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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 06:36
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sriramsundaram91 wrote:
Can some one tell me why Option D is wrong. IMO, I don't see anything wrong with D.


Hey sriramsundaram91,
Lets look at option D.

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

1. "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity,..."

Do u think "there was" is necessary here?
We could simply start with "less than 1 percent..."
Also, think about WTF is "there was" doing in my sentence?

Fineee.. I get it! You are not convinced with that explanation. Let me throw another error at you!

2. Verb-ing modifier - "having lighting that was still..."
But before we jump into this one you should know what it is briefly.

Verb-ing modifiers do two things usually
- Gives us some extra information or the result aspect of the preceding clause when followed by a comma.
- Gives us extra information about the preceding NOUN if there is NO comma.

So now that we kind of know what verb-ing modifiers are, lets find the damn error!
We know that COMMA + having modifies the ENTIRE preceding clause.
The subject of "having lighting that was still.." MUST BE the SUBJECT of the PRECEEDING CLAUSE.
Logically "having lighting that was still..." should modify the subject "homes" to make any sense.
But because we have "there", it is pretty confusing and illogically modifies "there" instead of "homes".


I will try to explain with a simple example on verb-ing modifiers -


Amy skipped school, giving the excuse of stomach ace.
Who is doing the action of skipping school? The subject -Robert
Who is doing the action of giving excuses? The subject again - Robert

But in option D we have the wrong subject. Hence it is wrong.

Let me know if u have any more doubts. (or if u find anything wrong with the explanation)
Hope it helped you. :)
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 22:33
egmat wrote:
aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


egmat, I have question around usage of 'where' in option A. It is mentioned in eGMAT and even on GMAT Club forum that 'where' has to be used for places and locations and not the things like office , home , hotels etc. So how it is justified here ?
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2018, 13:48
MagooshExpert wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help


Hi Skywalker18!

Happy to help :-)

This is a little hard to think about because option D is wrong in several ways. So let's focus on your real question -- if we say "1 percent of homes", should that take a singular or a plural noun?

Your analysis is absolutely correct here -- "homes" is countable, so "1 percent of homes" should be plural. That means that the correct verb would be "were", not "was". The subject here is "1 percent", and "of homes" is a prepositional phrase, as you said. A percentage can be either plural or singular, depending on whether the noun it's referring to is countable or not. So here, since "homes", the noun that it's referring to, is countable, "1 percent" is plural :-)

Hope that helps!
-Carolyn


Hi Carolyn,

I do agree with the explanation as regards, 1 percent being the subject, though I guess the issue was around using "Was" or "Were" in the sentence! I still have discomfort agreeing with was as being used in the sentence. Would you please be kind to enlighten further as regards the said usage.

Thanks in advance
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine &nbs [#permalink] 02 Dec 2018, 13:48

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