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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem

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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2019, 23:41
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In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces.

Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?

(A) They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
(B) They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
(C) Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
(D) Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
(E) They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.



2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) outline the methods by which resources were managed within a particular group of communities
(B) account for the distribution of wealth within a particular group of communities
(C) provide support for a hypothesis concerning the social structure of a particular society
(D) explain how political leadership changed in a particular historical situation
(E) present new evidence that contradicts previous theories about a particular historical situation



3. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

(A) Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
(B) Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
(C) Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
(D) Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
(E) The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.



Originally posted by eybrj2 on 22 Apr 2012, 17:56.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 13 Aug 2019, 23:41, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (134).
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2014, 14:33
8
Let's break down the question first and then turn to the passage:

samsmalldog wrote:
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?


The question is asking us to look at a specific claim made by the author. We need to undermine this claim made in the last sentence. The author thinks that the pueblo society had an unequal distribution of wealth. So let's go look at the sentence to learn more:

samsmalldog wrote:
Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.


We can see that the author's idea is based on burial places. Some people were buried with a lot of stuff and some people weren't. The author thinks that the stuff buried with the person belonged to that person. We need to find a piece of evidence that either shows that the stuff was not their personal possession, or some other reason that some people were buried with stuff and some people were not.

Let's take a look at the answer choices:

samsmalldog wrote:
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.


Only one answer choice gives us what we are looking for.

Answer choice A supports the author's idea so we can eliminate it.

Answer choice B is a close runner up because it provides evidence of a wealthy person who is not buried with stuff. Answer choice B only gives us a reason to doubt that a wealthy person wasn't buried with their stuff. It does not undermine the idea that there was a distribution of wealth in the society. It does not undermine the author's statement as well as another answer choice.

Answer choice C is completely unrelated. We are not concerned with where things were made. The author's theory has nothing to do with the location of origin for these objects.

Answer choice D is pretty good at undermining the author's point. It provides evidence that the objects that people were buried with were not their own. If it isn't their stuff then it becomes very difficult to support the idea that their was a distribution of wealth in these societies. The author would have to look elsewhere to support this idea.

Answer choice E is all about the quality of the objects. Like answer choice C, this has no bearing on the author's point and does nothing to undermine the argument. The quality of the objects is not under discussion.

I hope this helps. Let me know if I can be more clear! :)
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2013, 21:24
WillEconomistGMAT wrote:
I'd have to answer E on this one. It's certainly not obvious, but the phrase "such apparently communal spaces" is the only relevant clue in the passage.

Thoughts?


Hi,

I would like to take your attention towards the parenthesized bit : large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas [underground ceremonial chambers]

It says explicitly here that these chambers were used for ceremonial purposes. Why not B is the right answer then. And there were practical uses for these chambers too when they stored in them.


Thanks,
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2013, 17:35
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vabhs192003 wrote:
WillEconomistGMAT wrote:
I'd have to answer E on this one. It's certainly not obvious, but the phrase "such apparently communal spaces" is the only relevant clue in the passage.

Thoughts?


Hi,

I would like to take your attention towards the parenthesized bit : large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas [underground ceremonial chambers]

It says explicitly here that these chambers were used for ceremonial purposes. Why not B is the right answer then. And there were practical uses for these chambers too when they stored in them.


Thanks,
Vaibhav.


Notice that the storage spaces are located around the Great Kivas, and the chambers themselves, not the storage spaces, were used for ceremonial purposes.

Close, careful reading is very important on these higher difficulty-level problems.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2013, 18:03
2
1. E
In the passage states that, That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas. Also passage states that Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food.
2. C
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2013, 18:05
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2014, 05:01
1
monirjewel wrote:
Another Q related to this passage....
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author's statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased's personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.


D looks fine. In the passage, the author suggests that difference in burial artifacts is derived from difference in distribution of wealth. This finding, if true, will weaken the argument of the author by suggesting that the difference in burial artifacts is due to religious factors rather than possessions :D
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2014, 20:28
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1
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlements in what is now the southwestern United Line States may have possessed distinctly hierarchical organizational structures. These communities' agricultural systems-which were "intensive" in the use of labor rather than "extensive" in area-may have given rise to political leadership that managed both labor and food resources. That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located
around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces. Moreover, evidence of specialization in producing raw materials and in manufacturing ceramics and textiles indicates differentiation of labor within and between communities. The organizational and managerial demands of such specialization strengthen the possibility that a decision-making elite existed, an elite whose control over labor, the use of community surpluses, and the acquisition of imported goods would have led to a concentration of economic resources in their own hands. Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.

Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage(lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?

A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.

Please make a discussion and explain the answer.

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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2014, 22:41
Sorry for the late reply. Your explanation is full and excellent. This is a typical Weaken question, Kudos for you! :)

KevinRocci wrote:
Let's break down the question first and then turn to the passage:

samsmalldog wrote:
Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the author’s statement in the last sentence of the passage (lines 38-43) regarding the distribution of wealth in Western Pueblo settlements?


The question is asking us to look at a specific claim made by the author. We need to undermine this claim made in the last sentence. The author thinks that the pueblo society had an unequal distribution of wealth. So let's go look at the sentence to learn more:

samsmalldog wrote:
Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials.


We can see that the author's idea is based on burial places. Some people were buried with a lot of stuff and some people weren't. The author thinks that the stuff buried with the person belonged to that person. We need to find a piece of evidence that either shows that the stuff was not their personal possession, or some other reason that some people were buried with stuff and some people were not.

Let's take a look at the answer choices:

samsmalldog wrote:
A. Only community members of exceptional wealth are likely to have been buried with their personal possessions.
B. Members of communities with extensive agricultural systems are usually buried without personal possessions.
C. Most artifacts found in burial sites were manufactured locally rather than imported from other communities.
D. Burial artifacts are often ritual objects associated with religious practices rather than being the deceased’s personal possessions.
E. The quality of burial artifacts varies depending on the site with which they are associated.


Only one answer choice gives us what we are looking for.

Answer choice A supports the author's idea so we can eliminate it.

Answer choice B is a close runner up because it provides evidence of a wealthy person who is not buried with stuff. Answer choice B only gives us a reason to doubt that a wealthy person wasn't buried with their stuff. It does not undermine the idea that there was a distribution of wealth in the society. It does not undermine the author's statement as well as another answer choice.

Answer choice C is completely unrelated. We are not concerned with where things were made. The author's theory has nothing to do with the location of origin for these objects.

Answer choice D is pretty good at undermining the author's point. It provides evidence that the objects that people were buried with were not their own. If it isn't their stuff then it becomes very difficult to support the idea that their was a distribution of wealth in these societies. The author would have to look elsewhere to support this idea.

Answer choice E is all about the quality of the objects. Like answer choice C, this has no bearing on the author's point and does nothing to undermine the argument. The quality of the objects is not under discussion.

I hope this helps. Let me know if I can be more clear! :)
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2015, 01:13
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eybrj2 wrote:
A. They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
C. Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.


I can't understand logic of this question:

B. They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
Passage says "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers)" - so this answer is wrong because this storage spaces only near and this position doesn't make them ceremonial.

D. Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
Passage says "Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food" - so this is wrong because there no direct evidences of food storaging

E. They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.
About this passage says two things: "storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas" - so if we use logic from answer B then this is incorrect answer too, because this storage spaces only near some comunal space but this position doesn't make them communal.
Second, the passage says "their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces."
But here is a problem because "apparently" means "You use apparently to refer to something that seems to be true, although you are not sure whether it is or not." (according to CollinsCobuild dictionary). Therefore "apparently" it's like possibly and we again can't say exactly that this is comunal space.
So why it is correct answer?
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2016, 08:55
minsoo464 wrote:
The passage says "Though no direct evidence exists that such space were used for....populations could have preserved necessary extra food..."
As you can see, these two bold lines show that storage spaces could have served practical functions, but not necessarily.


That doesn't matter because the question only requires that the answer is "probably true".
There is also no concrete evidence that the spaces belonged to and were used by the whole community.

I thought that B and E were equally sufficient answers. Another poorly designed question. Sigh...
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2016, 09:05
The official answer to the third question ("D") is horrible too. It seems to be based on the assumption that only some people were buried with possessions because only they belonged to a particular religion. It seems quite a stretch, and there is no evidence in the passage to support the assumption that there was more than one religion active in this small community (and frankly this seems highly unlikely that this would have happened at all in this period of history. We're not talking about 21st century New York!)
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2016, 01:10
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-The author is seeking to prove the existence of some sort of hierarchy in a certain society and is providing examples to justify the same
Took 5 mins in total , including 2 mins to read


1. "That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas"
The above clearly indicate that the food stored in the storage spaces was used by the community as a whole and not by a select few. Hence option (E) is the right answer.

