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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro

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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02

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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2020, 15:21
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yatindra20 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja

Could you please help in this question

Let’s consider the structure of the passage first:

  • Economists claim low taxes lead to economic growth and national prosperity.
  • Country X has high taxes, and Country Y has lower taxes.
  • Country X has greater per-capita income than Country Y.
  • Using the example of Countries X and Y, some politicians conclude that “high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.” This seems to contradict the economists’ earlier opinion that low taxes would stimulate growth and that high taxes would presumably hinder national prosperity.

The question then asks us to identify a criticism to which the politicians’ reasoning is vulnerable. With that in mind, let’s consider the answer choices.

Quote:
(A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

(A) suggests that Country X could reduce its taxes and still not experience greater prosperity. But this is exactly what the politicians are arguing. They claim that keeping taxes high does not hinder national prosperity, and (A) confirms that lowering taxes would not increase national prosperity. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

The wording of (B) can seem confusing, but remember the politicians’ argument. They claim that high taxes (“a factor”) do not hinder national prosperity. But do they confuse that claim with the claim that high taxes (“the same factor”) promote national prosperity? Well, no. Their conclusion remains that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity. They never take the next step and suggest that high taxes promote national prosperity. So, they do not confuse the two claims (B) outlines, and we can eliminate it.

Quote:
(C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

The politicians conclude that the level of taxes in Countries X and Y explains the discrepancy in per-capita income. But (C) introduces the possibility that factors other than taxation influence per-capita income. For example, it’s possible that Country X is more abundant in national resources than Country Y or that Country X is more technologically advanced than Country Y. If either of these is the case, then high taxes could hinder national prosperity in Country X, but not to the extent that per-capita income in Country X falls below that of Country Y. The politicians fail to consider this possibility, so let’s keep (C).

Quote:
(D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

The politicians’ argument assumes that the per-capita income of a country is a reliable indicator of that country’s national prosperity. However, it does not assume that per-capita income DETERMINES the rate of economic growth. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

The economists’ thesis is that low taxes spur economic growth and thus lead to greater national prosperity. On the other hand, the politicians claim that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity. So, rather than assume the economists’ thesis is correct, the politicians suggest that the economists’ thesis is incorrect. Eliminate (E).

(C) is the best answer choice.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2020, 09:03
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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.
The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?

Premise: Two countries are with different rates of taxes are compared. Nothing as such is discussed further about the two countries except the fact that the finding is opposite to what many economists believe.
Conclusion: Politicians based on the finding reason that higher taxes don't hinder national prosperity.

A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term. - WRONG. What happens in future is not relevant to the argument here.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development. - WRONG. This is a worthy contender. But, second part of this option is debatable - other factors might be behind development. Also the sole factor discussed doesn't lead to development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation. - CORRECT. Politicians falter for simply claiming without assessing other possibilities. They also without bothering why the finding was opposite to economists' thesis made a claim.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth. - WRONG. Determining the economic growth is not required. Out of scope.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis. - WRONG. It can't be inferred that politicians take economists' thesis as correct.

CR55190.02

IMO Answer C.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2020, 08:55
generis wrote:
Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02





Basically the argument says,

Reducing tax will help to grow the economy in X.

But Y has high tax and high growth. so, the assumption is wrong.


Now, if you think logically without reading the option. The flaw is that author compares two countries output without considering other economic factors.(like comparing a developed country with underdeveloped country).

check for the options to eliminate.

A- actually supports the argument. Eliminate

B- politician didn't confuses both. Eliminate

C. This is what we are looking for they didn't consider the other relevant factor.- Correct

D. Relation between per-capita income and economic growth is not an issue here.Eliminate

E. No politicians disagreed with economist. so this asumption is not required.Eliminate
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2020, 16:12
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Line 1: Some economists say -> Low taxes lead to economic growth and thus national prosperity
Line 2: Counter example: Per capita income (X) > PCI (Y) despite X also has high taxes as compared to Y
Line 3: Some politicians conclude -> high taxes don’t hinder national prosperity (they dont talk about economic growth but national prosperity directly -> Unlike economist who had said economic growth then national prosperity. In my humble opinion, this is an important catch.).
Summary : Many Economists -> low taxes -> economic growth and thus national prosperity. But PCI of X > PCI of Y despite high taxes in X. from this, some Politicians conclude -> high taxes don’t hinder national prosperity.
Gap: Politicians are generalising from a very small sample set –> there may be other factors which are contributing to national prosperity in X and not just taxes

Question Stem: The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?

Pre-thinking: Politicians reasoning -> high taxes dont hinder national prosperity -> this is to be weakened -> can be weakened if we have not just taxes but other factors also contributing to national prosperity of X

A. It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term
Does not weaken as national prosperity would still be achieved even if its short term.

