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In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine

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New post 24 Feb 2019, 00:05
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

daagh sir - need some help in this one

I eliminated CDE because "Where" has to modify a place but in CDE it modifies electricity which is not a place.

I am having trouble in eliminating B.. could you please guide?
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Quote:
In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.


(B)

Look at B from parallelism point of view. On the left of 'and' you have a passive voice IC with electricity as the subject and was as the verb. However on the right of 'and. You have only a phrase with a subject' lighting and a participle 'provided'. The verb auxiliary verb 'was' is missing. Hence, this combination is not parallel and is a fragment.

If B were "electricity was in less than one percent of homes, lighting still provided mainly by candles or gas", then that might have been ok.( I mean without the 'and')


Therefore, if a modifier appears after 'and', Pl. check for symmetrical parallelism immediately. In 90% of the cases, you find only a fragment in GMAT.

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New post 16 Apr 2019, 12:45
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences in orange:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

While there are a lot of things we could focus on, there are 2 major ones that jump out:

1. was/had been/had
2. was still/still/was still being/was still/had still been


Since both of these deal with verbs, let's start our focus there. If we look at the entire sentence, we can gather clues as to which verb tense we'll need to use:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

The events go in a certain order, which requires certain verb tenses:

Public spaces install electric lighting --> electricity is in less than 1 percent of homes + lighting is still done by candles and gas

The earliest event (public spaces install electric lighting) needs to use past perfect "had installed," which it does. The other two events happen later, AND AT THE SAME TIME, so they both need to use past tense. They should also be written using parallel structure. Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate the ones that don't:

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided --> OK
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still provided --> WRONG (needs to have the verb "was" in front of "provided" to work.)
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being provided --> WRONG
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided --> OK
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been provided --> WRONG

We can eliminate options B, C, & E because they use the wrong verb formats or don't use parallel structure. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's take a closer look at each option with the non-underlined part attached and look for problems:

(A) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is CORRECT! By starting the modifier with the word "where," it modifies the noun directly before it, which is homes. This makes perfect sense! It also uses the proper verb tenses throughout to indicate the correct order of events.

(D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work.


There you have it - option A was correct all along!


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Re: In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nine  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 05:02
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences in orange:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

While there are a lot of things we could focus on, there are 2 major ones that jump out:

1. was/had been/had
2. was still/still/was still being/was still/had still been


Since both of these deal with verbs, let's start our focus there. If we look at the entire sentence, we can gather clues as to which verb tense we'll need to use:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

The events go in a certain order, which requires certain verb tenses:

Public spaces install electric lighting --> electricity is in less than 1 percent of homes + lighting is still done by candles and gas

The earliest event (public spaces install electric lighting) needs to use past perfect "had installed," which it does. The other two events happen later, AND AT THE SAME TIME, so they both need to use past tense. They should also be written using parallel structure. Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate the ones that don't:

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided --> OK
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still provided --> WRONG (needs to have the verb "was" in front of "provided" to work.)
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being provided --> WRONG
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided --> OK
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been provided --> WRONG

We can eliminate options B, C, & E because they use the wrong verb formats or don't use parallel structure. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's take a closer look at each option with the non-underlined part attached and look for problems:

(A) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is CORRECT! By starting the modifier with the word "where," it modifies the noun directly before it, which is homes. This makes perfect sense! It also uses the proper verb tenses throughout to indicate the correct order of events.

(D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work.


There you have it - option A was correct all along!


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Dear @EMPOWERgmatVerbal ,

Thanks for detailed explanation. I am confused in option D with your explanation:

[/quote] (D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work. [/quote]

As per your explanation verb+ing "having" is modifying "there was" which according to me is wrong. having is modifying the complete clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" which is correct.
According to me, Option D is wrong because:
1. The clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" is incorrect. Instead of "was", it should be "were" since the subject is "1 percent of homes".
2. "That" is wrong.
2A: In the clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity", it should be those since 1% of homes are plural.
2B: In the clause "having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas", it should be "other homes".

I will also request egmat to confirm my understanding.

Thanks in advance
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New post 20 Jun 2019, 11:31
priyanshu14 wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences in orange:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been

While there are a lot of things we could focus on, there are 2 major ones that jump out:

1. was/had been/had
2. was still/still/was still being/was still/had still been


Since both of these deal with verbs, let's start our focus there. If we look at the entire sentence, we can gather clues as to which verb tense we'll need to use:

In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

The events go in a certain order, which requires certain verb tenses:

Public spaces install electric lighting --> electricity is in less than 1 percent of homes + lighting is still done by candles and gas

The earliest event (public spaces install electric lighting) needs to use past perfect "had installed," which it does. The other two events happen later, AND AT THE SAME TIME, so they both need to use past tense. They should also be written using parallel structure. Let's see which options handle this correctly, and eliminate the ones that don't:

(A) electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided --> OK
(B) electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still provided --> WRONG (needs to have the verb "was" in front of "provided" to work.)
(C) there had been less than 1 percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being provided --> WRONG
(D) there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided --> OK
(E) less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been provided --> WRONG

We can eliminate options B, C, & E because they use the wrong verb formats or don't use parallel structure. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's take a closer look at each option with the non-underlined part attached and look for problems:

(A) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is CORRECT! By starting the modifier with the word "where," it modifies the noun directly before it, which is homes. This makes perfect sense! It also uses the proper verb tenses throughout to indicate the correct order of events.

(D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work.


There you have it - option A was correct all along!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.


