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Updated on: 18 Jun 2018, 00:46
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Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of public policy and emphasize the role of the labor market when explaining employers’ maternity-leave policies, arguing that prior to the passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993, employers were already providing maternity leave in response to the increase in the number of women workers. Employers did create maternity-leave programs in the 1970’s and 1980’s, but not as a purely voluntary response in the absence of any government mandate. In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do so would constitute sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As early as 1973, a survey found that 58 percent of large employers had responded with new maternity-leave policies. Because the 1972 EEOC ruling was contested in court, the ruling won press attention that popularized maternity-leave policies. Yet perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted maternity-leave policies in response to the growing feminization of the workforce.

1. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about government policy?

(A) Government policy is generally unaffected by pressures in the labor market.
(B) The impact of a given government policy is generally weakened by sustained press attention.
(C) It is possible for a particular government policy to continue to have an impact after that policy has been eliminated.
(D) A given government policy can be counterproductive when that policy has already unofficially been implemented.
(E) The impact of a given government policy is generally weakened when the ruling is contested in court.

2. The passage suggests that the relationship between the view of the author with respect to maternity leave policy prior to passage of the FMLA and the view of the politicians, business leaders, and scholars mentioned in lines 1-2 can best be characterized by which of the following statements?

(A) They agree that both the 1972 EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy and the increasing feminization of the workplace had an impact on employers’ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree about the relative importance of each factor.
(B) They agree that the EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers’ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree over whether the Supreme Court’s striking down of the EEOC ruling weakened that impact.
(C) They agree that creating maternity-leave programs was a necessary response to the needs of the increasing number of women workers but disagree about whether maternity should be classified as a disabling medical condition.
(D) They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about employers’ motivations for doing so.
(E) They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about how widespread those programs were.

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present an alternative to a commonly accepted explanation for a phenomenon
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence
(C) criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon
(D) correct a common misconception about the impact a phenomenon has had on a government policy
(E) analyze the ways in which a phenomenon has changed over time in response to market forces

4. According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which of the following?

(A) It provided a government mandate for maternity-leave policies that employers were already offering voluntarily.
(B) It provoked a controversy among employers regarding the proper implementation of maternity-leave policies.
(C) It required all employers to provide employee leave for pregnant women and people with disabling medical conditions.
(D) It gave pregnant women the same rights to employee leave as people with disabling medical conditions.
(E) It increased pregnant women's awareness of their rights to employee leave.

Originally posted by venmic on 16 Aug 2012, 09:52.
Last edited by hazelnut on 18 Jun 2018, 00:46, edited 2 times in total.
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16 Aug 2012, 20:53
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If you want to get this question right, you have to have a solid understanding of the overall point of the passage. This passage is confusing because the point of the passage is to opposes the "point" made by the politicians. Politicians say that maternity leave is a result of labor market forces because public policy didn't exist until 1993. The author counters the politicians' point by saying that businesses started to change their maternity leave policies in 1972 in response to a ruling from the EEOC even though the ruling was struck down by the Court. Therefore, the driving force behind the change was not the labor market forces, but rather the short-lived public policy.

Answer choice C essentially restates the point of the passage. Public policy (the EEOC ruling) still has an impact (on maternity leave) even after eliminated (by the Court).

KW
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12 Jun 2018, 05:05
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nithinjohn wrote:
Can somebody please explain how the answer for the primary purpose question is option A and not C? Th tone of the author indicates that he is criticizing politicians and business leaders.

Read option C Carefully.... "criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon " Politicians and Scholars were able to anticipate the reasons behind the phenomenon , Phenomenon was already there ! , its the reasons behind the phenomenon , politicians and scholars were talking about , and they did not account for " how a government policy can affect a phenomenon" !

For the other option D) Again read the fully option , Misconception about how a phenomenon affects government policy is GMAT Trick to check your comprehension !

Its actually " Misconception about how a government policy affects a Phenomenon " :p. there is no option , by POE , you can only arrive at option A.

Kudos if you like the explanation !!

Hope it helps !?
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03 Oct 2012, 10:40
KyleWiddison wrote:
If you want to get this question right, you have to have a solid understanding of the overall point of the passage. This passage is confusing because the point of the passage is to opposes the "point" made by the politicians. Politicians say that maternity leave is a result of labor market forces because public policy didn't exist until 1993. The author counters the politicians' point by saying that businesses started to change their maternity leave policies in 1972 in response to a ruling from the EEOC even though the ruling was struck down by the Court. Therefore, the driving force behind the change was not the labor market forces, but rather the short-lived public policy.

