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Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of

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New post Updated on: 30 Jul 2019, 02:32
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Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of public policy and emphasize the role of the labor market when explaining employers’ maternity-leave policies, arguing that prior to the passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993, employers were already providing maternity leave in response to the increase in the number of women workers. Employers did create maternity-leave programs in the 1970’s and 1980’s, but not as a purely voluntary response in the absence of any government mandate. In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do so would constitute sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As early as 1973, a survey found that 58 percent of large employers had responded with new maternity-leave policies. Because the 1972 EEOC ruling was contested in court, the ruling won press attention that popularized maternity-leave policies. Yet perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted maternity-leave policies in response to the growing feminization of the workforce.

1. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about government policy?

(A) Government policy is generally unaffected by pressures in the labor market.
(B) The impact of a given government policy is generally weakened by sustained press attention.
(C) It is possible for a particular government policy to continue to have an impact after that policy has been eliminated.
(D) A given government policy can be counterproductive when that policy has already unofficially been implemented.
(E) The impact of a given government policy is generally weakened when the ruling is contested in court.



2. The passage suggests that the relationship between the view of the author with respect to maternity leave policy prior to passage of the FMLA and the view of the politicians, business leaders, and scholars mentioned in lines 1-2 can best be characterized by which of the following statements?

(A) They agree that both the 1972 EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy and the increasing feminization of the workplace had an impact on employers’ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree about the relative importance of each factor.
(B) They agree that the EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers’ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree over whether the Supreme Court’s striking down of the EEOC ruling weakened that impact.
(C) They agree that creating maternity-leave programs was a necessary response to the needs of the increasing number of women workers but disagree about whether maternity should be classified as a disabling medical condition.
(D) They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about employers’ motivations for doing so.
(E) They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about how widespread those programs were.



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present an alternative to a commonly accepted explanation for a phenomenon
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence
(C) criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon
(D) correct a common misconception about the impact a phenomenon has had on a government policy
(E) analyze the ways in which a phenomenon has changed over time in response to market forces



4. According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which of the following?

(A) It provided a government mandate for maternity-leave policies that employers were already offering voluntarily.
(B) It provoked a controversy among employers regarding the proper implementation of maternity-leave policies.
(C) It required all employers to provide employee leave for pregnant women and people with disabling medical conditions.
(D) It gave pregnant women the same rights to employee leave as people with disabling medical conditions.
(E) It increased pregnant women's awareness of their rights to employee leave.



Originally posted by venmic on 16 Aug 2012, 08:52.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Jul 2019, 02:32, edited 3 times in total.
Updated complete topic (34).
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New post 16 Aug 2012, 19:53
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If you want to get this question right, you have to have a solid understanding of the overall point of the passage. This passage is confusing because the point of the passage is to opposes the "point" made by the politicians. Politicians say that maternity leave is a result of labor market forces because public policy didn't exist until 1993. The author counters the politicians' point by saying that businesses started to change their maternity leave policies in 1972 in response to a ruling from the EEOC even though the ruling was struck down by the Court. Therefore, the driving force behind the change was not the labor market forces, but rather the short-lived public policy.

Answer choice C essentially restates the point of the passage. Public policy (the EEOC ruling) still has an impact (on maternity leave) even after eliminated (by the Court).

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New post 12 Jun 2018, 04:05
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nithinjohn wrote:
Can somebody please explain how the answer for the primary purpose question is option A and not C? Th tone of the author indicates that he is criticizing politicians and business leaders.


Read option C Carefully.... "criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon " Politicians and Scholars were able to anticipate the reasons behind the phenomenon , Phenomenon was already there ! , its the reasons behind the phenomenon , politicians and scholars were talking about , and they did not account for " how a government policy can affect a phenomenon" !

For the other option D) Again read the fully option , Misconception about how a phenomenon affects government policy is GMAT Trick to check your comprehension !

Its actually " Misconception about how a government policy affects a Phenomenon " :p. there is no option , by POE , you can only arrive at option A.

Kudos if you like the explanation !!

Hope it helps !?
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New post 03 Oct 2012, 09:40
KyleWiddison wrote:
If you want to get this question right, you have to have a solid understanding of the overall point of the passage. This passage is confusing because the point of the passage is to opposes the "point" made by the politicians. Politicians say that maternity leave is a result of labor market forces because public policy didn't exist until 1993. The author counters the politicians' point by saying that businesses started to change their maternity leave policies in 1972 in response to a ruling from the EEOC even though the ruling was struck down by the Court. Therefore, the driving force behind the change was not the labor market forces, but rather the short-lived public policy.

