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Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i

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Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2019, 05:44
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Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women's suffrage. For example, why was women's suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970's? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women's suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. contrast two explanations for the implementation of women's suffrage
B. demonstrate that one factor contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women's suffrage
C. discuss the applicability of a theory for explaining the implementation of women's suffrage
D. clarify certain assumptions underlying a particular theory about the implementation of women's suffrage
E. explain how a particular historical occurrence was causally connected to the implementation of women's suffrage



2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.



3. The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?

A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about states in the United States prior to 1920?

A. The states that were not highly urbanized were slow to grant women's suffrage.
B. The states that were highly urbanized were the most influential in determining national policies regarding suffrage.
C. The most highly urbanized states were more likely to have strong leftist parties.
D. The most highly urbanized states were not necessarily the most industrialized ones.
E. The most highly urbanized states had not yet granted women's suffrage.


5. According to the passage, the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text assert which of the following about the growth of participatory democracy within a particular nation?

A. It is not necessarily correlated with increasing income and opportunities for women in that nation.
B. It is not necessarily related to the implementation of women's suffrage within that nation.
C. It cannot adequately explain the nation's level of economic development.
D. It tends to be encouraged by the occurrence of industrialization in that nation.
E. It is to increase with the growth of leftist parties in that nation.


Originally posted by keirin79 on 01 Aug 2005, 22:09.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 21 Aug 2019, 05:44, edited 12 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (247).
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2005, 02:52
2
1. A
B,D,E go with POE. C remains for an afterthought...

Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women’s suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic back ground and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

Phenomenon is here - why urbanized cantons did that before rural ones, whereas in other countries the situation was opposite.
That's why the answer is A.

2. C
Again, others are eliminated by POE.

3. E

Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2009, 13:17
Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women's suffrage. For example, why was women's suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970's? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women's suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?

A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.

OA is E. Why is C wrong?
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2009, 09:45
OA E is supported by this line in the passage -

Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincided with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920.

I believe OA C talks about employment of workers in America and Swiss which not relevant in context of this question..

Hope this explanation helps..
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2012, 10:09
3
1
Here's how the passage breaks down using some RC Pill strategies (cutting the fluff and connecting the dots, as well as focusing on key transitive phrases)

Economic Development ---> Growth of participatory democracy ----> somehow linked to women's suffrage

- within economic development, 2 key drivers
1) industrialization
2) urbanization

Transitive Phrase which indicated CHANGE IN DIRECTION or AUTHOR's REAL PERSPECTIVE
"HOWEVER, ....." - basically saying that the link between economic development and women's suffrage is not really strong because of....whatever the rest of the passage is going to talk about.

Then starts, "FOR EXAMPLE..."

US and Switzerland were very similar yet there were differences in when women's suffrage was nationally institutionalized.

Those similarities are what..?

As it relates to the TWO economic development drivers mentioned above:
1) industrialization - "Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920"; 33% vs 44%
2) urbanization - "degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920."
- basically keyword "ONLY" 29% suggests that US had a higher % of population living in urban areas and was more "urbanized"

So when the question asks which one of the following about urbanization was "suggested" by the passage, we have it here. The passage SUGGESTS that US urban rate was higher than Swizz urban rate.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2013, 01:50
Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women’s suffrage. For example, why was women’s suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970’s? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincided with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women’s suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland’s urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women’s suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

The passage states which of the following about Switzerland’s urbanized cantons?
A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women’s suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women’s suffrage.

OA is A. I'm confused with C. Can anybody explain why C is incorrect?
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2013, 09:55
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sandra1122 wrote:
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.

OA is A. I'm confused with C. Can anybody explain why C is incorrect?


Hi,

C is incorrect because in the passage, the urban cantons 'similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties' are stated to be shared within the urban cantons.

There is no comparison of 'linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.' between urban and rural cantons.

Hope that helps.

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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 18:09
more questions for the passage -kindly add -
According to the passage, the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text assert which of the
following about the growth of participatory democracy within a particular nation?
A. It is not necessarily correlated with increasing income and opportunities for women in
that nation.
B. It is not necessarily related to the implementation of women's suffrage within that nation.
C. It cannot adequately explain the nation's level of economic development.
D. It tends to be encouraged by the occurrence of industrialization in that nation.
E. It is to increase with the growth of leftist parties in that nation.

