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# Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary

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Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 Oct 2019, 21:56
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Question Stats:

77% (01:05) correct 23% (01:16) wrong based on 1893 sessions

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Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

(A) having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves

(B) who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves

(C) previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

(D) of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves

(E) who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln
By Mark A. Noll

Positively, common sense opened up whole realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men (and sometimes women) who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

Why E is a wrong choice in above question?

Originally posted by AJ1012 on 03 Jul 2016, 00:52.
Last edited by Bunuel on 10 Oct 2019, 21:56, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 10:16
9
AJ1012 wrote:
Why E is a wrong choice in above question?

The sentence says men and women: men is plural and so is women.

Hence, himself or herself, as pronouns, do not have any antecedent.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 04:09
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AJ1012 wrote:
Q. Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.
A.
having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
B.
who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
C.
previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
D.
of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves
E.
who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

Why E is a wrong choice in above question?

Below is as per i think...

First split is himself or herself vs themselves

Both convey similar meaning.....thus shorter is better .(brevity)

A. Having been (incorrect)
B. Correct
D. It reference issue

Sent from my Le X507 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2016, 08:25
"men and women" is plural subject, hence requires plural pronoun, hence themselves is correct.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2016, 15:30
I understand the B has the correct Pronoun antecedent. Now please explain this - isnt 'previously been considered' redundant? how is that correct? been considered should suffice, there is no need for 'previously'. Experts, please help; I would appreciate an early response.

Thanks a ton,
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2017, 09:29
2
1
Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

Issues: Modifier

A. having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
- Incorrect modifier "-ing"

B. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
- Correct modifier "who" to indicate people considered incapable

C. previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
- Missing connector
- himself or herself has no antecedent

D. of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves
- "of whom" creates meaning error
- "considered they" has no connected
- overall this option has poor construction

E. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
- himself or herself has no antecedent

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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 17:18
Q. Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.
A.
having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
B.
who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
C.
previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
D.
of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves
E.
who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

Men- is plural
women- is plural

men and women - is always plural, pronoun used for plural antecedent is also plural, B is the correct choice.

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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 21:44
2
Top Contributor
Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.
A. having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
B. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
C. previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
D. of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves
E. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

having been changes the meaning away from the intended one. So given sentence is incorrect.
men and women is plural so himself or herself is incorrect thereby ruling out C and E.
choice D is wordy and clumsy.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 04:48
hey

after eliminating all choices only B was left hence i chose B

But i have read in manhattan SC book that had is not used if sentence contains some other term referring back to that time or helping in deciding the sequence of events such as before

here also i think previously establishes that point and hence there should be were instead of had

please correct me where i am going wrong.

thanks
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 15:55
2
1
Quote:
But i have read in manhattan SC book that had is not used if sentence contains some other term referring back to that time or helping in deciding the sequence of events such as before

here also i think previously establishes that point and hence there should be were instead of had

I'm not sure about the rule you're referring to in the Manhattan SC book, but here's an overview of the past perfect:

When a sentence discusses two completed actions, the past perfect (had + verb) can be used to refer to the action that occurred first.

In some instances, either the simple past (preterit) or the past perfect can acceptably be used. In case of the latter, the past perfect merely serves to emphasize that one action occurred before the other. The sentence you are asking about falls into this category.

Simple Past: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women who were previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

Past Perfect: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

In the first version, the simple past emphasizes that both actions took place in the past.

In the second version, the past perfect emphasizes that one action took place before the other -- that ordinary men and women were considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves before literacy became commonplace.

If anything, the word "previously" reinforces the acceptability of the past perfect here because it emphasizes the sequence of events.

In other instances, the past perfect is required, and the simple past cannot be used.

For example, when dealing with hypothetical ("if") clauses and result clauses, the tenses follow a very strict pattern. If the main clause contains the past conditional (would have + past participle), the "if" clause must contain the past perfect.

Correct: Investors' concerns would have grown significantly if the market had continued to decline.

Incorrect: Investors' concerns would have grown significantly if the market continued to decline.

In this case, an adverb of time (e.g. "before" or "previously) would not normally appear in the same clause as the past perfect. That might be the rule you're thinking of.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2017, 00:49
smanujahrc, our book doesn't say that you can't use past perfect when other indicators are present. It's just that in some such cases, past perfect isn't necessary. We could probably get away without using past perfect here--the context and the word "previously" make the order of events clear--but there's nothing stopping us from using it, either.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2018, 04:07
please let me know why other options are incorrect?
B. usage of "had" is correct in it?
why C is not correct?
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2018, 00:39
Soumanti Roy wrote:
please let me know why other options are incorrect?
B. usage of "had" is correct in it?
why C is not correct?

Hi Soumanti Roy, indeed the structure in option B (had been considered) is called a past perfect tense. It is most appropriate here because two events happened in the past:

i) Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women

ii) These ordinary men and women had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves

When two events happened in the past, past perfect tense is often used to establish a chronological sequence (time sequence) between the two events: The event that is expressed in past perfect happened earlier and the events that is expressed in simple past, happened later.

Quote:
why C is not correct?

In C the, entire sentence is in simple past. As I discussed above, past perfect is preferable in such scenarios.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2018, 18:20
1
I thought B was ambiguous. How do I know whether "who" modifies "men and women" or just "women"?
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2018, 09:04
1
dahui911 wrote:
I thought B was ambiguous. How do I know whether "who" modifies "men and women" or just "women"?

Hello dahui911,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is the explanation nonetheless.

The original sentence says that literacy opened up the realm of knowledge to ordinary men and women. All these men and women were considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.

Hence logically, who in the correct answer choice B clearly refers to both men and women. Grammatically, the noun modifier who modifies the preceding noun phrase men and women.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2018, 12:33
100% agree with DmitryFarber
For your reference smanujahrc, please find an example where time indicator "before" is given, still past perfect is used.

Quote:
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.

A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue

B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue

C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue

D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs

E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government

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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2018, 01:15
Hi
Wanted to ask what meaning does ‘having been’ conveys in a any sentence.
Here in option A

Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.
A. having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
B. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves
C. previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself
D. of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves
E. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2018, 01:30
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For those who say that we must definitely not use a past perfect when there is already a before or earlier, so some such deeper past indicator, I am curious to know whether such a usage has been rejected in an official question?
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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2018, 23:04
Hi

Can I also eliminate option A on the grounds that themselves has to always refer to the subject.
In this case it cannot refer to Literacy.

I infer this because of the following official question.
In option B, themselves refer to employees which doesnot make sense

https://gmatclub.com/forum/to-attract-t ... 41811.html

Looking forward to any wisdom.

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Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2019, 05:22
1
In Option A
Why is the Verb-ing modifier starting with ???having been ....??? used wrongly here?
As per my understanding the, it is correctly placed right after the noun it is modifying without being separated by a comma. Hence structurally sounds correct.
Re: Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary   [#permalink] 13 Feb 2019, 05:22

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