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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through

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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2017, 02:06
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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT

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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2017, 18:25
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Conclusion: Kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning.

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group. - Incorrect. Irrelevant.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above. - Correct. x + Kinesthesia is required for maze learning. So, Kinesthesia alone is not sufficient for maze learning.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place. - Incorrect. We are checking whether Kinesthesia is sufficient, not whether rats were more reliant on Kinesthesia.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out. - Incorrect. Opposite.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable. - Out of focus. This option is more concerned on finding the 2nd source responsible for sensory stimulation.

Answer: B
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2017, 14:08
broall wrote:
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT


E. While B and E both mention that two senses are required, B is doubtful whereas E conclusively says, based on the data.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2017, 23:09
broall wrote:
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT


Kinesthesia hasn't been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning.

-->

Kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning.

What's the problem? Something not being irrelevant doesn't make it sufficient. If you have a buddy who can never wake up on time, what is sufficient for his waking up? 1. His alarm clock goes off. 2. He isn't hungover or exhausted from playing video games all night. 3. He doesn't just ignore the alarm clock. We'd say his alarm clock actually going off is not irrelevant to his getting up--it may be necessary--but that doesn't make it sufficient. All sorts of other things have to happen for him to wake up.

The same thing is true here. (B) captures the difference between kinesthesia being possibly necessary versus it's being sufficient. Even if the mice need it for maze-learning, maybe they need something else, too. The experiment doesn't give us enough to know what else is required.

(A) is irrelevant.
(C) is also irrelevant. We aren't concerned with how it takes place.
(D) is wrong because it's actually not determined by the study that rats can maze-learn by kinesthesia alone. And the rest of (D) is irrelevant.
(E) is tricky. It takes the lack of knowledge that kinesthesia is sufficient and turns it into knowledge that kinesthesia is insufficient. We don't know whether kinesthesia is sufficient or not. (E) tells us that we do.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 05:52
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.
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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 04:02
srinjoy1990 wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.

E goes against the premise that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning. the data doesn't suggest that additional sources are required it tells us that we can't rule out the possibility that kinesthesia combibed with such sources yields the results obtained.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 06:26
srinjoy1990 wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.


Choice B is the correct answer as it shows that kinesthesia is not sufficient for maze learning. Maze learning requires some other sense with kinesthesia.

E It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.
E is very tricky statement. This statement mentions that maze learning depends on at least two senses. This takes it for granted that there are more than two sensory inputs. Thus it changes the scope of the argument.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through &nbs [#permalink] 24 Jul 2018, 06:26
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