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# It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1

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VP
Joined: 26 Apr 2004
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Location: Taiwan
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on - Q1  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2004, 05:25
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72% (01:03) correct 28% (01:16) wrong based on 2128 sessions

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It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
(B) it fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
(C) It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
(D) It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
(E) It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Note: There are two questions available with the similar stimulus and same first line but different question. The other question (complete the passage) is discussed in: it-is-theoretically-possible-that-bacteria-developed-on-q2-46449.html
Director
Joined: 14 Oct 2007
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06 Apr 2008, 05:03
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prasannar wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars. The argument says "even ig bacteria did arrive on earth", so this point is irrelevant since we are assuming Mars had bacteria and it got to earth.

B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth. Again, we have to assume that bacteria got transported to earth, since this is the basis of the argument.

C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth. its irrelevant how Martian bacteria got to earth.

D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria. The argument says that martian bacteria that arrived on earth died out. But this choice makes it possible that martian bacteria thrived on earth and didn't die out.

E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out. this is irrelevant since we are trying to find out something that is against it arguement, i.e martian bacteria died out. This statement says nothing about martian bacteria
##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 24 Oct 2004
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27 Dec 2004, 17:48
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I would also pick D. The argument fails to condisder whether all bacteria came from Mars...
Senior Manager
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06 Apr 2008, 04:47
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.
The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars. irrevelant
B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth. irrevelant
C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth. irrevelant
D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
The argument reports about 'strains of bacteria from different planets'
E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
It could well be that all the bacteria living on Earth derived from Mars and the bacteria from Earth died out! Correct answer!

Cheers,
CEO
Joined: 17 May 2007
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07 Apr 2008, 04:28
I agree with D. Will explain further if its correct. I must say its a nasty one - both E and D do sound plausible.
Intern
Joined: 07 Apr 2008
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07 Apr 2008, 07:41
I would go with E.

D talks abt spawning of an Earth-version bacteria from the Martian one. In tht case they would have the same biological/DNA/RNA (blah blah ) structure.. E is correct as it explores a possibility of the existence of a pure-Earth-version (born & brought up on earth :D) which would be biologically different from the martian version.

Hence E.. :D

Any counter arguments??

the stigscousin
VP
Joined: 10 Jun 2007
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07 Apr 2008, 10:01
E

If e is true, then there were bacteria with different enough in protien structure, it is just that they died out. This means we cant determine if the bacteria are from mars or not. I didt pick d because stem says bacteria on earth exist

prasannar wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars.

B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth.

C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.

D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.

E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
Intern
Joined: 07 Apr 2008
Posts: 21

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07 Apr 2008, 12:59
A- hmm..
B-irrelevant to arg
C-irrelevant
D-irrelevant
E-hmm..

To summarize&confirm: What is the arg ? "even if the bac arrived frm MArs, they must have died "
LOok at A and E now...E hints that bac developed on earth might hv died !..and bac frm Mars survived ..
possible! Next, A is true as fact but A doesn't weaken the arg ..arg scope is: bac developed on Mars: may or may not but if they did, then they must have died on earth ( given the fact that structurally totally diff bac cant exist) which E negates..

I go with E

I found this a lil tricky!!

prasannar wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars.

B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth.

C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.

D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.

E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
VP
Joined: 22 Oct 2006
Posts: 1401
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07 Apr 2008, 13:14
E

Argument is making a conclusion that since all earth bacteria are not different enough they couldn't have arose from another planet.

However the argument fails to consider if previous strains of bacteria on earth that were different enough to have arose from another did exist on earth. (but died out which is why they are not around today)
Director
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10 Jul 2009, 01:32
3
4
D.

Conclusion: Since there is only one type of bacteria on earth, Martian bacteria has died out ( implies that all bacteria on Earth are the ones that originated on Earth )

There might be a possibility that all bacteria on Earth died out and so current strain of bacteria on Earth is the one that came from Mars. D brings out this flaw.

ankur55 wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.
The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?
A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars.
B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth.
C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.
Director
Joined: 03 Jun 2009
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10 Jul 2009, 01:40
1
D.

Evidence: All bacteria on earth is from "one source"
Conclusion: bacteria from Mars have died out.