Answer choice C essentially restates the point of the passage. Public policy (the EEOC ruling) still has an impact (on maternity leave) even after eliminated (by the Court).

KW


Hi Kyle, can you please explain the reasoning for the below question from the same passage:

The passage suggests that the relationship between the view of the author with respect to maternity leave policy prior to passage of the FMLA and the view of the politicians, business leaders, and scholars mentioned in lines 1-2 can best be characterized by which of the following statements?

A. They agree that both the 1972 EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy and the increasing feminization of the workplace had an impact on employers’ creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree about the relative importance of each factor.

B. They agree that the EEOC ruling on maternity-leave policy had an initial impact on employers' creation of maternity-leave programs but disagree over whether the Supreme Court's striking down of the EEOC ruling weakened that impact.

C. They agree that creating maternity-leave programs was a necessary response to the needs of the increasing number of women workers but disagree about whether maternity should be classified as a disabling medical condition.

D. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about employers' motivations for doing so.

E. They agree that employers created maternity-leave programs prior to passage of the FMLA but disagree about how widespread those programs were.


There is lot of discussion going on between B and D, I chose D over B, although OA is B.
I find Option "B" wrong as it is clearly mentioned in the passage that "perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down
the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to
recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted
maternity-leave policies in response to the growing
feminization of the workforce."
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New post 04 Oct 2012, 21:42
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Are you certain the OA is B? I would be willing to bet that the OA is D on this one...

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New post 26 Aug 2014, 13:38
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ronr34 wrote:
I also chose D for Q2.
Can anyone confirm that the OA is B and explain why?


I'm going to quote myself as a source here. The answer to question 2 is D - Both groups agree that programs existed before FMLA but differ on the motivations. There are recognized programs before FMLA but the author is suggesting that early public policy did have an impact on those program's creation but politicians (and others) believe that programs resulted from the increasingly feminized workforce.

The answer cannot be B because the politicians (and others) do NOT recognize the EEOC ruling as having an impact because it was struck down but the Supreme Court (see the last few lines of the passage).

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New post 01 Aug 2016, 01:04

3 new questions from GMATPrep EP2



Image



Image

]C


Image

]D


Divyadisha, thangvietnam as you liked the other passage I'm sure you'll fancy this as well \(;)\)
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2016, 03:23
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Took 6 mins and 40 seconds :? , including 2 mins 10 seconds to read the passage
-The author presents an opinion held by certain politicians, business leaders and scholars
-The author then presents a case on why that opinion is not entirely true

1.
"Yet perhaps because the Supreme Court later struck down the ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects, assuming that employers adopted maternity-leave policies in response to the growing feminization of the workforce"

Since the author believes that public policy dictated the most change in employers’ maternal leave policies it can be inferred that the author believes that a govt polivy can continue to have an impact even after it has been eliminated. Hence option (C ).

2.
" Employers did create maternity-leave programs in the 1970’s and 1980’s, but not as a purely voluntary response in the absence of any government mandate"

Option (D) accurately summarizes the above excerpt and is hence correct.
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New post 15 Aug 2016, 21:46
DensetsuNo wrote:

3 new questions from GMATPrep EP2



Image



Image

]C


Image

]D


Divyadisha, thangvietnam as you liked the other passage I'm sure you'll fancy this as well \(;)\)


I don't agree what 1972 EEOc ruling did.
It is clear by the end that court has struck down the deal. (and the deal was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do)

so the impact was - Because the 1972 EEOC ruling was contested in court, the ruling won press attention that popularized maternity-leave policies.

So awareness about the maternity policy was what 1972 EEOC ruling did.


The primary purpose of the passage is to analysis this - "ruling, politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects". it was not to provide "Alternative explanation" but to "correct a misconception"
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New post 27 Aug 2017, 10:51
"According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which..."

Isn't D wrong for the same reason as C.... The passage says "employers who allowed leaves.." , this implies that not ALL employers necessarily allowed leave.

as such, the generalization in answer D "pregnant women" is incorrect as well. if a pregnant women works at a company who offers no leave to any employees, then she does not have the same rights regarding work leave as "people with disabling conditions" that work for say, a different company. so pregnant women have the same rights as the disabled in the same company, but to generalize that all pregnant have these rights would be incorrect.

answer E on the other hand is irrefutable. Please advise?
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New post 05 Sep 2017, 06:06
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boobymiles wrote:
"According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which..."

