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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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New post Updated on: 08 Oct 2018, 16:03
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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

Progress and Barbarism: World in the Twentieth Century
Hardcover – Import, 1998

Attachment:
01.png
01.png [ 164.02 KiB | Viewed 3093 times ]


Major Cities

(A) CORRECT

(B) Verb (provided)

(C) Verb (had been, was still being)

(D) Modifier / Meaning (having)

(E) Verb (had been)


First glance

The parallel marker but is just before the underline. Should the underlined part of the sentence start with electricity or something else?

Issues

(1) Verb: provided; had been; was still being

Compare the answers vertically; various verb tenses change.

(A) electricity was in homes, where lighting was still provided by candles…

(B) electricity was in homes and lighting still provided by candles…

(C) there had been less…where lighting was still being provided by candles…

(D) there was less… having lighting that was still provided by candles…

(E) less than 1 percent had electricity, where lighting had still been provided by candles…

Answer (B) is missing the verb was before provided. It should read: lighting was provided by candles.

Answers (C) and (E) use past perfect (had been). Past perfect can be used only when the sentence also has another past event that took place later in time than the past perfect event.

In the case of answer (C), the had been event took place at the same time as the was provided event, so the two events should be in the same tense. The reasoning is the same for answer (E): the had event took place at the same time as the had been provided event, so they should employ the same tense. (Note that had, by itself, is simple past. Had becomes past perfect only when paired with a past participle, such as had provided.)

Eliminate answers (B), (C), and (E).

(2) Modifier / Meaning: having

Answers (A), (C), and (E) all use where to start the modifier; answer (D) uses having. (Answer (B) changes that part of the structure completely.)

Where was lighting still provided mainly by candles or gas? In the homes. The where modifier in answers (A) and (B) clearly points to the homes. In answer (E), the where could be interpreted as pointing to the noun just before the comma: electricity. This, of course, is not the right location. The Official Guide explanation does not address this point, so it’s unclear whether the test writers would consider this acceptable. Therefore, call this “suspicious” and avoid this choice unless there is no better option. Eliminate answers (A) and (B) and put a question mark next to (E).

Answer (D) uses the comma -ing modifier structure there was less than 1 percent…, having lighting. A comma -ing modifier refers to the main subject and verb of the clause to which it’s attached; in this case, the having modifier refers to there was. It should be referring to the homes, so eliminate answer (D).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (A) uses the same verb tense (was, was provided) to talk about two past events that occurred at the same time. The where modifier correctly refers to homes.

Originally posted by yavasani on 01 Jul 2008, 03:31.
Last edited by hazelnut on 08 Oct 2018, 16:03, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 10:57
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maybeam wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


plz explain the ans and throw some light on why E is wrong?




Here we go...

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still --------- "where" is modifying adjacent "homes", keep it
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still --------- " Lighting" was trying to modify "home" but "and" spoiled it
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ------- "where" cannot modify "electricity"
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still ------ use of "had electricity, having lighting that was still" is grammatically incorrect
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been -------- "where" cannot modify "electricity"

Hence A ("where" can be used to identify a places only)

HTH
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New post 26 Jul 2008, 23:53
1
IMO A

nmohindru wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century , important public places such as theaters , restaurants, shops and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes , where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas

A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes , where lighting was still
B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still (need was after still)C) there were less then one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being (use of being is wrong)
D) there was less then one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still (has had which cannot be since the first activity in the ununderlined portion already has had; also there was is the wrong subject verb agreementE) less than one percent of homes had electricity , where lighting had still been
(wrong past perfect construction)

The un-underlined portion of the sentence has "had" (.........banks had installed electric). Hence this sentence has to have the correct past perfect construction. had in the first activity means that the second activity has to have a simple past tese and only in A. do we see the simple past tense.
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New post 18 Dec 2014, 05:49
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1
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century,
important
public placessuch as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks
had installed electric lighting , but
electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where
lighting was still
provided mainly by candles or gas.

IC comma+but IC.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
>>verb missing in lighting and intended meaning is changed by separating electricity and lighting.
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
>> Note: "where" here points to homes not electricity so that's fine.
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
>> incorrect use of -ing participle.
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

Between A and C:
Is the only issue with C is "being"? Request others to share the pointers...
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New post 18 Dec 2014, 15:31
2
maybeam wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


plz explain the ans and throw some light on why E is wrong?


E has two problems
1. where is modifying electricity when it should modify homes
2. every clause has perfect tense and hence does not maintain sequence of events.
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New post 21 Dec 2014, 19:50
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


Hi All, My only confusion is between A and C. A looks like passive construction and hence destroys the parallel construction of the sentence where the part before "but" is in active construction. Also, the part after "but" should preferably be an independent clause and hence a construction starting with "There" is better.

I think C is correct as, the part after "but" starts with "There" and looks like a complete independent clause, able making meaning of its own. Also, the modifier is not incorrectly placed as the part after "Where" is secondary modifier to "Homes" and doesn't require Touch Rule.

Somebody please respond to my explanation, as to where I am wrong. Thanks in advance for your valuable input.


