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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 37 ~ 42
Page: 332

In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of their two year old was told that since the child had made no real economic contribution to the family, there was no liability for damages. In contrast, less than a century later, in 1979, the parents of a three-year-old sued in New York for accidental-death damages and won an award of $750,000.

The transformation in social values implicit in juxtaposing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana Zelizer’s excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally “priceless.” Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.

For Zelizer the origins of this transformation were many and complex. The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy, the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality, and the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty) were all factors critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth. Yet “expulsion of children from the ‘cash nexus,’ although clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures,” Zelizer maintains, “was also part of a cultural process ‘of sacralization’ of children’s lives.” Protecting children from the crass business world became enormously important for late-nineteenth-century middle-class Americans, she suggests; this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.

In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s worth, Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new “sociological economics,” who have analyzed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “surrender” value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that accidental-death damage awards in America during the nineteenth century tended to be based principally on the

(A) earnings of the person at time of death
(B) wealth of the party causing the death
(C) degree of culpability of the party causing the death
(D) amount of money that had been spent on the person killed
(E) amount of suffering endured by the family of the person killed

Spoiler: :: OA
A

Spoiler: :: OE
A is the best answer. In the first paragraph, the author cites an accidental-death case from nineteenth-century America in which the absence of economic contribution on the part of a deceased child was ruled sufficient grounds to deny the awarding of damages to the child’s parents. The author goes on to discuss how this case typified attitudes that persisted even into the twentieth
century. It can be inferred from this that in nineteenth-century America the chief consideration in determining damages in an accidental-death case was the deceased person’s earnings.
There are no evidence in the passage to suggest that the factors in B, C, D and E were of primary concern in determining accidental-death damages in nineteenth-century America.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that in the early 1800’s children were generally regarded by their families as individuals who

(A) needed enormous amounts of security and affection
(B) required constant supervision while working
(C) were important to the economic well-being of a family
(D) were unsuited to spending long hours in school
(E) were financial burdens assumed for the good of society

Spoiler: :: OA
C

Spoiler: :: OE
C is the best answer.
In the second paragraph, the author describes how during the nineteenth century the concept of the “ ‘useful’ child who contributed to the family economy” (lines 23-24) gradually gave way to the present-day notion of the economically “useless” but emotionally “priceless” child. This new view of childhood was “well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the
mid-1800’s” and “spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries” (lines 31-38). Thus in the early 1800’s, prior to the shift in the valuation of children, families valued the role children had to play in the family’s economic well-being.
A and E describe attitude more in accord with the present-day view of childhood. B and D address issues that are not raised in the passage.

3. Which of the following alternative explanations of the change in the cash value of children would be most likely to be put forward by sociological economists as they are described in the passage?

(A) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because parents began to increase their emotional investment in the upbringing of their children.

(B) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their expected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.

(C) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because the spread of humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale reappraisal of the worth of an individual.

(D) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor.

(E) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because of changes in the way negligence law assessed damages in accidental death cases.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

Spoiler: :: OE
B is the best answer.
According to the author, practitioners of the new “sociological economics” explain sociological phenomena “solely in terms of their economic determinants” and “tend to view all human behavior as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain’ (lines 85-98). This choice provides just such an economic explanation for the nineteenth-century rise in the cash
value of children.
A paraphrases Zelizer’s own explanation, which is at odds with that of the sociological economists.
C uses social values and emotional factors to explain an even broader revaluation of individual worth. D uses an economic argument to explain the change, but here the economic factors at work are the result of a change. E provides a legal explanation for the change.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) review the literature in a new academic sub-field
(B) present the central thesis of a recent book
(C) contrast two approaches to analyzing historical change
(D) refute a traditional explanation of a social phenomenon
(E) encourage further work on a neglected historical topic

Spoiler: :: OA
B

Spoiler: :: OE
B is the best answer.
In the first paragraph, the author contrasts two incidents that are said to exemplify the transformation in social values that forms the subject of Zelizer’s book. The second and third paragraphs consist of a brief history of that transformation, as Zelizer presents it, and an account of the factors she considers important in bringing it about. In the last paragraph, the author explains how Zelizer’s thesis differs from that of sociological economists. Thus, the passage serves primarily to present the central thesis of Zelizer’s book.
A and E misrepresent the subject matter of the passage. D mispresents the author’s approach. C is incorrect because although the passage does contrast two approaches, this contrast takes place only in the final paragraph.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements was true of American families over the course of the nineteenth century?

