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# Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave

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Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 04 Jan 2019, 02:54
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00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

42% (02:30) correct 58% (01:54) wrong based on 76 sessions

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Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave birth in hospitals died of a fever they had contracted after delivering the child and that the mortality was not as high if they gave birth at home with the help of a mid wife. It was found that the doctors had a poorer sense of hygiene and that their dirty hands and instruments were leading to pathogens entering a woman's bloodstream. Thankfully, hygienic conditions today are much better and women are safer.

Fiona: But doctors today are so overworked that a number of doctors, while aware of the need for better hygiene, barely find the time to wash their hands. The likelihood of infections caused by doctors is probably not any better.

Which of the following can be used by Fiona to further establish that Linda need not be correct in her reasoning?

A. A nationwide survey found that doctors, especially experienced ones, are more prone to the belief that they could not possibly be carrying pathogens.

B. It is reported that around 50,000 people die every year in our country from hospital acquired infections.

C. Compulsory hand cleansing is strictly adhered to by all doctors and nurses before every major surgical procedure.

D. During a study, doctors handling newborn babies self reported a hand cleansing rate of 90℅.

E. Nurses are not any better than doctors in adhering to strict cleansing schedules, especially when busy.

Originally posted by robinfish2310 on 04 Jan 2019, 02:14.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Jan 2019, 02:54, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 09:41
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Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave birth in hospitals died of a fever they had contracted after delivering the child and that the mortality was not as high if they gave birth at home with the help of a mid wife. It was found that the doctors had a poorer sense of hygiene and that their dirty hands and instruments were leading to pathogens entering a woman's bloodstream. Thankfully, hygienic conditions today are much better and women are safer.

Fiona: But doctors today are so overworked that a number of doctors, while aware of the need for better hygiene, barely find the time to wash their hands. The likelihood of infections caused by doctors is probably not any better.

Argument: Linda says that Doctors used to have poor hygiene and this lead to deaths. But she says that today conditions are better.
-- Fiona then says that hygiene hasn't been improved, citing hand washing, which is cited as a consideration in Linda's argument.

Goal: Strengthen Fiona's statement that hygiene hasn't improved.

Which of the following can be used by Fiona to further establish that Linda need not be correct in her reasoning?

A. A nationwide survey found that doctors, especially experienced ones, are more prone to the belief that they could not possibly be carrying pathogens. -- So, if Doctors do not wash their hands, then this supports our initial findings that doctors do not wash their hands. Perfect premise to set up the other premise. Prior to knowing this, maybe barley once every patient versus a standard of once every minute.

B. It is reported that around 50,000 people die every year in our country from hospital acquired infections. -- Ok, how did they develop these infections? Not necessarily due to poor conditions. Wrong.

C. Compulsory hand cleansing is strictly adhered to by all doctors and nurses before every major surgical procedure. -- This weakens our argument. If they do this, then our argument falls apart. Wrong.

D. During a study, doctors handling newborn babies self reported a hand cleansing rate of 90℅. -- OK, 90% is good, but who cares? This could weaken or strengthen our argument. We have no base value for how many people get sick because of this. What if no girl gets sick? What if all of them? We cannot make this assumption to bridge the conclusion. We are told initially that 1 out of every 6 used to get sick, but how many doctors, on a percentage basis, were "clean" by today's standards? We have no idea. Thus this cannot help our argument.

E. Nurses are not any better than doctors in adhering to strict cleansing schedules, especially when busy. -- Apples and oranges. If I say that bears pollute and then I try and weaken it by saying that unicorns pollute more, this does not weaken my argument. Wrong.
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Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2019, 23:16
L: Women lost lives because of hygine in 1800s but hygine good now so women are safe

F: overworked doctors don't get time to wash hands so the risk stays intact.

something that strengthens F's reasoning.

Since L talks about overall hyginic conditions anything that states that bad infrastructure or some other reason because of which this over all hygine is not maintained could strengthen F's reasoning.