Author seems to have assumed that this "one source" is "earth". Option D directly attacks this assumption, by saying that all the bacteria from earth have died. So this "one source" must be Mars.
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16 Dec 2009, 05:13
A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars---it doesn’t need to establish when it has been theoretically established
B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth----it has already established it theoretically
C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth. -------------out of scope
D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria. ----------CORRECT. If this were true then the argument would fall apart. As then the sole bacteria currently present could have been originated in Mars. So no distinction is needed.
E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.---it has already mentioned that they would have died out.
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Re: Martian bacteria on Earth  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2010, 15:22
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It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. Premise However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacteria strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. Counter -premise
So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out. - conclusion

Weaken question - find the choice that weakens the conclusion

A: It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars - no where related to conclusion ,also author says theoretically possible

B: It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth no where related to conclusion ,also author says meteroite
C: It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth -no where related to conclusion

D: It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria - correct ,if the bacteria on earth are arisen from mars bacteria that means mars bacteria did not die

E: It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out
-no where related to conclusion

In weaken questions - look for the answer choices that attack the conclusion
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Re: Martian bacteria on Earth  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2010, 23:33
I think its D.

A: It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars - irrelevant
B: It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth - irrelevant
C: It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth -it isn't necessary to know the mode of transport
D: It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria - if all the bacteria on Earth have been transported from Mars, then they haven't died out. Hence, correct !
E: It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out - irrelevant
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Re: Martian bacteria on Earth  [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2010, 07:43
nifoui wrote:
It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacteria strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out.

The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticism:
A: It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars
B: It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth
C: It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth
D: It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria
E: It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out

OA =

Answer is D IMO . Reason is that the argument is based on the assumption that bacteria existed on earth prior to the skirmish with meteorites carrying Martian bacteria stains. D significantly weakens the conclusion "even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out" .
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Intern
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06 Mar 2011, 00:38
why is e wrong? dont both options d and e imply the same thing?
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06 Mar 2011, 21:43
no, they dont. e says that there might have been some bacteria strains which originated in india and died out- but what is that to do with wheteher bacterias came from mars or not- it is actually irrelevant
Manager
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It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars  [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2012, 14:14
Question 11: (W) It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out. The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?
A. It fails to establish whether bacteria actually developed on Mars.
B. It fails to establish how likely it is that Martian bacteria were transported to Earth.
C. It fails to consider whether there were means other than meteorites by which Martian bacteria could have been carried to Earth.
D. It fails to consider whether all bacteria now on Earth could have arisen from transported Martian bacteria.
E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

Could someone help me with the answer in this one? Also please provide explanation.

thanks
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars  [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2012, 23:18
raviram80 wrote:
Question 11: (W) It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars early in its history and that some were carried to Earth by a meteorite. However, strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time, and no two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets. So, even if bacteria did arrive on Earth from Mars, they must have died out. The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?
E. It fails to consider whether there could have been strains of bacteria that originated on Earth and later died out.

I will deeply explain only the correct choice because I'm seating at the office and do not have more time to do so.

First, the conclusion of the argument: If bacteria on Earth from Mars, they must died out.

The premise: Strains of bacteria from different planets would probably have substantial differences in protein structure that would persist over time

No two bacterial strains on Earth are different enough to have arisen on different planets.

If we insert choice E in side YES, the bacteria origin from Earth died out, then the bacteria from Mars develop. The conclusion is broken.

In side NO, reversely, the conclusion is secured.
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Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars  [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2012, 23:56
1
I go with D.

the contention made by the author is that since all bacteria on earth are not different enough to have arisen from different planets, any bacteria that may have come from mars must have died out. D refutes this by suggesting the possibility that all the bacteria we see today could be from mars and that the bacteria that originated on earth could have died out. Hence D is correct

Problems with others:

A: Unrelated
B: Unrelated
C: Unrelated
E: Even if some strains of bacteria that originated on earth did die out, this does not preclude the martian strains from dying out leaving some strains that originated on Earth. Note that the statement does not say all bacteria that originated from Earth died out, like D does.. which is what we need.
Re: It is theoretically possible that bacteria developed on Mars &nbs [#permalink] 29 Feb 2012, 23:56

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