(A) The average size of families grew considerably.
(B) The percentage of families involved in industrial work declined dramatically.
(C) Family members became more emotionally bonded to one another.
(D) Family members spent an increasing amount of time working with each other.
(E) Family members became more economically dependent on each other.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

Spoiler: :: OE
C is the best answer.
In the third paragraph, the author cites Zelizer’s contention that the new view of childhood that developed in nineteenth-century America was due in part to “the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty)”(lines 54-58). From this it can be inferred that the emotional bonds between family members became increasingly important during this period.
There are no information in the passage to support the other answer choices.

6. Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing the assessment of children’s worth EXCEPT changes in

(A) the mortality rate
(B) the nature of industry
(C) the nature of the family
(D) attitudes toward reform movements
(E) attitudes toward the marketplace

Spoiler: :: OA
D

Spoiler: :: OE
D is the best answer.
Although reform movements are mentioned in lines 39-45, the passage does not discuss attitudes or changes in attitudes toward those movements. This choice is therefore NOT among the influences Zelizer is said to regard as important in changing the assessment of children’s worth.
A, B and C are mentioned in lines 48-58 as factors Zelizer regards as “critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth”. E is mentioned in lines 70-80, which describe how the “sacralization” of children’s lives represented “a way of resisting what they <middle-class Americans> perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.”

7. Which of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage?

(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation

(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid jobs available to them

(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed to the relationship

(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions

(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents

Spoiler: :: OA
B


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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 21:22
broall wrote:
OG 10 Passage 7

In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of their two year old was told that since the child had made no real economic contribution to the family, there was no liability for damages. In contrast, less than a century later, in 1979, the parents of a three-year-old sued in New York for accidental-death damages and won an award of $750,000.

The transformation in social values implicit in juxtaposing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana Zelizer’s excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally “priceless.” Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.

For Zelizer the origins of this transformation were many and complex. The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy, the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality, and the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty) were all factors critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth. Yet “expulsion of children from the ‘cash nexus,’ although clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures,” Zelizer maintains, “was also part of a cultural process ‘of sacrelization’ of children’s lives.” Protecting children from the crass business world became enormously important for late-nineteenth-century middle-class Americans, she suggests; this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.

In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s worth, Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new “sociological economics,” who have analyzed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “surrender” value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that accidental-death damage awards in America during the nineteenth century tended to be based principally on the

(A) earnings of the person at time of death
(B) wealth of the party causing the death
(C) degree of culpability of the party causing the death
(D) amount of money that had been spent on the person killed
(E) amount of suffering endured by the family of the person killed

Spoiler: :: OA
A

2. It can be inferred from the passage that in the early 1800’s children were generally regarded by their families as individuals who

(A) needed enormous amounts of security and affection
(B) required constant supervision while working
(C) were important to the economic well-being of a family
(D) were unsuited to spending long hours in school
(E) were financial burdens assumed for the good of society

Spoiler: :: OA
C

3. Which of the following alternative explanations of the change in the cash value of children would be most likely to be put forward by sociological economists as they are described in the passage?

(A) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because parents began to increase their emotional investment in the upbringing of their children.

(B) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their expected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.

(C) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because the spread of humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale reappraisal of the worth of an individual.

(D) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor.

(E) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because of changes in the way negligence law assessed damages in accidental death cases.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) review the literature in a new academic sub-field
(B) present the central thesis of a recent book
(C) contrast two approaches to analyzing historical change
(D) refute a traditional explanation of a social phenomenon
(E) encourage further work on a neglected historical topic

Spoiler: :: OA
B

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements was true of American families over the course of the nineteenth century?

