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Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate

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Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Sep 2018, 04:26
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Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.

(A) are those that boys experience

(B) what boys experience

(C) boys’ experience would

(D) boys’ stress patterns do

(E) stress patterns of boys

Originally posted by Onell on 22 Mar 2011, 23:26.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Sep 2018, 04:26, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2014, 07:17
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ThuP wrote:
Shouldn't it be:

"Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than those that boys experience."

without (are) repeated? It makes me confused since those refer back to "the patterns of stress". I don't think we need to repeat the verb (are) here, do we?

You ask a good question. The repetition of a verb (are in this case) is optional in comparison sentences. However, if not repeating the verb creates an ambiguous sentence, then we have to repeat the verb.

Example when not repeating the verb is ok

Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars.

Here, we don’t have to repeat are, since there is no ambiguity. So, we don’t need to say:

Plants are more efficient than are fungi at acquiring carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars.

Example when not repeating the verb is not ok

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.

Let us expand the sentence:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are patters of stress that boys experience.

Or

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than patters of stress that boys experience are (likely to result in depression).

If we omit the verb, then the sentence would be:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than those that boys experience.

Or

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than patterns of stress that boys experience.

This sentence can be misinterpreted as:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than (in) patterns of stress that boys experience.

In other words, the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result

i) in depression than
ii) (in) patterns of stress that boys experience.

So, the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression; the patterns of stress that girls experience are less likely to result in patterns of stress that boys experience. However, this is clearly not the intended meaning.

The repetition of the verb are ensures that the sentence cannot be interpreted this way.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses comparison ambiguity, its applications and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2011, 01:02
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I think the answer is A

comparison is between:
Patterns of stress that girls experience and
Patterns of stress that boys exoerience.

also, patterns are more likely or less likely to result in depression
and, stress is what boys and girls experience.

In B and C patterns are being compared to stress, hence rejected
D introduces the word 'do'

A is most parallel in contruction.. so I think i will choose A
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2011, 23:46
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Hi

Please find the explanation below:

The sentence aims to compare the 'patterns of stress that girls experience' to 'the patterns of stress that boys experience' and make a conclusion that the former can most likely result in depression.
Note that the structures being compared should always be parallel and at the same level.

For this reason, 'patterns of stress that girls experience' should be compared to 'those that boys experience'. And option A clearly mentions that the boys experience is less likely to result in depression. Hence option A is the correct answer.

We cannot choose option B because it does not provide a clear comparison between the 'patterns of stress that girls experience' and the 'patterns of stress that boys experience'. It just tends to ignore the fact that the boys experience is less likely to result in depression by omitting the word 'are' before 'what'.

Hope this helps.

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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2014, 05:04
What is wrong with E?
Same things are being compared here also ...
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2014, 10:28
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The comparison in E is ambiguous.

Let's look at the main comparison here. Plugging in E yields:
The patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than the stress patterns of boys.

There is no verb attached to "the stress patterns of boys" assure that the likelihoods of resulting in depression are compared.

So two interpretations are possible: the stress patterns of boys "are" also likely to result in depression (but not as much as those of girls are), or
The stress patterns of girls can cause either depression or the stress patterns of boys.

Option A resolves the ambiguity by including the verb.
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2014, 15:55
Shouldn't it be:

"Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than those that boys experience."

without (are) repeated? It makes me confused since those refer back to "the patterns of stress". I don't think we need to repeat the verb (are) here, do we?

Please share your thoughts.

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New post 16 Oct 2014, 17:44
Wow.!!! Thank you so much EducationAisle. I wish I could give you 100 kudos for this post.

Thank you for sharing !!!
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New post 17 Oct 2014, 04:34
ThuP wrote:
Wow.!!! Thank you so much EducationAisle. I wish I could give you 100 kudos for this post.

Thank you for sharing !!!

Thanks for your kind words.

Have mailed you the section on Comparisons.

Hope it helps.
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New post 28 Dec 2014, 15:46
I could understand the difference between A and D... Both are gramatically correct.
However I think there is nothing wrong in D... In fact D is more concise..
D: boys’ stress patterns do

This means that the stress patterns of girls more likely leading to depression than stress patterns of boys do(leading to depression)..

But please help me why A is recommended to D? For the sake of parallelism?
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New post 29 Dec 2014, 06:44
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sheolokesh wrote:
I could understand the difference between A and D... Both are gramatically correct.
However I think there is nothing wrong in D... In fact D is more concise..
D: boys’ stress patterns do

This means that the stress patterns of girls more likely leading to depression than stress patterns of boys do(leading to depression)..

