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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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New post 03 May 2017, 10:32
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
--> parallelism issue.

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
--> wordy and awkward.

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
--> wordy and awkward.

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been
--> awkward.
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New post 27 May 2017, 01:51
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

The focus must always remains on the sense of the sentence. Specifically, the identification of right contrast expressed from the coordinating conjunction "BUT" helps to eliminate C,D,E (electricity must be the subject of the independent clause beginning with "BUT"). "where" here is used as subordinating conjunction and introduce a subordinate clause, which is grammatically correct and correctly referred to "one percent of homes" .
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New post 27 Jun 2017, 03:22
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still - CORRECT "was" correctly refers to past + "where" next to "home" is correctly placed
B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still - "lighting still" must be followed by "was" to maintain correct tense and //ism
C. there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being - "being" wrong + "had been" wrong
D. there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still - wordy
E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been - "had still been" incorrect
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New post 11 Oct 2017, 09:12
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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still - Correct
B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still - no verb after “and”. “provided” acts as a verb-ed modifier, not verb, for “lighting”
C. there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being - “where” illogically either modifies “electricity” or “homes with electricity” ; tense issue
D. there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still - there were is needed for plural homes ; “having” doesn’t make sense with “there”
E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been - “where” illogically modifies the closest noun “electricity” ; use of past perfect “lighting had still been” is incorrect

Answer A
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New post 11 Oct 2017, 23:11
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
C. there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
D. there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


look at choic a and b. there no grammar errors here. the point is which meaning is correct.
look at choice b,
light is still provided mainly by gas
this is unclear meaning. which lighting? where is lighting.

b is wrong.

there are many types of meaning problem in sc, in which clear meaning error is most difficult
meaning is not logic (most popular and easy)
meaning is redundant (easy)
meaning is unclear. (hardest)
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New post 16 Oct 2017, 18:06
daagh wrote:
Grammar may solve most of this problem

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still – the best since where refers to a place namely homes.

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still --- Forthrightly unparallel with a clause in on side of ‘and’ but only a phrase at the other side.

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ---1. still being provided changes the meaning. 2. Where is wrongly referring to electricity

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still --- was less than one percent of homes—SV number problem

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been --- doesn’t make much sense




Hello
could you explain parallelism between option A and sentence before BUT. I think they are not parallel
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New post 13 Nov 2017, 23:45
Hi There,

Consider the following sentence:
I am not an expert, BUT I will give it a shot

BUT is a FANBOY conjunction, and in this sentence BUT is being used to adjoin two independent clauses - clauses that can stand as independent sentences by themselves.

Hope it helps

Cheers
RzS


zvazviri wrote:
soodia wrote:
daagh wrote:
Grammar may solve most of this problem

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still – the best since where refers to a place namely homes.

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still --- Forthrightly unparallel with a clause in on side of ‘and’ but only a phrase at the other side.

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ---1. still being provided changes the meaning. 2. Where is wrongly referring to electricity

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still --- was less than one percent of homes—SV number problem

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been --- doesn’t make much sense



Hello
could you explain parallelism between option A and sentence before BUT. I think they are not parallel



Exactly what I was thinking; GMATNinja, your take on this?
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New post 28 Nov 2017, 12:42
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still Wrong

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being wrong

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
wrong
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been Wrong
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New post 01 Feb 2018, 22:48
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

(C) & (E) ", where" incorrectly modifies electricity. "where" can only modify a place.
(D) ", having" incorrectly modifies electricity. Electricity doesn't have lighting. Illogical, doesn't make sense
(B) "lighting still provided mainly by candles or gas" does not have a verb. This is not parallel to "electricity was ..."
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New post 02 Feb 2018, 03:56
Both A & B are very close. I chose A but whats wrong in "B". Is "Lightning still" wrong.
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New post 19 Mar 2018, 01:48
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help
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New post 23 Mar 2018, 19:59
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Skywalker18 wrote:
In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help


Hi Skywalker18!

Happy to help :-)

This is a little hard to think about because option D is wrong in several ways. So let's focus on your real question -- if we say "1 percent of homes", should that take a singular or a plural noun?

Your analysis is absolutely correct here -- "homes" is countable, so "1 percent of homes" should be plural. That means that the correct verb would be "were", not "was". The subject here is "1 percent", and "of homes" is a prepositional phrase, as you said. A percentage can be either plural or singular, depending on whether the noun it's referring to is countable or not. So here, since "homes", the noun that it's referring to, is countable, "1 percent" is plural :-)

Hope that helps!
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New post 12 Apr 2018, 08:42
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:

1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.

2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"

3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?
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New post 12 Apr 2018, 09:37
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aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 14 Apr 2018, 08:30
egmat wrote:
aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? I say this because in the first Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks a lot Shraddha! This definitely helps.

However, on examining statement A again, I came across another doubt. Isnt there a change in voice between "important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting" and "but electricity was in less than one percent of homes"? I say this because in the first phrase "important places" is the subject and "electric lighting" is the object, but in the second phrase electricity (comparable to electric lighting) is the subject and homes (comparable to important places) is the object. If so, does'nt this option violate parallelism?
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New post 14 Apr 2018, 22:14
imo A
where is refereed to homes in A, BESIDE, there is usage of HAD which should be used with simple past tense.Off all the options given A is following this rule
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New post 18 Apr 2018, 22:57
egmat wrote:
aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks Shraddha egmat . Your explanation definitely helped. However, on analysing the question further, I came across another doubt.

Dont you think " important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting" is parallel to "less than one percent of homes had electricity" (option E) in terms of the voice used in both the clauses (both are in active voice)? But when we use, "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A), the voice changes as this is in passive voice.
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New post 01 May 2018, 02:01
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been


"Where" should modify "homes". C and E are out.

C is using "had been" again.

D is passive, and has SV error also (homes -was)

B is comparing "electricity" (noun) with "lighting" (Present participle")


Hence A is correct.

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New post 14 May 2018, 09:57
Even after reading all replies, i don't understand why being is wrong in choice C. I assume it is an event in continuity and written in passive voice. Can some expert kindly clarify.

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New post 14 May 2018, 22:14
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dipakavailable wrote:
Even after reading all replies, i don't understand why being is wrong in choice C. I assume it is an event in continuity and written in passive voice. Can some expert kindly clarify.

Hi Deepak, the crux of sentence, in option C is:

at the end of the nineteenth century, there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity

So, option C uses past perfect tense (had been). This is an incorrect usage. Past perfect tense is used to establish a time-sequence between two events that happened one after the other. In this sentence, end of the nineteenth century and electricity did not occur one after the other.

When the sentence is talking about an event that happened at a specific time (in this case end of the nineteenth century), we should be using simple past tense.

For example, one would say:

In 2010, I was in the final year of Engineering.

Following would be incorrect:

In 2010, I had been in the final year of Engineering.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine &nbs [#permalink] 14 May 2018, 22:14

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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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