(A) The average size of families grew considerably.
(B) The percentage of families involved in industrial work declined dramatically.
(C) Family members became more emotionally bonded to one another.
(D) Family members spent an increasing amount of time working with each other.
(E) Family members became more economically dependent on each other.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

6. Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing the assessment of children’s worth EXCEPT changes in

(A) the mortality rate
(B) the nature of industry
(C) the nature of the family
(D) attitudes toward reform movements
(E) attitudes toward the marketplace

Spoiler: :: OA
D

7. Which of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage?

(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation

(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid jobs available to them

(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed to the relationship

(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions

(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents

Spoiler: :: OA
B



broall
Can you please post OEs for Qs : 2,4,6?
For Q4, how can we infer the book is 'recent'?
For Q6, where is it mentioned that nature of industry changed?

PS: thanks for the post:)
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 21:33
kkrrsshh wrote:
broall
Can you please post OEs for Qs : 2,4,6?
For Q4, how can we infer the book is 'recent'?
For Q6, where is it mentioned that nature of industry changed?

PS: thanks for the post:)


Done, enjoy :-D
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 08:41
Please provide explanation for question 3 .
It was a good passage and the language was hard .
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Re: In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 09:34
2
arvind910619 wrote:
Please provide explanation for question 3 .
It was a good passage and the language was hard .
Let me try:
Let's see the question:
Quote:
3. Which of the following alternative explanations of the change in the cash value of children would be most likely to be put forward by sociological economists as they are described in the passage?

If you notice, all options start with "the cash value rose because...". So we just need to find what sociological economists would argue caused the rise in cash value of children.
This is what passage says :

- sociological economics allow only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,”
- these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain.

sociological economist don't give a damn about cultural influences playing a part n change in ash value of children. Sociological economists believe that cash value of children rose just because these children could be used to maximise economic gain, i.e. extra income for the family, over their lifetime.

Lets see the options:

(A) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because parents began to increase their emotional investment in the upbringing of their children.
This is complete opposite. Moreover if we look closely, this view is held by Zelizer.

(B) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their expected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.
Only answer tying "economic gain" to the children. Their value increased because the expected earnings increased.

(C) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because the spread of humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale reappraisal of the worth of an individual.
humanitarian ideals (social ideals) reslted in a wholesale re-appraisal? We don't know whether it happened wholesale (one time reappraisal) or gradually. Moreover, no mention of this in sociological economists' discussion

(D) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor.
This answer "economic gain" to children but in "effect" of another cause-which is not mentioned (or mentioned elsewhere) in the passage. This answer combines two parts of the passage incorrectly.

(E) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because of changes in the way negligence law assessed damages in accidental death cases.
Purely out of scope, isnt' it?

Does it make sense?
Was I of any help? :)
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broall
Can you shed some light on - how to arrive at B by POE in Ques 4 and choose between option D and E in Ques 6 ?
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New post 24 Feb 2018, 18:02
Can somebody help me the question 2?
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New post 24 Feb 2018, 21:15
MinHuiii wrote:
Can somebody help me the question 2?


What specifically do you need help with. What choice did you mark as correct and why. What about the OA is not clear. Please provide more details so experts here can provide helpful answers.
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New post 27 Feb 2018, 19:42
Nice passage. All correct except Q3 in 13 mins, including 4 mins 45 seconds to read.
For Q3 - was in a fix between B and E and ended up choosing the wrong answer
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New post 28 Apr 2019, 21:06
Can any expert explain question No 6?
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2
8:28 mins. One mistake Q 3.
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New post 13 May 2019, 21:45
broall wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 37 ~ 42
Page: 332

In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the accidental death of their two year old was told that since the child had made no real economic contribution to the family, there was no liability for damages. In contrast, less than a century later, in 1979, the parents of a three-year-old sued in New York for accidental-death damages and won an award of $750,000.

The transformation in social values implicit in juxtaposing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana Zelizer’s excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet considered emotionally “priceless.” Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.

For Zelizer the origins of this transformation were many and complex. The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy, the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality, and the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty) were all factors critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth. Yet “expulsion of children from the ‘cash nexus,’ although clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures,” Zelizer maintains, “was also part of a cultural process ‘of sacralization’ of children’s lives.” Protecting children from the crass business world became enormously important for late-nineteenth-century middle-class Americans, she suggests; this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.

