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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named

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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named after the French engineer and architect Gustave Eiffel and which had extensive experience in structural engineering, undertook a series of investigations of tall metallic piers based upon its recent experiences with several railway viaducts and bridges. The most spectacular of these was the famous Garabit Viaduct, which carries a railroad some 400 feet above the valley of the Truyere in southern France. The design of this structure was the inspiration for the design of a 395-foot pier, which, although never incorporated into a bridge, is said to have been the direct basis for the Eiffel Tower. Preliminary studies for a 300-meter tower were made with the intention of showcasing it in the 1889 fair called Exposition Universelle. With an assurance born of positive knowledge, Eiffel in June of 1886 approached the Exposition commissioners with the project. There can be no doubt that only the singular respect with which Eiffel was regarded not only by his profession but by the entire nation motivated the Commission to approve a plan which, in the hands of a figure of less stature, would have been considered grossly impractical.

Between this time and the commencement of the Tower’s construction at the end of January 1887, there arose one of the most persistently annoying of the numerous difficulties, both structural and social, which confronted Eiffel as the project advanced. In the wake of the initial enthusiasm—on the part of the fair’s Commission that was inspired by the desire to create a monument to highlight French technological achievement, and on the part of the majority of French people by the stirring of their imagination at the magnitude of the structure—there grew a rising movement of disfavor. At the center of this movement was, not surprisingly, the intelligentsia, but objections were made by prominent French people from all walks of life.

The most interesting point to be noted in a retrospection of this often violent opposition is that, although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility, either by the engineering profession or, as seems traditionally to be the case with bold and unprecedented undertakings, by large numbers of the technically uninformed population. True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow, but the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris. This resistance voiced its fury in a flood of special newspaper editions, petitions, and manifestos signed by such lights of the fine and literary arts as De Maupassant, Gounod, Dumas fils, and others.

1. Based on the discussion of public opinion regarding the Eiffel Tower's construction it can be inferred that

A. the poorer Parisians took to the Tower more readily than the educated classes

B. early in its planning, the Tower was generally embraced by most of the French people

C. those who disagreed with the plans for the Tower were mostly members of the intelligentsia

D. there was no disagreement about whether a 300-meter tower could be constructed

E. those living closest to the tower's site were the most supportive of it

the poorer Parisians took to the Tower more readily than the educated classes

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of the poorer Parisians in the passage and nothing to associate money with the Tower’s popularity.

early in its planning, the Tower was generally embraced by most of the French people

Correct

The second paragraph states, “In the wake of the initial enthusiasm—on the part of the fair’s Commission that was then inspired by the desire to create a monument to highlight French technological achievement, and on the part of the majority of French people by the stirring of their imagination at the magnitude of the structure—there grew a rising movement of disfavor.” According the passage most Frenchmen were in fact initially supportive and enthusiastic. It was only later that “disfavor” began to grow.

C
those who disagreed with the plans for the Tower were mostly members of the intelligentsia

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The intelligentsia was at the center of the movement. It doesn't mean that majority of the people who objected to the plans were members of the same.

D
there was no disagreement about whether a 300-meter tower could be constructed

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says, “there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility” in the third paragraph. On the basis of this statement, one cannot infer that there was no criticism at all. The phrase “little criticism” could also imply insignificant criticism.

E
those living closest to the tower's site were the most supportive of it

Incorrect: Opposite

In the final paragraph the passage mentions: “there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow.” They were not supportive, but nervous at the idea of having such a tall structure so close to their homes and businesses.



2. Which faction does the author refer to when he mentions “undercurrent” in the last paragraph?

A. those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were concerned about the mechanical stability of Eiffel Tower

B. those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were technically uninformed

C. those who voiced their concerns regarding Eiffel Tower through manifestos and petitions

D. those who deplored the Eiffel Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris

E. those belonging to engineering profession who were concerned about the structural feasibility of the Eiffel Tower

“The most interesting point to be noted in a retrospection of this often violent opposition is that, although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility, either by the engineering profession or, as seems traditionally to be the case with bold and unprecedented undertakings, by large numbers of the technically uninformed population. True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow, but the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris. This resistance voiced its fury in a flood of special newspaper editions, petitions, and manifestos signed by such lights of the fine and literary arts as De Maupassant…”

The term “undercurrent” refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity. The bolded portions of the paragraph imply that people who lived close to the tower (structure’s shadow) were concerned about the structural integrity of the tower. Thus the correct answer should specify the above.

those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were concerned about the mechanical stability of Eiffel Tower

Correct

This choice can be inferred from the following parts of the passage:

1: “...there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility”

2: “True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow”

In statement 1, the author says that there was only a little criticism regarding the structural stability of the tower (mechanical stability).

In statement 2, the author indicates that this little criticism indeed came from the people who lived in close proximity of the tower. Thus the term “undercurrent” refers to this segment of people.