I may be wrong, but its fine................ I am still learning :)
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New post 21 Dec 2014, 21:34
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Hi Kaushik,

1) Usage of being is wrong in C. For details check out http://gmatclub.com/forum/correct-usage-of-being-123156.html

2) Here where is used as a relative pronoun so it should be immediately after homes[noun] rather than electricity[noun]
For details check out https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/645/01/

3)
important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting
electricity was in less than one percent of homes
there were less than one percent of homes with electricity


All three of the above sentences have subject and verb so they should be independent sentences.



Let me know if I am going wrong somewhere.


crazykaushik wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


Hi All, My only confusion is between A and C. A looks like passive construction and hence destroys the parallel construction of the sentence where the part before "but" is in active construction. Also, the part after "but" should preferably be an independent clause and hence a construction starting with "There" is better.

I think C is correct as, the part after "but" starts with "There" and looks like a complete independent clause, able making meaning of its own. Also, the modifier is not incorrectly placed as the part after "Where" is secondary modifier to "Homes" and doesn't require Touch Rule.

Somebody please respond to my explanation, as to where I am wrong. Thanks in advance for your valuable input.


I may be wrong, but its fine................ I am still learning :)

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New post 07 May 2015, 12:10
souvik101990 wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


uuh..tough one!

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
where is suspicious, but will go with A.

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
changes meaning
2 IC connected with only "and"

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
there were - I don't like it, I can't explain it, but no!!!
was still being - passive voice is not necessary.

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
there was - again this! where there?
having lighting - with comma - modifies preceded clause - this is incorrect

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been
past perfect - not needed.

waiting for OE :shock:
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New post 20 Nov 2015, 07:45
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Grammar may solve most of this problem

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still – the best since where refers to a place namely homes.

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still --- Forthrightly unparallel with a clause in on side of ‘and’ but only a phrase at the other side.

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ---1. still being provided changes the meaning. 2. Where is wrongly referring to electricity

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still --- was less than one percent of homes—SV number problem

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been --- doesn’t make much sense
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New post 21 Nov 2015, 02:31
hey daagh,

don't you think that A distorts the meaning a little bit?

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

"Where" implies that the electricity was available in less than one percent of homes where lighting was provided mainly by candles or gas. But, in homes where lighting was provided by anything else than just candles or gas, the percent of homes with electricity was maybe higher than one percent. So my point is, reading this sentence, it could mean two different things, don't you think?

Perhaps I am just overcomplicating again, but would be happy to hear your opinion. Hope you understand what I mean.

Thanks in advance,
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New post 21 Nov 2015, 02:48
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You are splitting hairs and going away from Sentence Correction, I am afraid. What was the other alternative than candle and gas? There were no others than these two when electricity was introduced in homes. I don’t think one must go after every place where some alternative could have existed and find out its percentage. If we do that, when will we complete this question on the D-day?

Secondly, granting that A is not good enough, which is your preferred choice that you can justify?
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2018, 00:48
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help
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New post 23 Mar 2018, 18:59
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Skywalker18 wrote:
In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help


Hi Skywalker18!

Happy to help :-)

This is a little hard to think about because option D is wrong in several ways. So let's focus on your real question -- if we say "1 percent of homes", should that take a singular or a plural noun?

Your analysis is absolutely correct here -- "homes" is countable, so "1 percent of homes" should be plural. That means that the correct verb would be "were", not "was". The subject here is "1 percent", and "of homes" is a prepositional phrase, as you said. A percentage can be either plural or singular, depending on whether the noun it's referring to is countable or not. So here, since "homes", the noun that it's referring to, is countable, "1 percent" is plural :-)

Hope that helps!
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New post 12 Apr 2018, 07:42
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:

1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.

2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"

3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?
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New post 12 Apr 2018, 08:37
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aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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New post 01 May 2018, 01:01
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


"Where" should modify "homes". C and E are out.

C is using "had been" again.

D is passive, and has SV error also (homes -was)

B is comparing "electricity" (noun) with "lighting" (Present participle")


Hence A is correct.

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New post 14 May 2018, 08:57
Even after reading all replies, i don't understand why being is wrong in choice C. I assume it is an event in continuity and written in passive voice. Can some expert kindly clarify.

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New post 14 May 2018, 21:14
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dipakavailable wrote:
Even after reading all replies, i don't understand why being is wrong in choice C. I assume it is an event in continuity and written in passive voice. Can some expert kindly clarify.

Hi Deepak, the crux of sentence, in option C is:

at the end of the nineteenth century, there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity

So, option C uses past perfect tense (had been). This is an incorrect usage. Past perfect tense is used to establish a time-sequence between two events that happened one after the other. In this sentence, end of the nineteenth century and electricity did not occur one after the other.

When the sentence is talking about an event that happened at a specific time (in this case end of the nineteenth century), we should be using simple past tense.

For example, one would say:

In 2010, I was in the final year of Engineering.

Following would be incorrect:

In 2010, I had been in the final year of Engineering.

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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 13:55
Can some one tell me why Option D is wrong. IMO, I don't see anything wrong with D.
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 06:01
AkshdeepS wrote:
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


"Where" should modify "homes". C and E are out.

C is using "had been" again.

D is passive, and has SV error also (homes -was)

B is comparing "electricity" (noun) with "lighting" (Present participle")


Hence A is correct.


Hey AkshdeepS,
I would like to point out that one of your reasons to eliminate D is wrong.
"has SV error also (homes -was)"
Here "was" is the verb for the subject "lighting".
:)
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine &nbs [#permalink] 13 Oct 2018, 06:01

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