In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s worth, Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new “sociological economics,” who have analyzed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “surrender” value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that accidental-death damage awards in America during the nineteenth century tended to be based principally on the

(A) earnings of the person at time of death
(B) wealth of the party causing the death
(C) degree of culpability of the party causing the death
(D) amount of money that had been spent on the person killed
(E) amount of suffering endured by the family of the person killed

Spoiler: :: OA
A

Spoiler: :: OE
A is the best answer. In the first paragraph, the author cites an accidental-death case from nineteenth-century America in which the absence of economic contribution on the part of a deceased child was ruled sufficient grounds to deny the awarding of damages to the child’s parents. The author goes on to discuss how this case typified attitudes that persisted even into the twentieth
century. It can be inferred from this that in nineteenth-century America the chief consideration in determining damages in an accidental-death case was the deceased person’s earnings.
There are no evidence in the passage to suggest that the factors in B, C, D and E were of primary concern in determining accidental-death damages in nineteenth-century America.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that in the early 1800’s children were generally regarded by their families as individuals who

(A) needed enormous amounts of security and affection
(B) required constant supervision while working
(C) were important to the economic well-being of a family
(D) were unsuited to spending long hours in school
(E) were financial burdens assumed for the good of society

Spoiler: :: OA
C

Spoiler: :: OE
C is the best answer.
In the second paragraph, the author describes how during the nineteenth century the concept of the “ ‘useful’ child who contributed to the family economy” (lines 23-24) gradually gave way to the present-day notion of the economically “useless” but emotionally “priceless” child. This new view of childhood was “well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the
mid-1800’s” and “spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries” (lines 31-38). Thus in the early 1800’s, prior to the shift in the valuation of children, families valued the role children had to play in the family’s economic well-being.
A and E describe attitude more in accord with the present-day view of childhood. B and D address issues that are not raised in the passage.

3. Which of the following alternative explanations of the change in the cash value of children would be most likely to be put forward by sociological economists as they are described in the passage?

(A) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because parents began to increase their emotional investment in the upbringing of their children.

(B) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their expected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.

(C) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because the spread of humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale reappraisal of the worth of an individual.

(D) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor.

(E) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because of changes in the way negligence law assessed damages in accidental death cases.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

Spoiler: :: OE
B is the best answer.
According to the author, practitioners of the new “sociological economics” explain sociological phenomena “solely in terms of their economic determinants” and “tend to view all human behavior as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain’ (lines 85-98). This choice provides just such an economic explanation for the nineteenth-century rise in the cash
value of children.
A paraphrases Zelizer’s own explanation, which is at odds with that of the sociological economists.
C uses social values and emotional factors to explain an even broader revaluation of individual worth. D uses an economic argument to explain the change, but here the economic factors at work are the result of a change. E provides a legal explanation for the change.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) review the literature in a new academic sub-field
(B) present the central thesis of a recent book
(C) contrast two approaches to analyzing historical change
(D) refute a traditional explanation of a social phenomenon
(E) encourage further work on a neglected historical topic

Spoiler: :: OA
B

Spoiler: :: OE
B is the best answer.
In the first paragraph, the author contrasts two incidents that are said to exemplify the transformation in social values that forms the subject of Zelizer’s book. The second and third paragraphs consist of a brief history of that transformation, as Zelizer presents it, and an account of the factors she considers important in bringing it about. In the last paragraph, the author explains how Zelizer’s thesis differs from that of sociological economists. Thus, the passage serves primarily to present the central thesis of Zelizer’s book.
A and E misrepresent the subject matter of the passage. D mispresents the author’s approach. C is incorrect because although the passage does contrast two approaches, this contrast takes place only in the final paragraph.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements was true of American families over the course of the nineteenth century?