B
those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were technically uninformed

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is little information in the passage regarding the technical competence of inhabitants who lived in the vicinity of Eiffel Tower.

C
those who voiced their concerns regarding Eiffel Tower through manifestos and petitions

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The term "undercurrent" refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity. The group of people referenced in this choice was concerned about the mechanistic intrusion upon the beauty of Paris.

D
those who deplored the Eiffel Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris

Incorrect: Out of Scope

As discussed in prethinking, the term "undercurrent" refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity and not regarding the mechanistic intrusion on the beauty of Paris.

E
those belonging to engineering profession who were concerned about the structural feasibility of the Eiffel Tower

Incorrect: Out of Scope


This group of people has not been referred to by the term "undercurrent" as determined in prethinking.



3. De Maupassant, Gounod, Dumas fils are mentioned by the passage in order to

A. overview the leadership structure of the fine and literary arts

B. list the names of the Tower's most steadfast opponents

C. explain who in French society was most interested in French architecture at that time

D. reveal how the creative and scientific communities were at odds over the Tower

E. clarify that distinguished members of the artistic community considered the Tower as a possible eye-sore

We can deduce that the names of these three artists have been used in the passage to show that the construction of the Eiffel Tower faced main criticism from litterateur and artists such as those mentioned in the passage.

A
overview the leadership structure of the fine and literary arts

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of the leadership structure for these fields.

B
list the names of the Tower's most steadfast opponents

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We do not know if these three people were the "most steadfast" out of everyone who opposed the Tower. All we know is that these people were important in their fields.

C
explain who in French society was most interested in French architecture at that time

Incorrect: Inconsistent

While these people certainly had a significant interest in architecture, enough to be concerned about a new iconic building, we don't know that they were the "most interested" during the late 19th century.

D
reveal how the creative and scientific communities were at odds over the Tower

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Just because these people were part of the artistic community does not mean these two groups were necessarily "at odds" over the Tower.

clarify that distinguished members of the artistic community considered the Tower as a possible eye-sore

Correct

Since this is an informational passage, the author's goal is to educate the reader. Ask yourself: by including this detail, what ABOUT the Tower, specifically, is he trying to elucidate? The passage explains that "the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris." In the next sentence, the author mentions these people as "lights of the fine and literary arts."




4. Which of the following is the author’s primary purpose behind this passage?

A. To discuss the feasibility of the Eiffel Firm's plan for the Tower.

B. To teach the history of the Eiffel Tower's precursors

C. To explain how the Tower would not have been approved without Eiffel's reputation and knowledge of structural engineering.

D. To detail how the public turned against the Tower in the months after the Exposition.

E. To give a general history of the Tower's construction and the public reaction to it.

we see that the first paragraph explains how the idea to construct Eiffel Tower was convinced and got approved. The second paragraph talks about the initial support for the Tower that turned into criticism. The last paragraph talks about the specific class that was against the construction of the Tower. Hence, the main purpose of the author in writing this passage is to present how the idea of Eiffel Tower was conceived and the the criticism it faced.

A
To discuss the feasibility of the Eiffel Firm's plan for the Tower.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice includes the discussion mentioned only in the first two paragraphs. The correct answer for a Main Idea question should include ALL of the paragraphs – even the final one.

B
To teach the history of the Eiffel Tower's precursors

Incorrect: Partial scope

The precursors to the Eiffel Tower are only mentioned in the first paragraph – the bridges and viaduct. If this were the main goal, then more precursors would be discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

C
To explain how the Tower would not have been approved without Eiffel's reputation and knowledge of structural engineering.

Incorrect: Partial scope

While this is a detail mentioned in the second paragraph only, look for an answer choice that best encapsulates ALL of the paragraphs.

D
To detail how the public turned against the Tower in the months after the Exposition.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The scope of the passage focuses only on the Tower’s planning, approval, and construction. We do not know how the public felt about the Tower after the Exposition.

To give a general history of the Tower's construction and the public reaction to it.

Correct

The passage is a broad overview on the structural engineering that helped build the Tower, its approval, and how the public opinion on it evolved.


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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 00:10
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1. Based on the discussion of public opinion regarding the Eiffel Tower's construction it can be inferred that


A. the poorer Parisians took to the Tower more readily than the educated classes

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of the poorer Parisians in the passage and nothing to associate money with the Tower’s popularity.

B. early in its planning, the Tower was generally embraced by most of the French people

Correct

The second paragraph states, “In the wake of the initial enthusiasm—on the part of the fair’s Commission that was then inspired by the desire to create a monument to highlight French technological achievement, and on the part of the majority of French people by the stirring of their imagination at the magnitude of the structure—there grew a rising movement of disfavor.” According to the passage most Frenchmen were in fact initially supportive and enthusiastic. It was only later that “disfavor” began to grow.