Answer choice C essentially restates the point of the passage. Public policy (the EEOC ruling) still has an impact (on maternity leave) even after eliminated (by the Court).

KW

Hi Kyle, can you please explain the reasoning for the below question from the same passage:

The passage suggests that the relationship between the view of the author with respect to maternity leave policy prior to passage of the FMLA and the view of the politicians, business leaders, and scholars mentioned in lines 1-2 can best be characterized by which of the following statements?

A. They agree that both the 1972 EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy and the increasing feminization of the workplace had an impact on employersâ€™ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree about the relative importance of each factor.

B. They agree that the EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers' creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree over whether the Supreme Court's striking down of the EEOC ruling weakened that impact.

C. They agree that creating maternity-leave programs was a necessary response to the needs of the increasing number of women workers but disagree about whether maternity should be classified as a disabling medical condition.

D. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about employers' motivations for doing so.

E. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about how widespread those programs were.

There is lot of discussion going on between B and D, I chose D over B, although OA is B.
I find Option "B" wrong as it is clearly mentioned in the passage that "perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down
the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to
recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted
maternity-leave policies in response to the growing
feminization of the workforce."
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04 Oct 2012, 22:42
1
Are you certain the OA is B? I would be willing to bet that the OA is D on this one...

KW
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27 Apr 2013, 06:39
Hey guyzz, the last paragraph especially the last sentence clearly states that the answer choice is C.

Even when the policy is ruled down, its effects are still present as the politicians and the scholars fail to see the effects.

Thanks and regards,
Amit
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Updated on: 26 Aug 2014, 14:39
My first post in the thread relates to the first question and my second post relates to the second question. This would be my third post (if you are keeping track ).

KW
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Originally posted by KyleWiddison on 27 Apr 2013, 06:51.
Last edited by KyleWiddison on 26 Aug 2014, 14:39, edited 1 time in total.
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27 Jul 2014, 21:50
I think it is C and D'

I like this passage because it is typical of gmat passages. I hope Veritas make more passages like this
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11 Aug 2014, 06:22
Why is the 2nd OA to this passage B? I think it should be D!
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26 Aug 2014, 09:02
I also chose D for Q2.
Can anyone confirm that the OA is B and explain why?
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26 Aug 2014, 14:38
2
ronr34 wrote:
I also chose D for Q2.
Can anyone confirm that the OA is B and explain why?

I'm going to quote myself as a source here. The answer to question 2 is D - Both groups agree that programs existed before FMLA but differ on the motivations. There are recognized programs before FMLA but the author is suggesting that early public policy did have an impact on those program's creation but politicians (and others) believe that programs resulted from the increasingly feminized workforce.

The answer cannot be B because the politicians (and others) do NOT recognize the EEOC ruling as having an impact because it was struck down but the Supreme Court (see the last few lines of the passage).

KW
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01 Aug 2016, 02:04

3 new questions from GMATPrep EP2

]C

]D

Divyadisha, thangvietnam as you liked the other passage I'm sure you'll fancy this as well $$;)$$
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11 Aug 2016, 04:23
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Took 6 mins and 40 seconds , including 2 mins 10 seconds to read the passage
-The author presents an opinion held by certain politicians, business leaders and scholars
-The author then presents a case on why that opinion is not entirely true

1.
"Yet perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted maternity-leave policies in response to the growing feminization of the workforce"

Since the author believes that public policy dictated the most change in employers’ maternal leave policies it can be inferred that the author believes that a govt polivy can continue to have an impact even after it has been eliminated. Hence option (C ).

2.
" Employers did create maternity-leave programs in the 1970’s and 1980’s, but not as a purely voluntary response in the absence of any government mandate"

Option (D) accurately summarizes the above excerpt and is hence correct.
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15 Aug 2016, 22:46
DensetsuNo wrote:

3 new questions from GMATPrep EP2

]C

]D

Divyadisha, thangvietnam as you liked the other passage I'm sure you'll fancy this as well $$;)$$

I don't agree what 1972 EEOc ruling did.
It is clear by the end that court has struck down the deal. (and the deal was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do)

so the impact was - Because the 1972 EEOC ruling was contested in court, the ruling won press attention that popularized maternity-leave policies.

