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# In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of

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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2017, 02:06
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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT

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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2017, 18:25
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Question Type: Weaken

Conclusion: Kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning.

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group. - Incorrect. Irrelevant.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above. - Correct. x + Kinesthesia is required for maze learning. So, Kinesthesia alone is not sufficient for maze learning.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place. - Incorrect. We are checking whether Kinesthesia is sufficient, not whether rats were more reliant on Kinesthesia.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out. - Incorrect. Opposite.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable. - Out of focus. This option is more concerned on finding the 2nd source responsible for sensory stimulation.

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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2017, 14:08
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broall wrote:
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT

E. While B and E both mention that two senses are required, B is doubtful whereas E conclusively says, based on the data.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2017, 23:09
broall wrote:
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT

Kinesthesia hasn't been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning.

-->

Kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning.

What's the problem? Something not being irrelevant doesn't make it sufficient. If you have a buddy who can never wake up on time, what is sufficient for his waking up? 1. His alarm clock goes off. 2. He isn't hungover or exhausted from playing video games all night. 3. He doesn't just ignore the alarm clock. We'd say his alarm clock actually going off is not irrelevant to his getting up--it may be necessary--but that doesn't make it sufficient. All sorts of other things have to happen for him to wake up.

The same thing is true here. (B) captures the difference between kinesthesia being possibly necessary versus it's being sufficient. Even if the mice need it for maze-learning, maybe they need something else, too. The experiment doesn't give us enough to know what else is required.

(A) is irrelevant.
(C) is also irrelevant. We aren't concerned with how it takes place.
(D) is wrong because it's actually not determined by the study that rats can maze-learn by kinesthesia alone. And the rest of (D) is irrelevant.
(E) is tricky. It takes the lack of knowledge that kinesthesia is sufficient and turns it into knowledge that kinesthesia is insufficient. We don't know whether kinesthesia is sufficient or not. (E) tells us that we do.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2018, 05:52
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2018, 04:02
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srinjoy1990 wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.

E goes against the premise that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning. the data doesn't suggest that additional sources are required it tells us that we can't rule out the possibility that kinesthesia combibed with such sources yields the results obtained.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2018, 06:26
srinjoy1990 wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.

Choice B is the correct answer as it shows that kinesthesia is not sufficient for maze learning. Maze learning requires some other sense with kinesthesia.

E It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.
E is very tricky statement. This statement mentions that maze learning depends on at least two senses. This takes it for granted that there are more than two sensory inputs. Thus it changes the scope of the argument.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2019, 07:04
arvind910619 wrote:
srinjoy1990 wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between B and E?

Tx, Srinjoy.

Choice B is the correct answer as it shows that kinesthesia is not sufficient for maze learning. Maze learning requires some other sense with kinesthesia.

E It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.
E is very tricky statement. This statement mentions that maze learning depends on at least two senses. This takes it for granted that there are more than two sensory inputs. Thus it changes the scope of the argument.

Since when is outside information a factor when deciding why to disregard weakening answer choices? Talking about E)
I dont think your reasoning is right to eliminate it based on this argumentation.
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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2020, 00:34
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

Weaken question

Pre-thinking

What if another element is required? What if a particular environment is required for maze learning?

POE:

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.
Irrelevant

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.
Correct

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.
Irrelevant

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.
Irrelevant

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.
I believe here the problem is with the usage of depends on. While maze learning can depend on 2 sources of sensory stimulations, it is not clear whether such sources are both required....... @skywaler18 What do you think?
Source: LSAT
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In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2020, 00:03
1

In the above question, the main confusion is between two options, B and E.
Could you please check if my reasoning to eliminate option E correct?

In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable. -->From the above stem, it could not be determined that it depends on two sources, all that is mentioned is kinesthesia is sufficient.
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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2020, 20:18
1
broall wrote:
In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of the rats were blind, others deaf, others lacked a sense of smell, and others had no sensory deficiencies; yet all the rats learned the task in much the same amount of time. Of the senses other than sight, hearing, and smell, only kinesthesia had not previously been shown to be irrelevant to maze-learning. The researcher concluded on the basis of these facts that kinesthesia, the sensation of bodily movement, is sufficient for maze-learning.

The researcher’s reasoning is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

Source: LSAT

Rats with a sensory deficiency (of sight, hearing or smell) and others with no deficiency learned in same time.
Sight, hearing, smell and kinesthesia are relevant to maze learning.

Conclusion: Kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning.

Since rats with some deficiency learnt just like rats with no deficiency, the argument says that sight, hearing and smell are not necessary for maze learning, that kinesthesia is sufficient.

We need to weaken this.

(A) The small differences in proficiency found by the researcher did not appear to fall into a systematic pattern by group.

There was no pattern for diff in proficiency. So we cannot say that any one deficiency cause decrease in proficiency.

(B) The possibility that the interaction of kinesthesia with at least one other sense is required for maze-learning cannot be ruled out on the basis of the data above.

Correct. We cannot rule out the possibility that kinesthesia and at least one other sense (or two) are required for maze learning. Then kinesthesia may not be sufficient. The experiment does not include rats that have just kinesthesia and no other relevant sense. It is possible that at least one other sense is needed along with kinesthesia.

(C) It can be determined from the data that rats who are deprived of one of their sources of sensory stimulation become more reliant on kinesthesia than they had been, but the data do not indicate how such a transference takes place.

This doesn't weaken our argument that kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning. It could explain why kinesthesia is sufficient.

(D) It can be determined from the data that rats can learn to run mazes by depending on kinesthesia alone, but the possibility that rats respond to nonkinesthetic stimulation is not ruled out.

We don't care about nonkinesthetic stimulation. Our argument is this - kinesthesia is sufficient for maze learning. The argument is not concerned with nonkinesthetic stimulation.

(E) It can be determined from the data that maze-learning in rats depends on at least two sources of sensory stimulation, one of which is kinesthesia, but which of the remaining sources must also be employed is not determinable.

The data does not say that at least two sources of stimulation are needed. It also doesn't say that there is a definitive second source. The data shows that rats with one sense missing perform as we'll as rats with no sense missing. How many of the other senses are used, it doesn't say. The data shows that sight, smell and hearing are not independently necessary. It is possible that kinesthesia is sufficient. It is possible that kinesthesia and one other sense are needed. It is also possible that kinesthesia and two other senses are needed.
The argument concludes that kinesthesia alone is sufficient. But it doesn't consider that kinesthesia along with one (or two) other sense might be performing well together. And that is why option (B) is correct.

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Re: In a learning experiment a researcher ran rats through a maze. Some of   [#permalink] 09 Feb 2020, 20:18