C. those who disagreed with the plans for the Tower were mostly members of the intelligentsia

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The intelligentsia was at the center of the movement. It doesn't mean that majority of the people who objected to the plans were members of the same.

D. there was no disagreement about whether a 300-meter tower could be constructed

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says, “there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility” in the third paragraph. On the basis of this statement, one cannot infer that there was no criticism at all. The phrase “little criticism” could also imply insignificant criticism.

E. those living closest to the tower's site were the most supportive of it

Incorrect: Opposite

In the final paragraph the passage mentions: “there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow.” They were not supportive, but nervous at the idea of having such a tall structure so close to their homes and businesses.

2. Which faction does the author refer to when he mentions “undercurrent” in the last paragraph?


“The most interesting point to be noted in a retrospection of this often violent opposition is that, although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility, either by the engineering profession or, as seems traditionally to be the case with bold and unprecedented undertakings, by large numbers of the technically uninformed population. True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow, but the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris. This resistance voiced its fury in a flood of special newspaper editions, petitions, and manifestos signed by such lights of the fine and literary arts as De Maupassant…”

The term “undercurrent” refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity. The bolded portions of the paragraph imply that people who lived close to the tower (structure’s shadow) were concerned about the structural integrity of the tower. Thus the correct answer should specify the above.

A. those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were concerned about the mechanical stability of Eiffel Tower

Correct

This choice can be inferred from the following parts of the passage:

1: “...there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility”

2: “True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow”

In statement 1, the author says that there was only a little criticism regarding the structural stability of the tower (mechanical stability).

In statement 2, the author indicates that this little criticism indeed came from the people who lived in close proximity of the tower. Thus the term “undercurrent” refers to this segment of people.

B. those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were technically uninformed

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is little information in the passage regarding the technical competence of inhabitants who lived in the vicinity of Eiffel Tower.

C. those who voiced their concerns regarding Eiffel Tower through manifestos and petitions

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The term "undercurrent" refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity. The group of people referenced in this choice was concerned about the mechanistic intrusion upon the beauty of Paris.

D. those who deplored the Eiffel Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris

Incorrect: Out of Scope

As discussed in prethinking, the term "undercurrent" refers to the concerns regarding the structural integrity and not regarding the mechanistic intrusion on the beauty of Paris.

E. those belonging to engineering profession who were concerned about the structural feasibility of the Eiffel Tower

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This group of people has not been referred to by the term "undercurrent" as determined in prethinking.

3. De Maupassant, Gounod, Dumas fils are mentioned by the passage in order to


We can deduce that the names of these three artists have been used in the passage to show that the construction of the Eiffel Tower faced main criticism from litterateur and artists such as those mentioned in the passage.

A. overview the leadership structure of the fine and literary arts

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of the leadership structure for these fields.

B. list the names of the Tower's most steadfast opponents

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We do not know if these three people were the "most steadfast" out of everyone who opposed the Tower. All we know is that these people were important in their fields.

C. explain who in French society was most interested in French architecture at that time

Incorrect: Inconsistent

While these people certainly had a significant interest in architecture, enough to be concerned about a new iconic building, we don't know that they were the "most interested" during the late 19th century.

D. reveal how the creative and scientific communities were at odds over the Tower

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Just because these people were part of the artistic community does not mean these two groups were necessarily "at odds" over the Tower.

E. clarify that distinguished members of the artistic community considered the Tower as a possible eye-sore

Correct

Since this is an informational passage, the author's goal is to educate the reader. Ask yourself: by including this detail, what ABOUT the Tower, specifically, is he trying to elucidate? The passage explains that "the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris." In the next sentence, the author mentions these people as "lights of the fine and literary arts."

4. Which of the following is the author’s primary purpose behind this passage?


we see that the first paragraph explains how the idea to construct Eiffel Tower was convinced and got approved. The second paragraph talks about the initial support for the Tower that turned into criticism. The last paragraph talks about the specific class that was against the construction of the Tower. Hence, the main purpose of the author in writing this passage is to present how the idea of Eiffel Tower was conceived and the the criticism it faced.

A. To discuss the feasibility of the Eiffel Firm's plan for the Tower.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice includes the discussion mentioned only in the first two paragraphs. The correct answer for a Main Idea question should include ALL of the paragraphs – even the final one.

B. To teach the history of the Eiffel Tower's precursors

Incorrect: Partial scope

The precursors to the Eiffel Tower are only mentioned in the first paragraph – the bridges and viaduct. If this were the main goal, then more precursors would be discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

C. To explain how the Tower would not have been approved without Eiffel's reputation and knowledge of structural engineering.

Incorrect: Partial scope

While this is a detail mentioned in the second paragraph only, look for an answer choice that best encapsulates ALL of the paragraphs.

