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# In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb

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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Jul 2018, 06:48
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Question 1
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60% (02:59) correct 40% (02:48) wrong

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Question 2
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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces.

Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?

(A) They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
(B) They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
(C) Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
(D) Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
(E) They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
(B) account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
(C) provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
(D) explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
(E) present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

3. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

(A) Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
(B) Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
(C) Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
(D) Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
(E) The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

Originally posted by eybrj2 on 22 Apr 2012, 16:56.
Last edited by hazelnut on 07 Jul 2018, 06:48, edited 4 times in total.
OA updated
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2014, 13:33
5
Let's break down the question first and then turn to the passage:

samsmalldog wrote:
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

The question is asking us to look at a specific claim made by the author. We need to undermine this claim made in the last sentence. The author thinks that the pueblo society had an unequal distribution of wealth. So let's go look at the sentence to learn more:

samsmalldog wrote:
Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.

We can see that the author's idea is based on burial places. Some people were buried with a lot of stuff and some people weren't. The author thinks that the stuff buried with the person belonged to that person. We need to find a piece of evidence that either shows that the stuff was not their personal possession, or some other reason that some people were buried with stuff and some people were not.

Let's take a look at the answer choices:

samsmalldog wrote:
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

Only one answer choice gives us what we are looking for.

Answer choice A supports the author's idea so we can eliminate it.

Answer choice B is a close runner up because it provides evidence of a wealthy person who is not buried with stuff. Answer choice B only gives us a reason to doubt that a wealthy person wasn't buried with their stuff. It does not undermine the idea that there was a distribution of wealth in the society. It does not undermine the author's statement as well as another answer choice.

Answer choice C is completely unrelated. We are not concerned with where things were made. The author's theory has nothing to do with the location of origin for these objects.

Answer choice D is pretty good at undermining the author's point. It provides evidence that the objects that people were buried with were not their own. If it isn't their stuff then it becomes very difficult to support the idea that their was a distribution of wealth in these societies. The author would have to look elsewhere to support this idea.

Answer choice E is all about the quality of the objects. Like answer choice C, this has no bearing on the author's point and does nothing to undermine the argument. The quality of the objects is not under discussion.

I hope this helps. Let me know if I can be more clear!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2013, 07:48

My Pick:

1) D

2) C

Cheers
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 10:33
2
2
Please attached screenshot for RC passage.

I think this is a howler from GMATPrep and the answer is wrong. Now I am not of those who question GMAC for their questionable answer choices but this one does not go well with me at all. I am taking my chances.

Attachments

File comment: I have selected the correct answer choice as per my deliberation.

RC Passage.png [ 464.96 KiB | Viewed 9617 times ]

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 17:36
1
I'd have to answer E on this one. It's certainly not obvious, but the phrase "such apparently communal spaces" is the only relevant clue in the passage.

Thoughts?
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 20:24
WillEconomistGMAT wrote:
I'd have to answer E on this one. It's certainly not obvious, but the phrase "such apparently communal spaces" is the only relevant clue in the passage.

Thoughts?

Hi,

I would like to take your attention towards the parenthesized bit : large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas [underground ceremonial chambers]

It says explicitly here that these chambers were used for ceremonial purposes. Why not B is the right answer then. And there were practical uses for these chambers too when they stored in them.

Thanks,
Vaibhav.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2013, 16:35
1
1
vabhs192003 wrote:
WillEconomistGMAT wrote:
I'd have to answer E on this one. It's certainly not obvious, but the phrase "such apparently communal spaces" is the only relevant clue in the passage.

Thoughts?

Hi,

I would like to take your attention towards the parenthesized bit : large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas [underground ceremonial chambers]

It says explicitly here that these chambers were used for ceremonial purposes. Why not B is the right answer then. And there were practical uses for these chambers too when they stored in them.

Thanks,
Vaibhav.

Notice that the storage spaces are located around the Great Kivas, and the chambers themselves, not the storage spaces, were used for ceremonial purposes.

Close, careful reading is very important on these higher difficulty-level problems.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2013, 17:03
2
1. E
In the passage states that, That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas. Also passage states that Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food.
2. C
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2013, 17:05
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.
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MGMAT SC SUMMARY: http://gmatclub.com/forum/mgmat-sc-summary-of-fourth-edition-152753.html

Sentence Correction: http://gmatclub.com/forum/sentence-correction-strategies-and-notes-91218.html

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2013, 10:52
eybrj2 wrote:
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
Q) According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
B. account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
C. provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
D. explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
E. present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

Why not E?

