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?

The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyses sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.

Can you please explain how option D is correct in Question #6 ?
If people had not responded positively towards the reform movements and had not considered child labor as taboo , I don't think it would have caused changes in the assessment of children's worth.
Can you please throw some light ?

Focus on the question: Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing ...

We need to find the option that Zelizer did not mention. Zelizer refers to the other 4 options explicitly.

(A) the mortality rate
the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality,

(B) the nature of industry
The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy... clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures ...

(C) the nature of the family
the development of the companionate family

(E) attitudes toward the marketplace
this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
Please can someone tell why option E is wrong in Question 2
and option D is wrong in Question 4
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Please can someone tell why option E is wrong in Question 2
and option D is wrong in Question 4

Question 2

Question #2 asks about the generally held view of children in the early 1800's. Let's look at the most relevant piece of the passage:
Quote:
During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally “priceless.”
From this, we know that families in the early 1800's generally viewed children as useful contributors to the family economy.

Take another look at (E):
Quote:
(E) [Families in the early 1800's regarded children as] financial burdens assumed for the good of society
From the passage, it is clear that families in the early 1800's regarded children as useful contributors, not as burdens. In addition, these children contributed to the "family economy," not to society as a whole.

Eliminate (E) for question #2.

Question 4

To understand the primary purpose of the passage, let's see what the author accomplishes with each paragraph:
• Paragraph 1: contrasts the results of a court case from 1896 and one from 1979
• Paragraph 2: states that the "social values implicit" in this contrast are the focus of Viviana Zelizer's book, and then summarizes her main argument about how societal views on children changed during this time period
• Paragraph 3: explains Zelizer's beliefs about the origins of the transformation in question
• Paragraph 4: provides an alternate viewpoint (that of “sociological economics,”), and then explains Zelizer's position against this viewpoint

Overall, the author's purpose is to explore various aspects of the arguments in Viviana Zelizer's work.

Quote:
(D) refute a traditional explanation of a social phenomenon
The alternate viewpoint that Zelizer refutes in Paragraph 4 is that of "the new 'sociological economics.'" Because this viewpoint is described as "new," is is definitely not a "traditional explanation of a social phenomenon." So, refuting a traditional explanation cannot be the primary purpose of the passage. (D) is out.

Quote:
(B) present the central thesis of a recent book

The purpose of the passage is to explore the arguments made by Viviana Zelizer in her book Pricing the Priceless Child. (B) is the correct answer to question #4.

I hope that helps!
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GMATNinja or egmat PROVIDE EXPLAINATION FOR QUESTION 5
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GMATNinja oregmat PROVIDE EXPLAINATION FOR QUESTION 5
Here's the question in full:

Question 5

Quote:
5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements was true of American families over the course of the nineteenth century?
We'll have to eliminate every choice that CANNOT be inferred from the passage, and keep the answer choice that IS supported by the passage.

Quote:
(A) The average size of families grew considerably.
There's no evidence to support this statement, because the author never discusses the size of families during this time period. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) The percentage of families involved in industrial work declined dramatically.
While the author describes how children were removed from the labor pool, the author never tells us anything about the rate of families involved in industrial work. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Family members became more emotionally bonded to one another.
The third paragraph tells us explicitly that "the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty)" was a critical factor in changing the assessment of children's worth during this time period.

That's why we keep (C) and keep going.

Quote:
(D) Family members spent an increasing amount of time working with each other.
There's no evidence to support this. The author never discusses how much time family members spent working with each other during this time period.

Quote:
(E) Family members became more economically dependent on each other.
Perhaps the passage hints that children became more dependent on parents during this time, but that's just one type of relationship within the family structure. Choice (E) states that family members, overall, became more economically dependent on each other — and the author doesn't say anything of the sort. Eliminate (E).

(C) is the only answer supported by the passage.
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
Dear GMATNinja

Can you please give the explanation for question 6)?
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
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Dear GMATNinja

Can you please give the explanation for question 6)?

hi Mizar18, Here is my 2 cents on ur question. All of the factors except option D are mentioned in Para-3. I am highlighting those lines.
The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy(option B), the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality(Option-A), and the development of the companionate family(Option-C-the nature of family)

important for late-nineteenth-century middle-class Americans, she suggests; this sacralization [b]was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.(option-e - attitude towards market place)
[/highlight]

6. Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing the assessment of children’s worth EXCEPT changes in

(A) the mortality rate -
(B) the nature of industry
(C) the nature of the family
(D) attitudes toward reform movements
(E) attitudes toward the marketplace

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Dear GMATNinja

Can you please give the explanation for question 6)?
Sorry that I'm late to the party on this! PoojanB has basically got this covered — nice work, PoojanB!

If you're still having trouble with the question, just let us know in greater detail what's confusing you, and we'll do our best to help.
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Mizar18
Dear GMATNinja

Can you please give the explanation for question 6)?
Sorry that I'm late to the party on this! PoojanB has basically got this covered — nice work, PoojanB!

If you're still having trouble with the question, just let us know in greater detail what's confusing you, and we'll do our best to help.

In 2nd Paragraph, reformers did something about child labor. Isn't that an important influence in changing the assessment of children’s worth? By reading this I thought some reform movements would have been there and hence I did not consider B wrong.
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Mizar18
Dear GMATNinja

Can you please give the explanation for question 6)?
Sorry that I'm late to the party on this! PoojanB has basically got this covered — nice work, PoojanB!

If you're still having trouble with the question, just let us know in greater detail what's confusing you, and we'll do our best to help.

In 2nd Paragraph, reformers did something about child labor. Isn't that an important influence in changing the assessment of children’s worth? By reading this I thought some reform movements would have been there and hence I did not consider B wrong.
I'm not quite sure I follow what you're having trouble with, but I'll do my best.

The question asks us which answer choice was NOT referred to by Zelizer as an important influence in changing the assessment of children's worth.

Quote:
(B) the nature of the industry
The purpose of paragraph three is to identify factors that Zelizer believed to be the origins of this transformation (especially the sacralization of children's lives). We can eliminate (B) because in that paragraph, one of the factors listed is "the gradual erosion of children's productive value in a maturing industrial economy."

You've also mentioned paragraph 2. The purpose of this paragraph is to articulate Zelizer's overall argument — that the concept of the "useful" child gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the "useless" and "priceless" child.

Paragraph 2 describes a result of this change: increased regulation introduced by reformers.

Paragraph 3 describes the reasons for such reforms.

Since we were asked to confirm which answer choice is NOT one of Zelizer's stated reasons for the reforms, it would be circular to consider the reforms themselves as one of those reasons.

Again, I'm not sure this addresses your doubt, but I hope it helps clarify the meaning of the passage as written (and what the question is asking us to do).
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
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I eliminated the correct answer choice (B) of Question 4 (primary purpose) because nowhere in the passage it is mentioned that the book is a recent one. Please help on this one!
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of [#permalink]
BhaveshGMAT
I eliminated the correct answer choice (B) of Question 4 (primary purpose) because nowhere in the passage it is mentioned that the book is a recent one. Please help on this one!

Hi BhaveshGMAT,

True that it's not mentioned anywhere in the passage that the book is recent one. But considering other options, B is the most close.
We can also infer that the book in question could be recent one as mentioned: Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor".

You can also refer the below reply by our expert:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-1896-a-georgia-couple-suing-for-damages-in-the-accidental-death-of-245833.html#p2324999

Let us know if you still have doubts.
Thanks.
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