2. Answer C

3. "Evidence for differential distribution of wealth is found in burials of the period: some include large quantities of pottery, jewelry, and other artifacts, whereas others from the same sites lack any such materials."

The author states that artifacts that one is buried with indicate the societal position of the deceased person. The argument would be most weakened if it were proved that the deceased person had not connection with the objects that he was buried with.

Answer D
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New post 29 Jul 2018, 05:30
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I am confused between B and E and I marked as B as in the passage, the author mentions ceremonial .blah blah..

plz guide

1. According to the passage, which of the following is probably true of the storage spaces mentioned in line 14?

(A) They were used by the community elite for storage of their own food supplies.
(B) They served a ceremonial as well as a practical function.
(C) Their size is an indication of the wealth of the particular community to which they belonged.
(D) Their existence proves that the community to which they belonged imported large amounts of food.
(E) They belonged to and were used by the community as a whole.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2018, 15:31
saumya12 wrote:
Yes the storage spaces were located "around" underground ceremonial chambers. So, it suggests that the storage spaces themselves did not have any ceremonial function.

Hence, B is out.



Can someone explain how this logic doesn't also apply to whether the storage spaces were communal? Because it is applying "communal" directly to the great Kivas in the same way that it is applying "ceremonial" to the great Kivas. If I were to be consistent, it seems that neither "communal" nor "ceremonial" should apply to the spaces around the Kivas, since both are talking about the Kivas (the underground chambers, that are both ceremonial and communal) themselves, not the space around them.

plz halp, it's not often I get a RC question wrong.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2018, 12:55
i posted my query in july but no revert
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New post 25 Oct 2018, 13:09
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Hey saurabh9gupta,

(B) can be eliminated because while the storage spaces were practical, there is no indication that they were "ceremonial". The word "ceremonial" in the passage refers not to the storage spaces, but to the Kivas that they are located next to.

(E) is clearly supported since the author uses the word "communal" to refer to the storage spaces, indicating that they were used by the whole community.
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New post 25 Oct 2018, 17:15
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saurabh9gupta wrote:
i posted my query in july but no revert


Hello saurabh9gupta

Please tag an expert when you post an query ( e.g., workout , GMATNinja etc) . As sometimes the posts gets lost amidst thousands others.

Thanks a bunch LauraOrion for addressing saurabh9gupta 's query.
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2018, 19:15
For those who are confused between option B and E for the Q1, please read the following. It may help clarify your doubts!

The passage states: "That formal management of food resources was needed is suggested by the large size of storage spaces located around some communal Great Kivas (underground ceremonial chambers). Though no direct evidence exists that such spaces were used to store food, Western Pueblo communities lacking sufficient arable land to support their populations could have preserved the necessary extra food, including imported foodstuffs, in such apparently communal spaces."

Option B can be eliminated because the first bold part mentions that the storage spaces were located around the communal Great Kivas. In terms of SC, the word communal is actually modifying the Great Kivas, not the storage spaces. Just because the storage spaces were found around the communal Great Kivas, it doesn't necessarily mean that storage spaces were communal themselves. In simpler terms, if I were to say that the shirt located right next to an oxford shirt is red, it doesn't mean that the red shirt itself is an oxford. It could be a checkered shirt. Hence, why B can be eliminated!

Option E on the other hand we can clearly infer because of the second bold part. It says that the even though there is no direct evidence that such storage spaces were used to store food, Western population could have preserved the extra food in such apparently communal (storage) spaces.

Hope this helps!
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2018, 13:46
3/3 5 minutes total. My reasoning:

P1) discusses hypothetical political structure of a society back then where elite control food + labor

P2) Further show why the hypothesis is true

1) The passage states that the storage spaces were located right by communal areas, hence the answer E

2) Based on our passage summary above, the passage is clearly about a hypothesis and showing why it could be true. Answer C

3) All other choices outside of D are either strengtheners or irrelevant. In the case of D, if the items buried were for ceremonial purposes and did not belong to the wealthy individuals it could mean that there was no wealth gap, hence D
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Re: In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many Western Pueblo settlem   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2018, 13:46

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