I correct myself E and C
Anybody wants to provide OA?

Cheers
J
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2014, 04:01
1
monirjewel wrote:
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

D looks fine. In the passage, the author suggests that difference in burial artifacts is derived from difference in distribution of wealth. This finding, if true, will weaken the argument of the author by suggesting that the difference in burial artifacts is due to religious factors rather than possessions :D
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2014, 04:03
jlgdr wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
Q) According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
B. account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
C. provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
D. explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
E. present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation

Why not E?

I correct myself E and C
Anybody wants to provide OA?

Cheers
J

OA is E and C, according to GMATprep. Congrat
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2014, 19:28
2
1
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.

Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage(lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2014, 21:41
Sorry for the late reply. Your explanation is full and excellent. This is a typical Weaken question, Kudos for you!

KevinRocci wrote:
Let's break down the question first and then turn to the passage:

samsmalldog wrote:
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

The question is asking us to look at a specific claim made by the author. We need to undermine this claim made in the last sentence. The author thinks that the pueblo society had an unequal distribution of wealth. So let's go look at the sentence to learn more:

samsmalldog wrote:
Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.

We can see that the author's idea is based on burial places. Some people were buried with a lot of stuff and some people weren't. The author thinks that the stuff buried with the person belonged to that person. We need to find a piece of evidence that either shows that the stuff was not their personal possession, or some other reason that some people were buried with stuff and some people were not.

Let's take a look at the answer choices:

samsmalldog wrote:
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

Only one answer choice gives us what we are looking for.

Answer choice A supports the author's idea so we can eliminate it.

Answer choice B is a close runner up because it provides evidence of a wealthy person who is not buried with stuff. Answer choice B only gives us a reason to doubt that a wealthy person wasn't buried with their stuff. It does not undermine the idea that there was a distribution of wealth in the society. It does not undermine the author's statement as well as another answer choice.

Answer choice C is completely unrelated. We are not concerned with where things were made. The author's theory has nothing to do with the location of origin for these objects.

Answer choice D is pretty good at undermining the author's point. It provides evidence that the objects that people were buried with were not their own. If it isn't their stuff then it becomes very difficult to support the idea that their was a distribution of wealth in these societies. The author would have to look elsewhere to support this idea.

Answer choice E is all about the quality of the objects. Like answer choice C, this has no bearing on the author's point and does nothing to undermine the argument. The quality of the objects is not under discussion.

I hope this helps. Let me know if I can be more clear!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2014, 10:56
Yes!! Nailed it, thanks buddy!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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15 May 2014, 18:33
Missed this one on the first go-around and had to read the passage 3 times to understand what the question was asking. These GMAT passages are tough!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2015, 04:00
Nice passage. Took 3 minutes.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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12 May 2015, 02:55
Yes the storage spaces were located "around" underground ceremonial chambers. So, it suggests that the storage spaces themselves did not have any ceremonial function.

Hence, B is out.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2015, 00:13
1
1
eybrj2 wrote:
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.

I can't understand logic of this question:

B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
Passage says "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers)" - so this answer is wrong because this storage spaces only near and this position doesn't make them ceremonial.

D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
Passage says "Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food" - so this is wrong because there no direct evidences of food storaging

E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.
About this passage says two things: "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas" - so if we use logic from answer B then this is incorrect answer too, because this storage spaces only near some comunal space but this position doesn't make them communal.
Second, the passage says "their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces."
But here is a problem because "apparently" means "You use apparently to refer to something that seems to be true, although you are not sure whether it is or not." (according to CollinsCobuild dictionary). Therefore "apparently" it's like possibly and we again can't say exactly that this is comunal space.
So why it is correct answer?
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb  [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2016, 07:55
minsoo464 wrote:
The passage says "Though no direct evidence exists that such space were used for....populations could have preserved necessary extra food..."
As you can see, these two bold lines show that storage spaces could have served practical functions, but not necessarily.

That doesn't matter because the question only requires that the answer is "probably true".
There is also no concrete evidence that the spaces belonged to and were used by the whole community.

I thought that B and E were equally sufficient answers. Another poorly designed question. Sigh...
Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueb &nbs [#permalink] 14 Feb 2016, 07:55

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