OA - (D)

The passage suggests which of the following about states in the United States prior to 1920?
A. The states that were not highly urbanized were slow to grant women's suffrage.
B. The states that were highly urbanized were the most influential in determining national
policies regarding suffrage.
C. The most highly urbanized states were more likely to have strong leftist parties.
D. The most highly urbanized states were not necessarily the most industrialized ones.
E. The most highly urbanized states had not yet granted women's suffrage.

OA - E
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 15:20
keirin79 wrote:
Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women's suffrage. For example, why was women's suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970's? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women's suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. contrast two explanations for the implementation of women's suffrage
B. demonstrate that one factor contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women's suffrage
C. discuss the applicability of a theory for explaining the implementation of women's suffrage
D. clarify certain assumptions underlying a particular theory about the implementation of women's suffrage
E. explain how a particular historical occurrence was causally connected to the implementation of women's suffrage



2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.



3. The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?

A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.



Hi All,

Could you pls explain how to approach below question.

2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2018, 20:52
2
Good passage..All correct in 6 mins.

Hi ammuseeru

For Question 2 refer the lines It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

The Above lines suggest that Answer is A.
C is shell game answer as it uses the terms from the passage and we dont know anything about certain rural cantons in choice C.
Remaining options are irrelevant or Out of scope.

+1 if this helps!

Quote:
Hi All,

Could you pls explain how to approach below question.

2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.

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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2018, 00:22
soumya170293 wrote:
would any one please clarify the 1st question ? I am in quandary to choose between C and D . Need explanation for the POE of D of the 1st question. thanks in advance.


Question 1 is a general question which is related to a main point of a passage

Main Point is: "the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical
facts about the implementation of women's suffrage"

Only answer C fits

I think one should be careful about options addressing assumption, especially "assumptions"
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2018, 07:04
1
tamal99 wrote:
keirin79 wrote:
Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women's suffrage. For example, why was women's suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970's? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women's suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. contrast two explanations for the implementation of women's suffrage
B. demonstrate that one factor contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women's suffrage
C. discuss the applicability of a theory for explaining the implementation of women's suffrage
D. clarify certain assumptions underlying a particular theory about the implementation of women's suffrage
E. explain how a particular historical occurrence was causally connected to the implementation of women's suffrage



2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.



3. The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?

A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about states in the United States prior to 1920?

A. The states that were not highly urbanized were slow to grant women's suffrage.
B. The states that were highly urbanized were the most influential in determining national policies regarding suffrage.
C. The most highly urbanized states were more likely to have strong leftist parties.
D. The most highly urbanized states were not necessarily the most industrialized ones.
E. The most highly urbanized states had not yet granted women's suffrage.


5. According to the passage, the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text assert which of the following about the growth of participatory democracy within a particular nation?

A. It is not necessarily correlated with increasing income and opportunities for women in that nation.
B. It is not necessarily related to the implementation of women's suffrage within that nation.
C. It cannot adequately explain the nation's level of economic development.
D. It tends to be encouraged by the occurrence of industrialization in that nation.
E. It is to increase with the growth of leftist parties in that nation.




There is no doubt that OA of question no 3 is option E, but can anybody explain based on what logic option C can be eliminated?
As far as my understanding goes, option c can also be inferred.

thanks and regards,
Tamal




Hi Tamal,

I would like to help you out with Q 3 my friend

"Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincided with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. "

If you read these lines we can easily infer Option E

Option Choice C talks about employment of workers in America and Swiss which not relevant and cannot be inferred from the passage.

Kindly give kudos if my explanation helped :)
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2018, 20:00
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Hi GMATNinja, could you please explain why option D is correct for Q5? I chose option B instead.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 22:40
csaluja wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, could you please explain why option D is correct for Q5? I chose option B instead.

No problem, let's start with the question itself:

Quote:
5. According to the passage, the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text assert which of the following about the growth of participatory democracy within a particular nation?

This is a wordy way of asking, "Which choice matches what the scholars say about the growth of participatory democracy?" The phrase "within a particular nation" is a bit of a weird choice, but it's just another way of saying "within any given nation."

Here's what the passage attributes to these scholars:

    "Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities."

We know that the author spends the rest of the passage picking apart what these scholars have theorized, using several different nations as examples. But the question doesn't asks us what the author says. The question asks us what the scholars say. And given what we've just read in the passage, the answer seems straightforward: The scholars assert that industrialization and urbanization contribute to the growth of participatory democracy.

Let's look for the choice that matches and eliminate the choices that don't:
Quote:
A. It is not necessarily correlated with increasing income and opportunities for women in that nation.

This is actually closer to the opposite of what the scholars say ("according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities"). Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. It is not necessarily related to the implementation of women's suffrage within that nation.

