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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Dec 2018, 00:18
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sriramsundaram91 wrote:
Can some one tell me why Option D is wrong. IMO, I don't see anything wrong with D.


Hey sriramsundaram91,
Lets look at option D.

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

1. "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity,..."

Do u think "there was" is necessary here?
We could simply start with "less than 1 percent..."
Also, think about WTF is "there was" doing in my sentence?

Fineee.. I get it! You are not convinced with that explanation. Let me throw another error at you!

2. Verb-ing modifier - "having lighting that was still..."
But before we jump into this one you should know what it is briefly.

Verb-ing modifiers do two things usually
- Gives us some extra information or the result aspect of the preceding clause when followed by a comma.
- Gives us extra information about the preceding NOUN if there is NO comma.

So now that we kind of know what verb-ing modifiers are, lets find the damn error!
We know that COMMA + having modifies the ENTIRE preceding clause.
The subject of "having lighting that was still.." MUST BE the SUBJECT of the PRECEEDING CLAUSE.
Logically "having lighting that was still..." should modify the subject "homes" to make any sense.
But because we have "there", it is pretty confusing and illogically modifies "there" instead of "homes".


I will try to explain with a simple example on verb-ing modifiers -


Amy skipped school, giving the excuse of stomach ace.
Who is doing the action of skipping school? The subject -Robert
Who is doing the action of giving excuses? The subject again - Robert

But in option D we have the wrong subject. Hence it is wrong.

Let me know if u have any more doubts. (or if u find anything wrong with the explanation)
Hope it helped you. :)

Originally posted by blitzkriegxX on 13 Oct 2018, 07:36.
Last edited by blitzkriegxX on 22 Dec 2018, 00:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 23:33
egmat wrote:
aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat

I chose E even though I understand that ",where" is wrong as it should modify a place. However, I have some doubts:




Hello aviejay,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Here are my explanations for your well-articulated queries.


aviejay wrote:
1. Why is the usage of past perfect in "had installed electric lighting" correct? Which event is it taking in reference as a later event in order use the past perfect tense? Is it "at the end of the nineteenth century"? If so, how is this correct when the installation happened at the end of the nineteenth century? Meaning, the installation and "end of nineteenth century" happened at the same time.


See, it is not that important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks all installed electricity at the end of 19th century. These places individually must have installed electricity when they could.

The sentence basically wants to say that at the end of 19th century important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had already started using electricity. So the later event is basically the 19th century coming to its end. Hence, usage of had installed in Choice A is correct.


aviejay wrote:
2. If "banks had installed electric lighting" is correct and uses the past perfect tense, then why shoud'nt "where lighting had still been" (in option E) use the same as both these events occured at the same time and presumably before "at the end of the nineteenth century"


If the sentence says that lighting had been provided mainly by candle or gas, the usage will suggest that candle or gas was the main source of lighting only till the end of 19th century. After that, they it not used as the source of lighting.

But the sentence just wants to say the opposite. Even after the end of 19th century, majority of homes continued to use candle or gas as the main source of lighting.

Many homes used candle or gas even during the end of 19th century and most likely after that time also. Hence, we need simple past tense verb to denote this general information in the past.


aviejay wrote:
3. Doesnt "electricity was in less than one percent of homes" (option A)sound awkward? Doesnt it sound like electircity is being personified?


I am not sure why you say so. Don't we say, say after a power outage, that power is back. We all know what kind of entity electricity is.

And again, GMAT SC is not at all about "sounds awkward". It is all about logic that determines the grammar of the sentence.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


egmat, I have question around usage of 'where' in option A. It is mentioned in eGMAT and even on GMAT Club forum that 'where' has to be used for places and locations and not the things like office , home , hotels etc. So how it is justified here ?
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2018, 14:48
MagooshExpert wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
In option D
but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity , having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.
In the independent clause that follows but , i read that there is subject-verb agreement issue - "Since we are talking about plural noun “homes”, we need to have “there were” rather than “there was”. It is correct to say “there was water” (water is uncountable), but it is not correct to say “there was cars” (cars is plural)."

Is the subject homes or 1 percent of homes ( homes is in prepositional phrase and can it be the subject ? )

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help


Hi Skywalker18!

Happy to help :-)

This is a little hard to think about because option D is wrong in several ways. So let's focus on your real question -- if we say "1 percent of homes", should that take a singular or a plural noun?