B. It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development
No. It does not confuse. Politicians say it to be a hindrance to national prosperity, not growth.

C. It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.
Looks good as a weakener. In line with our prediction too that there can be other factors that lead to national prosperity other than taxation.

D. It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.
We ned to weaken the politician's reasoning. D is not the point of the politicians actually. IMO, what author wants to say is that the economic growth is an intermediate step which leads to national prosperity whereas the politicians have directly jumped to national prosperity. Even if PCI leads to economic growth, does it affect the politicians statement about national properity? IMO, no.

E. It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.
Not relevant, i guess.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2020, 08:07
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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term. -- Current tax structure and national prosperity is being discussed in the passage. Leng-term prosperity is irrelevant

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development. -- Politicians never argued that high tax is cause of country X's prosperity. Wrong inference.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation. -- CORRECT, the politicians are not taking other variables for Country X's national prosperity into account and are just focusing on one aspect of the economy.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth. -- Although it could be true, the politicians are not basing their conclusion on per-capita income, rather on high-taxation

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis. -- Economists' theory doesn't take high taxation into account. We can't infer the counterexample from their theory.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 23:21
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja

Could you please help in this question
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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2020, 02:51
A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term. - Irrelevant Doesn't mention Long Term National prosperity

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development. - Opposite of the Inference - Politicians never argued that high tax promotes National prosperity.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation. - CORRECT, Politicians compare two countries without considering factors other than Taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth. - Irrelevant.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis. -Out Of Scope.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2020, 09:41
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generis wrote:
Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02


To better understand the flaw in the original argument, let's examine the following analogous argument:
Reducing advertising expenses helps increase profits. But Company X, which spends HUGE AMOUNTS of money on advertising, has greater profits than Company Y, which spends almost nothing on advertising. Some business professionals have concluded from this that spending a lot of money on advertising does not reduce profits.
This argument incorrectly assumes that reducing advertising expenses is THE ONLY WAY to increase profits, but we all know that we can also increase profits by increasing revenue.


The same applies to the original argument.
It incorrectly assumes that having low taxes is the ONLY WAY to increase per-capita income, when there are other things that can increase per-capita income.
For example, it could be the case that Country X sits on the world's largest deposit of gold and Country Y has no natural resources, in which case Country X can't help but have a higher per-capita income, regardless of its tax rate.

For this reason, the correct answer is C.
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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2020, 09:04
1: low taxes ==> economic growth
2. Low taxes == > national prosperity

3. Higher taxes has high GDP ( no relation known in statement)


Conclusion: high taxes ==> national prosperity ( 1+2+3)

4. What is difference between X and Y?
Given is about high per capita income in high taxes country AND low per capita income in low taxes country.

Gap Analysis: If we find some hint that high taxes and per capita income has no direct relationship then we can weaken or strengthen the conclusion.
Weaken: high GDP is due to high taxes and thus overall economy can be improved

Why not answer optionD?
It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.
>> Conclusion is based without knowing further information about any relationship as mentioned in statement 3.
Knowing this relationship can help us to strengthen or weaken the conclusion.

WHY NOT ANSWER D as knowing the relationship between taxes and per capita income is important to reach a conclusion.


WHY C option?

In option C: It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.
(Fundamentals are still same: low taxes could mean high economic growth (even overall economy could be higher or lower)
The relationship on taxation with national prosperity (economic growth) in between X and Y OR per capita with tax is not clearly defined.


Pleas help to differentiate between C and D
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2020, 22:40
Quote:
low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity

Politicians don't change the basics that low taxes helps to spur economic growth
politicians just think high taxes could also result in national prosperity

in optionD: It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

is irrelevant because there is no relation mentioned with economic growth and we are interested to know w.r.t. national prosperity which may or may not depend on economic growth.
national prosperity can happen due to various other factors even though high taxes.

if think if the option D :It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its "national prosperity ", then probably D could have been an answer?
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Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 23:49
generis wrote:
Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02


Low taxes spur economic growth. (So if a country lowers its taxes, it is expected that its economic growth will increase (from its previous value) and hence will lead to greater prosperity from its initial value. The point is that the comparison is between the same country - before lower taxes and after lower taxes. You cannot compare two countries based on their taxation alone.)

X has high taxes but greater per capita income (showing greater prosperity) than Y.

Politicians' conclusion: High taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

Note that this is an incorrect comparison. You cannot compare country X's prosperity to country Y's. Lower taxes spur economic growth in the same economy. They do not impact neighbouring countries.
So the argument fails to address the other differences in X and Y which could lead to different levels of prosperity.

Answer (C)

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

The argument implies that economic growth increases per capita income. Whether it is actually the case is irrelevant. The two countries are anyway not comparable and the argument fails there itself. Then, whether per capita income determines national growth or not is irrelevant to our argument.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:33
VeritasKarishma wrote:
generis wrote:
Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02


Low taxes spur economic growth. (So if a country lowers its taxes, it is expected that its economic growth will increase (from its previous value) and hence will lead to greater prosperity from its initial value. The point is that the comparison is between the same country - before lower taxes and after lower taxes. You cannot compare two countries based on their taxation alone.)