There's no information in the passage to support whether the highlighted scholars make this fine-grain distinction between participatory democracy and women's suffrage (i.e., women's right to vote). Remember, we're looking for the choice that matches what the scholars say, not what the author or anyone else says. So let's eliminate (B), too.

Quote:
C. It cannot adequately explain the nation's level of economic development.

As with (B), this choice isn't supported by the passage. The only thing that we really know about the scholars is that they've theorized that economic development contributes to the growth of participatory democracy. There's no mention of their beliefs regarding whether the growth of participatory democracy explains economic development. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
D. It tends to be encouraged by the occurrence of industrialization in that nation.

Great! The scholars think that industrialization and urbanization contribute to the growth of participatory democracy, and choice (D) says almost exactly the same thing. Let's keep (D) around and check up on the last choice.

Quote:
E. It is to increase with the growth of leftist parties in that nation.

This potential association shows up in the author's observations at the end of the passage, but it doesn't at all match what the scholars say. Eliminate (E).

That's why (D) is the only choice supported by the passage, and why (B) -- not to mention every other choice -- is wrong. I hope this helps!
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2018, 08:29
1
Phew!

Completed in 10 min 50 seconds (tried to make notes)

accuracy 4/5
CAAED
Got the 3rd one incorrect

I know I have overshot the allocated time for a passage, what should be the ideal time for such a passage?
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2019, 07:37
keirin79 wrote:
Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly industrialization and urbanization, contributes to the growth of participatory democracy; according to this theory, it would seem logical that women would both demand and gain suffrage in ever greater numbers whenever economic development expanded their economic opportunities. However, the economic development theory is inadequate to explain certain historical facts about the implementation of women's suffrage. For example, why was women's suffrage, instituted nationally in the United States in 1920, not instituted nationally in Switzerland until the 1970's? Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. Granted, Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920. However, urbanization cannot fully explain women's suffrage. Within the United States prior to 1920, for example, only less urbanized states had granted women suffrage. Similarly, less urbanized countries such as Cambodia and Ghana had voting rights for women long before Switzerland did. It is true that Switzerland urbanized cantons (political subdivisions) generally enacted women's suffrage legislation earlier than did rural cantons. However, these cantons often shared other characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. contrast two explanations for the implementation of women's suffrage
B. demonstrate that one factor contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women's suffrage
C. discuss the applicability of a theory for explaining the implementation of women's suffrage
D. clarify certain assumptions underlying a particular theory about the implementation of women's suffrage
E. explain how a particular historical occurrence was causally connected to the implementation of women's suffrage



2. The passage states which of the following about Switzerland's urbanized cantons?

A. These cantons shared characteristics other than urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.
B. These cantons tended to be more politically divided than were rural cantons.
C. These cantons shared with certain rural cantons characteristics such as similar linguistic backgrounds and strong leftist parties.
D. The populations of these cantons shared similar views because urbanization furthered the diffusion of ideas among them.
E. These cantons were comparable to the most highly urbanized states in the United States in their stance toward the implementation of women's suffrage.



3. The passage suggests which of the following about urbanization in Switzerland and the United States by 1920?

A. A greater percentage of Swiss industrial workers than American industrial workers lived in urban areas.
B. There were more cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants in Switzerland than there were in the United States.
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.
D. Urbanized areas of Switzerland were more likely than similar areas in the United States to have strong leftist parties.
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about states in the United States prior to 1920?

A. The states that were not highly urbanized were slow to grant women's suffrage.
B. The states that were highly urbanized were the most influential in determining national policies regarding suffrage.
C. The most highly urbanized states were more likely to have strong leftist parties.
D. The most highly urbanized states were not necessarily the most industrialized ones.
E. The most highly urbanized states had not yet granted women's suffrage.


5. According to the passage, the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text assert which of the following about the growth of participatory democracy within a particular nation?

A. It is not necessarily correlated with increasing income and opportunities for women in that nation.
B. It is not necessarily related to the implementation of women's suffrage within that nation.
C. It cannot adequately explain the nation's level of economic development.
D. It tends to be encouraged by the occurrence of industrialization in that nation.
E. It is to increase with the growth of leftist parties in that nation.



Official Explanation - GMATPrep Question Pack:

Q1 - Answer Explanation
Main idea

This question depends on understanding the passage as a whole and determining what is its primary purpose. The first sentence describes the economic development theory as an explanation for women’s suffrage, and the rest of the passage gives reasons to believe that that theory does not explain why women’s suffrage took so long to be implemented in Switzerland.