(A) The average size of families grew considerably.
(B) The percentage of families involved in industrial work declined dramatically.
(C) Family members became more emotionally bonded to one another.
(D) Family members spent an increasing amount of time working with each other.
(E) Family members became more economically dependent on each other.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

Spoiler: :: OE
C is the best answer.
In the third paragraph, the author cites Zelizer’s contention that the new view of childhood that developed in nineteenth-century America was due in part to “the development of the companionate family (a family in which members were united by explicit bonds of love rather than duty)”(lines 54-58). From this it can be inferred that the emotional bonds between family members became increasingly important during this period.
There are no information in the passage to support the other answer choices.

6. Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing the assessment of children’s worth EXCEPT changes in

(A) the mortality rate
(B) the nature of industry
(C) the nature of the family
(D) attitudes toward reform movements
(E) attitudes toward the marketplace

Spoiler: :: OA
D

Spoiler: :: OE
D is the best answer.
Although reform movements are mentioned in lines 39-45, the passage does not discuss attitudes or changes in attitudes toward those movements. This choice is therefore NOT among the influences Zelizer is said to regard as important in changing the assessment of children’s worth.
A, B and C are mentioned in lines 48-58 as factors Zelizer regards as “critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth”. E is mentioned in lines 70-80, which describe how the “sacralization” of children’s lives represented “a way of resisting what they <middle-class Americans> perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.”

7. Which of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage?

(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation

(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid jobs available to them

(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed to the relationship

(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions

(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents

Spoiler: :: OA
B




Please post OE for Q-7...
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New post 20 May 2019, 14:59
Question 3 made me hesitate a lot. I was ended up chosing correct answer. However, that was just a lucky guess.
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VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?
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New post Updated on: 20 Jun 2019, 22:17
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sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?


The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyse sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.
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Originally posted by VeritasKarishma on 17 Jun 2019, 23:14.
Last edited by VeritasKarishma on 20 Jun 2019, 22:17, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 18 Jun 2019, 01:50
Can some one please explain why option (B) is correct and option (D) is not; both the options reflect economic gain which is characteristic of critique of sociological economists?
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New post 19 Jun 2019, 14:02
VeritasKarishma wrote:
sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?


The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyses sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.


Thanks VeritasKarishma
Can you please explain how option D is correct in Question #6 ?
If people had not responded positively towards the reform movements and had not considered child labor as taboo , I don't think it would have caused changes in the assessment of children's worth.
Can you please throw some light ?
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TeePro2018 wrote:
Can some one please explain why option (B) is correct and option (D) is not; both the options reflect economic gain which is characteristic of critique of sociological economists?

For question 7, I assume?

Quote:
7. Which of the following would be most consistent with the practices of sociological economics as these practices are described in the passage?


We can infer the answer based on the details about sociological economics found in the last paragraph:
Quote:
In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s worth, Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new “sociological economics,” who have analyzed such traditionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, education, and health solely in terms of their economic determinants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to transform price. As children became more valuable in emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “surrender” value on the market, that is, the conversion of their intangible worth into cash terms, became much greater.


In other words, these new sociologists tend to think that behaviors are motivated mainly by economic gain, not by social or emotional or cultural values. Which answer choice is the best example of that behavior? As GMATNinja wrote, we should try to eliminate four wrong answers, not look for one right answer and fall in love with it.

Quote:
(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter the field because they believe it to be the most socially useful of any occupation

According to practitioners of "sociological economics," health care professionals would enter the field not because it's a socially useful occupation, but because it's the most economically (or monetarily) beneficial occupation. Eliminate.

Quote:
(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors that they believe will lead to the most highly paid jobs available to them

According to practitioners of "sociological economics," most college students would choose majors they believe will result in maximum economic gain, and they would not likely choose majors because of personal interest, altruism, or social or familial pressure. Keep for now.

Quote:
(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and divorce are based on rational assessments of the likelihood that each partner will remain committed to the relationship

According to practitioners of "sociological economics," most partners would make decisions about marriage and divorce based on what is most economically beneficial to the relationship or to its individuals. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that married partners' relationship commitment is influenced by wanting to maximize economic gain, or vice versa. Eliminate.