D. To detail how the public turned against the Tower in the months after the Exposition.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The scope of the passage focuses only on the Tower’s planning, approval, and construction. We do not know how the public felt about the Tower after the Exposition.

E. To give a general history of the Tower's construction and the public reaction to it.

Correct

The passage is a broad overview on the structural engineering that helped build the Tower, its approval, and how the public opinion on it evolved.
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2018, 05:36
Can any one please explain me the why the answer for 2nd question is A and not B?
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 00:54
True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow, but the most obstinate element of resistance was that which deplored the Tower as a mechanistic intrusion upon the architectural and natural beauties of Paris.

In the above sentence, an undercurrent is clearly compared with concerns by property owners in the structure's shadows. So, A is the best possible answer for the second question.
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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2018, 22:34
workout I am not convinced with the answer to question#2 . Please evaluate my reasoning below and suggest.

Read these lines:-

"although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility, either by the engineering profession or, as seems traditionally to be the case with bold and unprecedented undertakings, by large numbers of the technically uninformed population. True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow"


1. There was uneasiness among many property owner's because of the structure's shadow. How come this is a mechanical stability issue???
2. Some lines say that there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility but how can we say that many property owner's living nearby were also part of this little criticism. We are not told anywhere .


Please help.
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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 02:19
warrior1991 wrote:
1. There was uneasiness among many property owner's because of the structure's shadow. How come this is a mechanical stability issue???


The author's intention is that the property owners near the tower are worried about the case the tower collapses and falls on their property. This relates to the mechanical feasibility of the tower.

warrior1991 wrote:
how can we say that many property owner's living nearby were also part of this little criticism
[/b]


"True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow"

The bold part of the above statement tells us about the property owners are little worried about the tower.
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 20:54
Need explanation for Q.3. I choose option B.

However, I could eliminate the options and was left B and E.
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 02:55
Doesnt this sentence "although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility" means that every other detail of tower was attacked except mechanical stability?
Cant get Question 2.. :?
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 03:20
SWAT09 wrote:
Doesnt this sentence "although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility" means that every other detail of tower was attacked except mechanical stability?


The sentence doesn't mean that every other detail of tower was attacked except mechanical stability. It means that every detail of the tower was attacked but the structural feasibility of the tower received considerably less criticism.

For question 2 which option did you chose and why?
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 11:31
workout wrote:
SWAT09 wrote:
Doesnt this sentence "although every aspect of the Tower was attacked, there was remarkably little criticism of its structural feasibility" means that every other detail of tower was attacked except mechanical stability?


The sentence doesn't mean that every other detail of tower was attacked except mechanical stability. It means that every detail of the tower was attacked but the structural feasibility of the tower received considerably less criticism.

For question 2 which option did you chose and why?


Hi workout ..agree what u said mechanical stability was prone to less criticism.. this is what I understood from passage that mechanical Stability was not the central reason for tower's opposition but it's intrusion to architectural property and natural beauty. So I chose D. Please correct if my reasoning is wrong.

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In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 02:59
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SWAT09 wrote:
Hi workout ..agree what u said mechanical stability was prone to less criticism.. this is what I understood from passage that mechanical Stability was not the central reason for tower's opposition but it's intrusion to architectural property and natural beauty. So I chose D. Please correct if my reasoning is wrong.

Posted from my mobile device


SWAT09

The question asks about which faction does the author refer to when he mentions “undercurrent” in the last paragraph?

and in the last paragraph, notice the following fragment

Quote:
True, there was an undercurrent of what might be characterized as unease by many property owners in the structure’s shadow


The highlighted text implies that the author used undercurrent to refer to "those who lived around the Eiffel Tower and were concerned about the mechanical stability of Eiffel Tower". Hence option A.
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 10:27
3/4 in 6:10 min.

I feel for D in Q2, just brushing over that respective paragraph was the main issues.
After rereading it to identify my mistake, A seems to be the clear choice in that case.

Moral of the story; don´t just skim for the words but focus on the context too.
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2018, 11:49
1
for 1
1. Based on the discussion of public opinion regarding the Eiffel Tower's construction it can be inferred that

A. the poorer Parisians took to the Tower more readily than the educated classes

B. early in its planning, the Tower was generally embraced by most of the French people

C. those who disagreed with the plans for the Tower were mostly members of the intelligentsia

D. there was no disagreement about whether a 300-meter tower could be constructed

E. those living closest to the tower's site were the most supportive of it

I am confused between B and D...


how to reject D?
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GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 01:43
saurabh9gupta wrote:
for 1

how to reject D?


saurabh9gupta

Check this https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-the-year- ... l#p2112139
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 08:13
how question 4 answer =d

it talks about TOWER
That can be any tower

the passage is about effiel tower ....
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Re: In the year 1885, the Eiffel firm, which was named &nbs [#permalink] 31 Aug 2018, 08:13
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