X has high taxes but greater per capita income (showing greater prosperity) than Y.

Politicians' conclusion: High taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

Note that this is an incorrect comparison. You cannot compare country X's prosperity to country Y's. Lower taxes spur economic growth in the same economy. They do not impact neighbouring countries.
So the argument fails to address the other differences in X and Y which could lead to different levels of prosperity.

Answer (C)

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

The argument implies that economic growth increases per capita income. Whether it is actually the case is irrelevant. The two countries are anyway not comparable and the argument fails there itself. Then, whether per capita income determines national growth or not is irrelevant to our argument.


In some cases, we find that because X and Y may not have same relevant conditions so we can not determine the same outcome. ( as in above question) - not relevant as both subjects could have differences.

However in some case, it is mentioned that even X and Y may not have same relevant conditions but it gives a reasoning to think that it may happen. ( as in below question)- a general consideration

Quote:
An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.

(B) There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy seasons in India

(C) A few months after El Chichón's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term weather trends.


(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

(E) Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.


C : this is an example where the generalized conclusion is countered.

As in questions it is always asked MOST weaken or MOST strengthen , Is there any way that we can differentiate when to consider that X and Y may bring the same output and in what cases it should not be considered as general consideration.
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 22:31
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itsSKR wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
generis wrote:
Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic growth, and that low taxes thus lead to greater national prosperity. But Country X, which has unusually high taxes, has greater per-capita income than the neighboring Country Y, which has much lower taxes. Some politicians have concluded from this that high taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

The politicians' reasoning is most vulnerable to criticism on which of the following grounds?


A) It overlooks the possibility that even if Country X reduced its taxes, it would not experience greater national prosperity in the long term.

B) It confuses a claim that a factor does not hinder a given development with the claim that the same factor promotes that development.

C) It fails to adequately address the possibility that Country X and Country Y differ in relevant respects other than taxation.

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

E) It assumes that the economists' thesis must be correct despite a clear counterexample to that thesis.

CR55190.02


Low taxes spur economic growth. (So if a country lowers its taxes, it is expected that its economic growth will increase (from its previous value) and hence will lead to greater prosperity from its initial value. The point is that the comparison is between the same country - before lower taxes and after lower taxes. You cannot compare two countries based on their taxation alone.)

X has high taxes but greater per capita income (showing greater prosperity) than Y.

Politicians' conclusion: High taxes do not hinder national prosperity.

Note that this is an incorrect comparison. You cannot compare country X's prosperity to country Y's. Lower taxes spur economic growth in the same economy. They do not impact neighbouring countries.
So the argument fails to address the other differences in X and Y which could lead to different levels of prosperity.

Answer (C)

D) It fails to take into account that the per-capita income of a country does not determine its rate of economic growth.

The argument implies that economic growth increases per capita income. Whether it is actually the case is irrelevant. The two countries are anyway not comparable and the argument fails there itself. Then, whether per capita income determines national growth or not is irrelevant to our argument.


In some cases, we find that because X and Y may not have same relevant conditions so we can not determine the same outcome. ( as in above question) - not relevant as both subjects could have differences.

However in some case, it is mentioned that even X and Y may not have same relevant conditions but it gives a reasoning to think that it may happen. ( as in below question)- a general consideration

Quote:
An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.

(B) There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy seasons in India

(C) A few months after El Chichón's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term weather trends.


(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

(E) Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.


C : this is an example where the generalized conclusion is countered.

As in questions it is always asked MOST weaken or MOST strengthen , Is there any way that we can differentiate when to consider that X and Y may bring the same output and in what cases it should not be considered as general consideration.


You are missing a big point even before we talk about generalisations and specifications.

When a volcano erupts in region A, region A's temperature reduces as compared to the previous temp of region A.
Would you say that region A's temperature is still higher than region B's temperature and that is why the generalisation does not hold?
No, right. Temperature of a place depends on a 1000 factors. Region A's and B's temp are not comparable. You are only comparing region A's temp with its own previous temp. Here, Europe's temp is compared with Europe's previous temp. The same rule applied to El Chichon (comparing temp of the region with its OWN temp previously) says that the generalisation does not hold. So this is valid.

Similarly, lowering taxes can improve country X's economy but it may still be worse than the economy of many other countries. You cannot compare economies of diff countries on the basis on taxation alone. If we were given that country C's economy worsened after lowering taxes, then that would be against the given theory of the economists.
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Karishma
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Re: Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro   [#permalink] 07 Jul 2020, 22:31

Many economists hold that keeping taxes low helps to spur economic gro

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