Dear @EMPOWERgmatVerbal ,

Thanks for detailed explanation. I am confused in option D with your explanation:

(D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work. [/quote]

As per your explanation verb+ing "having" is modifying "there was" which according to me is wrong. having is modifying the complete clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" which is correct.
According to me, Option D is wrong because:
1. The clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" is incorrect. Instead of "was", it should be "were" since the subject is "1 percent of homes".
2. "That" is wrong.
2A: In the clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity", it should be those since 1% of homes are plural.
2B: In the clause "having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas", it should be "other homes".

I will also request egmat to confirm my understanding.

Thanks in advance
bb generis GMATNinja egmat[/quote]

Hello @priyanshu14!

Let's tackle your concerns, one at a time, and figure out where the miscommunication happened!

(D) In the major cities of industrialized countries at the end of the nineteenth century, important public places such as theaters, restaurants, shops, and banks had installed electric lighting, but there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas.

This is INCORRECT because it includes an -ing modifier that's being used incorrectly. The -ing modifier must modify the main subject and verb of the previous clause, and in this case it's trying to modify the phrase "there was." It SHOULD modify the word "homes," but it would need to be reworded into a different type of modifier for that to work. [/quote]

As per your explanation verb+ing "having" is modifying "there was" which according to me is wrong. having is modifying the complete clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" which is correct.

You are correct to say that an -ing modifier can sometimes modify an entire clause. However, the way this modifier is worded makes it confusing as to what it's referring back to. It's not that it's grammatically wrong - it's just not how the GMAT prefers we handle modifiers. They prefer that modifiers are as clear as possible. Option A rewrites the modifier to make it clearer that it's referring back to just "homes," rather than the entire phrase.

Now let's tackle your other issues:

According to me, Option D is wrong because:
1. The clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity" is incorrect. Instead of "was", it should be "were" since the subject is "1 percent of homes".


I'll agree with you on that one! Option A fixes this by moving the singular subject "electricity" before the verb.

2. "That" is wrong.

This is actually okay as it is. You couldn't change it to "which" because that would create a "modifier inside a modifier" situation, which wouldn't make a lot of sense to readers.

2A: In the clause "there was less than 1 percent of homes that had electricity", it should be those since 1% of homes are plural.

What are you replacing with "those" here? I don't see anywhere you could put "those" and it would work.

2B: In the clause "having lighting that was still provided mainly by candles or gas", it should be "other homes".

Again, I'm not sure where you would put "other homes" here?? I don't see where that would work.

I hope this helps! Also, if you want, please clarify what you mean by 2A & 2B on your list so I can better help you clear those up.
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New post 27 Nov 2019, 20:50
C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ---1. still being provided changes the meaning. 2. Where is wrongly referring to electricity

According to the above solution, where is wrongly referring to electricity.
with is a preposition and with electricity is modifying the word homes. Can 'where' not refer to homes instead of electricity as who does in the example.

Ex : The committee chose Mr. Smith of Left Block, who was the most experienced member, to lead all the management-related operations.

who refers to Mr. Smith and not left block.

Can you please answer daagh ?
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 09:41
daagh wrote:
Grammar may solve most of this problem

A. electricity was in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still – the best since where refers to a place namely homes.

B. electricity was in less than one percent of homes and lighting still --- Forthrightly unparallel with a clause in on side of ‘and’ but only a phrase at the other side.

C. there were less than one percent of homes with electricity, where lighting was still being ---1. still being provided changes the meaning. 2. Where is wrongly referring to electricity

D. there was less than one percent of homes that had electricity, having lighting that was still --- was less than one percent of homes—SV number problem

E. less than one percent of homes had electricity, where lighting had still been --- doesn’t make much sense


In the answer choice a), there is no bonafide verb in the independent clause introduced by but. Can you explain how it is correct?
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 09:51
was is as bonafide as a verb can get:).
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 10:40
EducationAisle wrote:
was is as bonafide as a verb can get:).


It seemed 'was' was used as an auxiliary verb and there is a requirement of the main verb. With the main verb, the sentence will look like "electricity was supplied in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still".

Would you explain, how without the main verb it was a complete sentence?
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 15:26
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Tamalmallick13 "Was" is not being used as an auxiliary verb here. We have "Electricity was X, where lighting was Y." Both X and Y are modifiers: X= in <1% of homes; Y = provided by candles/gas. "Was" is the main verb in that first part, just as it would be if we said "I was in the pool" or "I was out of town." We might have expected another word, such as "electricity was provided to < 1% of homes," but notice that even in that case, "provided" is NOT a verb. The electricity didn't provide anything, nor did the lighting in the later clause. "Provided" in that case would be serving as a modifier, and "was" would still be the only verb.
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New post 30 Nov 2019, 23:20
Tamalmallick13 wrote:
It seemed 'was' was used as an auxiliary verb and there is a requirement of the main verb. With the main verb, the sentence will look like "electricity was supplied in less than one percent of homes, where lighting was still".

Would you explain, how without the main verb it was a complete sentence?

Hi Tamal, main verb is the verb of the independent clause.

For example:

Jack is smart.
- Above sentence is an independent clause. Auxiliary verb is is the main verb.

Peter sleeps.
- Above sentence is an independent clause. Action verb sleeps is the main verb.

On the other hand, in the following sentence:

Peter is a person who lives life on his own terms.
- lives is an action verb, but is not the main verb, because lives is the verb of the Dependent clause who lives life on his own terms. In the above sentence, is is the main verb because it is the verb of the Independent clause Peter is a person.

In other words, main verb can either be an action verb or an auxiliary verb.

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Independent/Dependent clauses, their application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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