So awareness about the maternity policy was what 1972 EEOC ruling did.

The primary purpose of the passage is to analysis this - "ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects". it was not to provide "Alternative explanation" but to "correct a misconception"
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20 Aug 2016, 06:30
Hi guys,

I got all the answers right, but to the question "According to the passage, the 1972 ruling did which of the following" question - I spent a lot of time deliberating between C and D.

I finally marked D, but can someone please present an explanation to clearly show why C is incorrect?

Thank you!
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11 Sep 2016, 13:11
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Neeraj91 wrote:
Hi guys,

I got all the answers right, but to the question "According to the passage, the 1972 ruling did which of the following" question - I spent a lot of time deliberating between C and D.

I finally marked D, but can someone please present an explanation to clearly show why C is incorrect?

Thank you!

C is wrong because 1972 ruling said that employers who allowed leave for disabilities should also allow leave for maternity. So leave for disabilities was already there and court did not allow leave for that in 1972.
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16 Apr 2017, 19:16
vivekdixit07 wrote:
KyleWiddison wrote:
If you want to get this question right, you have to have a solid understanding of the overall point of the passage. This passage is confusing because the point of the passage is to opposes the "point" made by the politicians. Politicians say that maternity leave is a result of labor market forces because public policy didn't exist until 1993. The author counters the politicians' point by saying that businesses started to change their maternity leave policies in 1972 in response to a ruling from the EEOC even though the ruling was struck down by the Court. Therefore, the driving force behind the change was not the labor market forces, but rather the short-lived public policy.

Answer choice C essentially restates the point of the passage. Public policy (the EEOC ruling) still has an impact (on maternity leave) even after eliminated (by the Court).

KW

Hi Kyle, can you please explain the reasoning for the below question from the same passage:

The passage suggests that the relationship between the view of the author with respect to maternity leave policy prior to passage of the FMLA and the view of the politicians, business leaders, and scholars mentioned in lines 1-2 can best be characterized by which of the following statements?

A. They agree that both the 1972 EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy and the increasing feminization of the workplace had an impact on employersâ€™ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree about the relative importance of each factor.

B. They agree that the EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers' creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree over whether the Supreme Court's striking down of the EEOC ruling weakened that impact.

C. They agree that creating maternity-leave programs was a necessary response to the needs of the increasing number of women workers but disagree about whether maternity should be classified as a disabling medical condition.

D. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about employers' motivations for doing so.

E. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about how widespread those programs were.

There is lot of discussion going on between B and D, I chose D over B, although OA is B.
I find Option "B" wrong as it is clearly mentioned in the passage that "perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down
the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to
recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted
maternity-leave policies in response to the growing
feminization of the workforce."

B is incorrect. There is no evidence to suggest that politicians etc. agreed that the "EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers' creation of maternity-leave programs". In fact, the passage states that they "discount public policy".

Agree?
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27 Aug 2017, 11:51
"According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which..."

Isn't D wrong for the same reason as C.... The passage says "employers who allowed leaves.." , this implies that not ALL employers necessarily allowed leave.

as such, the generalization in answer D "pregnant women" is incorrect as well. if a pregnant women works at a company who offers no leave to any employees, then she does not have the same rights regarding work leave as "people with disabling conditions" that work for say, a different company. so pregnant women have the same rights as the disabled in the same company, but to generalize that all pregnant have these rights would be incorrect.

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05 Sep 2017, 07:06
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boobymiles wrote:
"According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which..."

Isn't D wrong for the same reason as C.... The passage says "employers who allowed leaves.." , this implies that not ALL employers necessarily allowed leave.

as such, the generalization in answer D "pregnant women" is incorrect as well. if a pregnant women works at a company who offers no leave to any employees, then she does not have the same rights regarding work leave as "people with disabling conditions" that work for say, a different company. so pregnant women have the same rights as the disabled in the same company, but to generalize that all pregnant have these rights would be incorrect.

Hi boobymiles ,

In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do so would constitute sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
It does not talk about women becoming more aware of their rights.

Hope this helps!!
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24 May 2018, 02:52
Can somebody please explain how the answer for the primary purpose question is option A and not C? Th tone of the author indicates that he is criticizing politicians and business leaders.

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