A The passage does not offer two explanations for the implementation of women’s suffrage; instead, it examines one explanation in detail.
B The passage argues against the idea that one factor—here, economic development—contributes more than another factor to the implementation of women’s suffrage.
C Correct. The passage considers whether the economic development theory is a sufficient explanation for the implementation of women’s suffrage in various countries.
D The passage suggests, in explaining what the economic development theory is, that it assumes that women would ask for and receive suffrage when their economic opportunities expand. The passage’s primary concern, however, is not the clarification of this assumption, but an investigation of whether it actually explains the implementation of women’s suffrage.
E The passage discusses the historical occurrence of urbanization but questions whether it was in fact causally connected to the implementation of women’s suffrage.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 10:45
Why nt option C for question number 3.
"Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. "
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2019, 01:20
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HAPPYatHARVARD wrote:
Why nt option C for question number 3.
"Industrialization was well advanced in both countries by 1920: over 33 percent of American workers were employed in various industries, as compared to 44 percent of Swiss workers. "

The piece of the passage that you've quoted tells us that, overall, a greater percentage of Swiss workers were employed in industry than were American workers. (Perhaps in the pretzel industry? I might argue that Swiss pretzels are better than German pretzels, but on the whole, German bakeries might be the most underrated in the world. Switzerland, incidentally, also has a remarkably robust vegetarian buffet industry. Who knew?)

Anyway, let's take another look at the exact wording of answer choice (C) for question #3:
Quote:
C. Swiss workers living in urban areas were more likely to be employed in industry than were American workers living in urban areas.

This sets up a comparison between Swiss and American workers living in urban areas. The passage does not provide evidence that this comparison is valid -- even though overall a higher percentage of Swiss workers were employed in industry, the passage does not tell us if this was true specifically for urban workers. It is possible that most industrial jobs in Switzerland were located in the countryside, and therefore urban Swiss workers were less likely to be employed in industry than their American counterparts. For this reason, (C) is not the answer for question #3.

Now look at (E):
Quote:
E. A greater percentage of the United States population than the Swiss population lived in urban areas.

Here is the most relevant piece of the passage to evaluate (E):
Quote:
Switzerland and the United States diverged in the degree to which the expansion of industry coincide with the degree of urbanization: only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities of 10,000 or more inhabitants by 1920.

From the first part of the sentence, we know that the two countries "diverged" in the degree to which they were urbanized. Then, by saying that "only 29 percent of the Swiss population lived in cities..." the author makes it clear that Switzerland was less urbanized, by percentage of population, than was the United States.

(E) is the correct answer for question #3.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2019, 18:01
Overall the passage describes how women's suffrage may not necessarily have been promoted by industrialisation as once theorised by scholars.

Question 2
The passage states that urbanized cantons enacted women's suffrage earlier than rural cantons, and this similarity may be explained in the similarities held: linguistic background, strong leftist parties.

A threw me off with "other than urbanisation" (Stupidly), but i overinferred. The answer is correct as "other than urbanisation", urban and rural cantons held a couple of similar traits that helped explain the implementation of suffrage
B is not supported and thus incorrect
C is what i initially chose, but it is incorrect because C states "certain" cantons. Nothing is stated of "certain cantons", but rather urban and rural cantons in general./
D is incorrect because we know nothing of the populations or diffusion of ideas.
E is incorrect because we cannot compare these cantons to the urbanised states based on the info.


Question 3
The information concerning 1920 is contained around the end of the first para. (before "industrialization")
E is correct because we are told that "switzerland and the US diverged (differered) in the degree" of industrialisation coincided with urbanisation in that only "29% of swiss lived in cities" - thus comparatively it is inferred that a greater proportion of the US population was contained in urbanised areas.

A is incorrect because we are actually given statistics that infer the opposite. See (C) below.
B is incorrect because we are merely told that a greater proportion lived in cities of 10k or more, there could be 1 city, 2 cities etc. We don't know. The number of cities is irrelevant as the total proportion of cities is taken as the summation of all occupants of each city.
C is what i initially chose as I had incorrectly assumed that the 44% of swiss workers employed across industry (versus 33% in America) also allowed us to deduce that most of these employees were corrugated around cities when in fact we are told that only 29% of the swiss occupied cities, so the opposite is more than likely the case.
D is incorrect simply because we cannot compare. Leftist parties are only referred to inrelation to the cantons later in the passage.
E is correct as above.
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Re: Many scholars have theorized that economic development, particularly i   [#permalink] 19 Jul 2019, 18:01
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