Isn't D wrong for the same reason as C.... The passage says "employers who allowed leaves.." , this implies that not ALL employers necessarily allowed leave.

as such, the generalization in answer D "pregnant women" is incorrect as well. if a pregnant women works at a company who offers no leave to any employees, then she does not have the same rights regarding work leave as "people with disabling conditions" that work for say, a different company. so pregnant women have the same rights as the disabled in the same company, but to generalize that all pregnant have these rights would be incorrect.

answer E on the other hand is irrefutable. Please advise?


Hi boobymiles ,

In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do so would constitute sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
It does not talk about women becoming more aware of their rights.

Hope this helps!! :-)
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New post 17 Jun 2018, 08:55
Re "According to the passage, the 1972 EEOC ruling did which..."

Since paragraph discusses about maternity leave, which I understand as a leave you take once you had a baby, I considered option D as incorrect because it only refers to "pregnant women". That mean after given birth, they will not be consider for maternity leave.

What is wrong with my logic ?

Thank you!
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New post 24 Jun 2018, 06:13
3. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present an alternative to a commonly accepted explanation for a phenomenon
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence
(C) criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon
(D) correct a common misconception about the impact a phenomenon has had on a government policy
(E) analyze the ways in which a phenomenon has changed over time in response to market forces


Can someone please explain why option C is incorrect - in the last para, the author clearly says that "....politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects" which is pointing out an error?
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2018, 10:29
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suyashiitb wrote:
3. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present an alternative to a commonly accepted explanation for a phenomenon
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence
(C) criticize politicians and scholars for failing to anticipate a phenomenon
(D) correct a common misconception about the impact a phenomenon has had on a government policy
(E) analyze the ways in which a phenomenon has changed over time in response to market forces


Can someone please explain why option C is incorrect - in the last para, the author clearly says that "....politicians and scholars have failed to recognize its effects" which is pointing out an error?

Sure, you could say that the author is being critical of the explanation offered by politicians and scholars. However, the author's primary purpose is not to criticize the politicians and scholars themselves. Instead, the author wants you to walk away believing that his/her alternative explanation is more accurate that the commonly accepted explanation of the politicians and scholars.

More importantly, the passage doesn't say anything about their failing to "anticipate" any phenomenon. Instead, the passage simply suggests that their analyses of maternity-leave policies are not accurate. So (C) can be eliminated.

I hope this helps!
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New post 03 Oct 2018, 06:59
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For the primary purpose , can you pl explain why B is not the answer.
The politicians and other scholars regard labor market as the cause of better maternity leave policies . Hence they have discredited the explanation-govt policy` impact. Author has provided evidences to ensure that public policy does hold a significant place. Hence b seems to be a valid answer.
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 11:17
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hassu13 wrote:
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For the primary purpose , can you pl explain why B is not the answer.
The politicians and other scholars regard labor market as the cause of better maternity leave policies . Hence they have discredited the explanation-govt policy` impact. Author has provided evidences to ensure that public policy does hold a significant place. Hence b seems to be a valid answer.

Quote:
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence

The explanation the author reexamines is: the labor market explains employers' maternity-leave policies more than public policy.

At no point are we told that this explanation has been previously discredited. Rather, this explanation has been widely accepted by "many politicians, business leaders, and scholars." Maybe the confusion is coming from the fact that those people have "discounted the role of public policy"? They do not, however, discredit the explanation that the author examines.

The author is writing this passage in order to question the wide acceptance of this explanation. If anyone is discrediting the explanation, it's the author -- nobody else previously did so.

I hope this helps!
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New post 06 Oct 2018, 18:36
GMATNinja wrote:
hassu13 wrote:
GMATNinja
For the primary purpose , can you pl explain why B is not the answer.
The politicians and other scholars regard labor market as the cause of better maternity leave policies . Hence they have discredited the explanation-govt policy` impact. Author has provided evidences to ensure that public policy does hold a significant place. Hence b seems to be a valid answer.

Quote:
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence

The explanation the author reexamines is: the labor market explains employers' maternity-leave policies more than public policy.

At no point are we told that this explanation has been previously discredited. Rather, this explanation has been widely accepted by "many politicians, business leaders, and scholars." Maybe the confusion is coming from the fact that those people have "discounted the role of public policy"? They do not, however, discredit the explanation that the author examines.

The author is writing this passage in order to question the wide acceptance of this explanation. If anyone is discrediting the explanation, it's the author -- nobody else previously did so.

I hope this helps!