Quote:
(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled in colleges and universities as a function of changes in the economic health of these institutions

There is nothing in the passage to suggest that economic health of educational institutions is influenced by, or influences, maximizing economic gain. I suspect this answer is worded in a tricky way to make us confuse "economic health" with "economic gain," or to make us suspect that maximizing "economic gain" leads to "economic health," which then affects enrollment rates. According to practitioners of "sociological economics," perhaps most colleges and universities would offer popular classes that would lead to greater enrollment in order to maximize profit, but this answer choice does not reflect that motivation, so it is not the best answer for our question. Eliminate.

Quote:
(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get married as a function of a change in the average number of years that young people have lived away from their parents

This answer should be eliminated immediately because it has nothing to do with the question asked. I think it is an answer choice given to trick us into making unsupported logical leaps and assumptions in order to feel that this answer choice is okay, such as "Young people want to maximize economic gain, therefore they live with their parents longer and get married later, in order to make more profit." Eliminate.

We still have B, so that's the best answer to question 7.

Hope that helps.
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New post 20 Jun 2019, 23:22
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sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?


The cash value of children (without making any economic contribution) increased from 0 to 750k.
How would the sociological economists, who analyses sociological topics solely in terms of their economic determinants, explain this?

The children had made no economic contribution in either case but still their cash value increased. We know that there had been a "gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy,". Also, "reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws". So children did not have much monetary value.
Hence, their value in monetary terms could have increased because of their expected income increasing. Option (B) is a possible explanation.

Option (D) is not correct. Children's productive value was anyway reducing due to maturing economy. Also, there were child labour regulations brought into place. So child labour was becoming irrelevant. Only adults were providing the economic value. Hence, money offered for the 3 year old's death would not be because of the money he would bring in through child labour.


Thanks VeritasKarishma
Can you please explain how option D is correct in Question #6 ?
If people had not responded positively towards the reform movements and had not considered child labor as taboo , I don't think it would have caused changes in the assessment of children's worth.
Can you please throw some light ?


Focus on the question: Zelizer refers to all of the following as important influences in changing ...

We need to find the option that Zelizer did not mention. Zelizer refers to the other 4 options explicitly.

(A) the mortality rate
the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child mortality,

(B) the nature of industry
The gradual erosion of children’s productive value in a maturing industrial economy... clearly shaped by profound changes in the economic, occupational, and family structures ...

(C) the nature of the family
the development of the companionate family

(E) attitudes toward the marketplace
this sacralization was a way of resisting what they perceived as the relentless corruption of human values by the marketplace.
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New post 27 Jun 2019, 14:03
Sorry, I'm late to the party yet again, and I think VeritasKarishma already covered this really, really nicely. But just in case my two cents help somebody...

sayan640 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
In question 3 , why is option D incorrect and option B the correct answer ?

Question #3 asks which answer choice would likely be put forward by the "sociological economists" discussed in the passage. In the last paragraph, we learn that these economists "tend to view all human behaviors as directed primarily by the principle of maximizing economic gain." This is contrasted with Zizeler's view, which emphasizes instead "the power of social values to transform price."

Let's first take a look at answer choice (B):
Quote:
(B) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because their expected earnings over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.

This answer choice directly ties the rising cash value of children to the "principle of maximizing economic gain." As their expected lifetime earnings increase, so does their cash value. This purely economic view of the value of children is right in line with the beliefs of the sociological economists. (B) is the correct answer.

Now look at (D):
Quote:
(D) The cash value of children rose during the nineteenth century because compulsory education laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs, of available child labor.

On a surface level, this answer choice also seems to emphasize economic factors to explain the increase in the value of children -- supply of child labor decreased, so the cost of that labor increased.

However, (D) identifies another factor as the root cause of this economic situation: "compulsory education laws." Remember, sociological economists believe that all human behavior tends to be directed by the desire to maximize economic gain. So, from their perspective, the "compulsory education laws" must also have been put into place in order to maximize economic gain! There is just no evidence to suggest that this is true -- if anything, it is more likely that these laws were a result of changing social values, which in turn would increase the price of the remaining available child labor. This is more in line with Zelizer's argument against the sociological economists' views. (D) is out.

I hope that helps!
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