A. A nationwide survey found that doctors, especially experienced ones, are more prone to the belief that they could not possibly be carrying pathogens. - is beleive always false?---> Beleif could be true as well, what if experienced doctors actually cleanse their hands more than once a day out of habit. Don't know why this is the OA please explain

B. It is reported that around 50,000 people die every year in our country from hospital acquired infections.--> not relevant population could vary from 1 mil to 1 bil

C. Compulsory hand cleansing is strictly adhered to by all doctors and nurses before every major surgical procedure. - strengthener

D. During a study, doctors handling newborn babies self reported a hand cleansing rate of 90℅. - strengthener

E. Nurses are not any better than doctors in adhering to strict cleansing schedules, especially when busy - looks correct to me. Nurses form a part of overall hygine they dont stick to hygine schedules specially when they are overworked.

IMO E should be the one. Can someone explain this?

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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 02:46
Hi,

Could you please look into this CR question. I think OA provided is wrong
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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 03:27
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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 06:10
1
Wonderwoman31,

I believe the OA is correct. If you want, I’d be more than happy to explain it!

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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 06:15
Wonderwoman31,

I believe the OA is correct. If you want, I’d be more than happy to explain it!

Posted from my mobile device

An explanation would be helpful. I chose option E and couldn't understand why option A would be correct.
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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 06:16
Wonderwoman31,

I believe the OA is correct. If you want, I’d be more than happy to explain it!

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Hi Mate,

could you shed some light on AC D?

My rationale was: 10% of doctors do not clean their hands, thus there is a significant risk of pathogen contamination in the respective cases.

I was torn between A & D and ended up picking D.

Regards,
Chris
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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 10:00
Would like to add my two cents.
I chose A as an answer.

Linda thinks through her reasoning that the cause of deaths was due to pathogens due to unhygeine.

Now Fiona says that today also the doctors don't wash their hands due to their busy schedule.

Question stem says in what scenario shall Fiona weaken Linda's reasoning.

A) it says that doctor's believe they do not carry pathogens.

Well... Might be but it does make us believe that irrespective of mortality today the pathogens might not be the reason. It slightly does weaken Linda's reasoning.

B) 50k deaths can be because of any reason and it does not specifically attack the reasoning for pathogens.

C) it's a counter premise so ruled out

D) it says doctor's cleaned their hand 90 out of 100 times... Well 10 times can lead to deaths and it does not weaken the cause that pathogens killed women and at a stretch seems like a strengthener for Linda's reasoning.

E) idea is about the cleansing of doctors as it is doctors who are responsible for infusing pathogens and hence incorrect.

Ans shall be A.

Regards,
Rishav

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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2019, 09:46
robinfish2310 wrote:
Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave birth in hospitals died of a fever they had contracted after delivering the child and that the mortality was not as high if they gave birth at home with the help of a mid wife. It was found that the doctors had a poorer sense of hygiene and that their dirty hands and instruments were leading to pathogens entering a woman's bloodstream. Thankfully, hygienic conditions today are much better and women are safer.

Fiona: But doctors today are so overworked that a number of doctors, while aware of the need for better hygiene, barely find the time to wash their hands. The likelihood of infections caused by doctors is probably not any better.

Which of the following can be used by Fiona to further establish that Linda need not be correct in her reasoning?

A. A nationwide survey found that doctors, especially experienced ones, are more prone to the belief that they could not possibly be carrying pathogens.

B. It is reported that around 50,000 people die every year in our country from hospital acquired infections.

C. Compulsory hand cleansing is strictly adhered to by all doctors and nurses before every major surgical procedure.

D. During a study, doctors handling newborn babies self reported a hand cleansing rate of 90℅.

E. Nurses are not any better than doctors in adhering to strict cleansing schedules, especially when busy.

IMO Option A is the correct answer.
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Re: Linda: In the 1800s, it was found that one in every six women who gave &nbs [#permalink] 07 Jan 2019, 09:46
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