GMATNinja your perception from the passage is that the explanation is: does the labor market explain employers' maternity-leave policies more than public policy. However, what i percieve from the passage is the explanation that: public policy holds more importance in the maternity leave policies. This explanation of public policy holding predence was discounted. Hence, the explanation of public policy was discredited. To emphasise more on his explanation, the author has given further evidences that have happened in the past.
Hence, i feel that the option b is correct. The perception of yours is different from mine. :) :) I still cant get how am i wrong.
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 21:18
hassu13 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
hassu13 wrote:
GMATNinja
For the primary purpose , can you pl explain why B is not the answer.
The politicians and other scholars regard labor market as the cause of better maternity leave policies . Hence they have discredited the explanation-govt policy` impact. Author has provided evidences to ensure that public policy does hold a significant place. Hence b seems to be a valid answer.

Quote:
(B) reexamine a previously discredited explanation for a phenomenon in light of new evidence

The explanation the author reexamines is: the labor market explains employers' maternity-leave policies more than public policy.

At no point are we told that this explanation has been previously discredited. Rather, this explanation has been widely accepted by "many politicians, business leaders, and scholars." Maybe the confusion is coming from the fact that those people have "discounted the role of public policy"? They do not, however, discredit the explanation that the author examines.

The author is writing this passage in order to question the wide acceptance of this explanation. If anyone is discrediting the explanation, it's the author -- nobody else previously did so.

I hope this helps!


GMATNinja your perception from the passage is that the explanation is: does the labor market explain employers' maternity-leave policies more than public policy. However, what i percieve from the passage is the explanation that: public policy holds more importance in the maternity leave policies. This explanation of public policy holding predence was discounted. Hence, the explanation of public policy was discredited. To emphasise more on his explanation, the author has given further evidences that have happened in the past.
Hence, i feel that the option b is correct. The perception of yours is different from mine. :) :) I still cant get how am i wrong.

What explanation has previously been discredited?

In order for us to accept choice (B) as correct, we must show that there was some prior explanation that emphasized public policy. We must also show that this phantom explanation was, at some point in the past, discredited. To "reexamine a previously discredited explanation in light of new evidence" would involve:

    1) describing an old explanation,
    2) telling us that it previously was discredited,
    3) telling us about some new evidence, and then
    4) reexamining that same old explanation in light of the new evidence.

That's not what happens in this passage. The author describes a commonly held, present-day explanation that emphasizes the role of labor markets: "employers were already providing maternity leave in response to the increase in the number of women workers." Ah, okay, so the number of women workers increased, and that's why employers started providing maternity leave. This is what many politicians, business leaders, and scholars believe to this day.

This portion of the passage...

Quote:
Employers did create maternity-leave programs in the 1970’s and 1980’s, but not as a purely voluntary response in the absence of any government mandate. In 1972, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ruled that employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions must also allow them for maternity and that failure to do so would constitute sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As early as 1973, a survey found that 58 percent of large employers had responded with new maternity-leave policies. Because the 1972 EEOC ruling was contested in court, the ruling won press attention that popularized maternity-leave policies.

...is dedicated to presenting an alternative to the commonly held explanation.

The author does not reexamine what happened with the number of women in markets. The author does not reexamine the relationship between this number and employers' decision to provide maternity leave. Instead, the author presents an entirely new explanation: that public policy rulings focused on discrimination led to maternity leave being introduced as early as 1973.

So, is the primary purpose to reexamine an explanation from the past? No. There was no past explanation to reexamine. In order to accept (B), we'd really have to twist some of the author's words or ignore critical wording in choice (B) as it's written.

The primary purpose of the passage is to present the author's new explanation -- an alternative to a commonly accepted explanation. (A) is a much better answer than (B), so we stick with (A).

I hope this helps!
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2018, 08:57
Could someone please explain why D is OA for Qno. 04?
I understand C is incorrect as it refers ALL Employees whereas in passage we see "employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions"
But why is D correct? How is the statement generalizing?
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 14:21
ovrup007 wrote:
Could someone please explain why D is OA for Qno. 04?
I understand C is incorrect as it refers ALL Employees whereas in passage we see "employers who allowed leaves for disabling medical conditions"
But why is D correct? How is the statement generalizing?

As Skywalker18 pointed out in this reply, choice (D) — as well as the passage — is concerned with the rights held by people with disabling medical conditions. According to the passage, the 1972 ruling stated that if an employer grants such rights to any person with a disabling condition, then they must also extend those same rights to any pregnant woman in their workforce.

Whether or not all employers literally extended these rights to the greater population of women in general is never mentioned. But with regards to the right to employee leave at a given company, the passage states that women at that company hold the same right as people with disabling medical conditions at that company.
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Re: Many politicians, business leaders, and scholars discount the role of   [#permalink] 31 Oct 2018, 14:21

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