Your analysis is absolutely correct here -- "homes" is countable, so "1 percent of homes" should be plural. That means that the correct verb would be "were", not "was". The subject here is "1 percent", and "of homes" is a prepositional phrase, as you said. A percentage can be either plural or singular, depending on whether the noun it's referring to is countable or not. So here, since "homes", the noun that it's referring to, is countable, "1 percent" is plural :-)

Hope that helps!
-Carolyn


Hi Carolyn,

I do agree with the explanation as regards, 1 percent being the subject, though I guess the issue was around using "Was" or "Were" in the sentence! I still have discomfort agreeing with was as being used in the sentence. Would you please be kind to enlighten further as regards the said usage.

Thanks in advance
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2019, 13:45
yavasani wrote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still

(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still

(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being

(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still

(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

Progress and Barbarism: World in the Twentieth Century
Hardcover – Import, 1998

Attachment:
01.png


Major Cities

(A) CORRECT

(B) Verb (provided)

(C) Verb (had been, was still being)

(D) Modifier / Meaning (having)

(E) Verb (had been)


First glance

The parallel marker but is just before the underline. Should the underlined part of the sentence start with electricity or something else?

Issues

(1) Verb: provided; had been; was still being

Compare the answers vertically; various verb tenses change.

(A) electricity was in homes, where lighting was still provided by candles…

(B) electricity was in homes and lighting still provided by candles…

(C) there had been less…where lighting was still being provided by candles…

(D) there was less… having lighting that was still provided by candles…

(E) less than 1 percent had electricity, where lighting had still been provided by candles…

Answer (B) is missing the verb was before provided. It should read: lighting was provided by candles.

Answers (C) and (E) use past perfect (had been). Past perfect can be used only when the sentence also has another past event that took place later in time than the past perfect event.

In the case of answer (C), the had been event took place at the same time as the was provided event, so the two events should be in the same tense. The reasoning is the same for answer (E): the had event took place at the same time as the had been provided event, so they should employ the same tense. (Note that had, by itself, is simple past. Had becomes past perfect only when paired with a past participle, such as had provided.)

Eliminate answers (B), (C), and (E).

(2) Modifier / Meaning: having

Answers (A), (C), and (E) all use where to start the modifier; answer (D) uses having. (Answer (B) changes that part of the structure completely.)

Where was lighting still provided mainly by candles or gas? In the homes. The where modifier in answers (A) and (B) clearly points to the homes. In answer (E), the where could be interpreted as pointing to the noun just before the comma: electricity. This, of course, is not the right location. The Official Guide explanation does not address this point, so it’s unclear whether the test writers would consider this acceptable. Therefore, call this “suspicious” and avoid this choice unless there is no better option. Eliminate answers (A) and (B) and put a question mark next to (E).

Answer (D) uses the comma -ing modifier structure there was less than 1 percent…, having lighting. A comma -ing modifier refers to the main subject and verb of the clause to which it’s attached; in this case, the having modifier refers to there was. It should be referring to the homes, so eliminate answer (D).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (A) uses the same verb tense (was, was provided) to talk about two past events that occurred at the same time. The where modifier correctly refers to homes.



C and E- ‘where’ modifies places only, electricity is not a place- Wrong
B – Missing word, should be a ‘was’ after lighting- Wrong
D- ‘was’ should be ‘were’, ‘homes’ is plural- Wrong

So, A is right
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2019, 00:05
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

daagh sir - need some help in this one

I eliminated CDE because "Where" has to modify a place but in CDE it modifies electricity which is not a place.

I am having trouble in eliminating B.. could you please guide?
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2019, 00:40
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Quote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(B)

Look at B from parallelism point of view. On the left of 'and' you have a passive voice IC with electricity as the subject and was as the verb. However on the right of 'and. You have only a phrase with a subject' lighting and a participle 'provided'. The verb auxiliary verb 'was' is missing. Hence, this combination is not parallel and is a fragment.

If B were "electricity was in less than one percent of homes, lighting still provided mainly by candles or gas", then that might have been ok.( I mean without the 'and')


Therefore, if a modifier appears after 'and', Pl. check for symmetrical parallelism immediately. In 90% of the cases, you find only a fragment in GMAT.

HTH!
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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine   [#permalink] 24 Feb 2019, 00:40

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