But please help me why A is recommended to D? For the sake of parallelism?

Hello! Let’s complete the intended sentence:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than the patterns of stress that boys experience are likely to result in.

A says:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than those (patterns of stress) that boys experience are likely to result in.

With D, the sentence would be:

Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than boys’ stress patterns do.

So, if you compare this with the intended sentence, at the very least, do is trying to substitute for are likely to result in. Notice that are is an auxiliary verb.

I am pretty sure (unless someone can cite an example to the contrary) that do (and similarly did/does ) cannot substitute for auxiliary verbs. do/did/does can only substitute for main verbs. So, following would be correct:

He runs faster than his classmates do.
- do correctly substitutes for main verb runs

Following would be incorrect:

Jack is more successful than his brothers do.
- do cannot substitute for auxiliary verb is

The correct sentence would be:

Jack is more successful than his brothers are.

If you see any example that violates this, let’s discuss.
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New post 13 Feb 2017, 01:11
Hello again mikemcgarry,
I picked A. I could eliminate B, C and D.
I picked A, as i saw it has followed the same structure, but it seems to me that E has the same meaning. I know I am wrong, just can't find out how....

Respect....
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New post 14 Feb 2017, 11:01
nahid78 wrote:
Hello again mikemcgarry,
I picked A. I could eliminate B, C and D.
I picked A, as i saw it has followed the same structure, but it seems to me that E has the same meaning. I know I am wrong, just can't find out how....

Respect....

Dear nahid78,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

Choice (E) does have the same meaning as (A), but choice (E) is redundant and awkward, whereas (A) is elegant. Choice (A) wins easily---a much better answer.

Mike :-)
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New post 30 Jun 2017, 12:23
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Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.

We are looking for an option that properly compare stress that girls experience vs. stress that boys experience

A are those that boys experience ==> Correct - Stress of boys is correctly compared with Girls
B what boys experience ==> Patterns are being compared to stress
C boys’ experience would color=#ed1c24]==> Patterns are being compared to stress[/color]
D boys’ stress patterns do ==> do cannot be the appropriate linking verb
E stress patterns of boys ==> missing verb form

Hence, Answer is A

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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 20:25
Hi Experts,
Any reason of choosing A over E? It seems those and that are unnecessary here.
WR,
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New post 01 Jul 2017, 08:01
adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts,
Any reason of choosing A over E? It seems those and that are unnecessary here.
WR,
Arpit

Dear adkikani,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, did you read my post on the thread from February 14, 2017? I addressed this very question. As a general rule, it's very good practice to read through the entire post before asking a question that has already been discussed. Does this make sense?

Mike :-)
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New post 01 Jul 2017, 09:20
Hi mikemcgarry
As a matter of fact, I did go through your explanations but still
find that those and that are un-necessary in option A.
In fact we have contrasting views since I find E to be more precise.
Let me know gaps in my understanding.
WR,
Arpit
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 10:26
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Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.
A are those that boys experience - Correct
B what boys experience - illogical comparison - comparison of patterns of stress with boys experience
C boys’ experience would - illogical comparison - comparison of patterns of stress with boys' experience
D boys’ stress patterns do - usage of do
E stress patterns of boys - awkward

Answer A

The sentence is making a comparison, so we have to make sure the comparison makes logical sense and is parallel.

Part of the comparison is girls' stress patterns, so I need to mention stress patterns of boys. B and C are out. (A uses the pronoun "those" to refer to stress patterns, so it stays in.)

Also, I'm specifically comparing how likely the two different patterns are to result in depression- it's not just a straight comparison between different patterns, but the effects of the different patterns - so the comparison needs to indicate this too. This is likely going to be accomplished via a verb, so E is out.

That leaves me with A and D. A uses the same verb in the same tense ("are") while D introduces a new verb ("do"). A also follows a similar format for the rest: "patterns of stress that girls experience" and "those that boys experience." D doesn't. A is more parallel, so that's what I would choose.
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 18:20
adkikani wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry
As a matter of fact, I did go through your explanations but still
find that those and that are un-necessary in option A.
In fact we have contrasting views since I find E to be more precise.
Let me know gaps in my understanding.
WR,
Arpit

Dear Arpit adkikani,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, this is a subtle matter. I don't know whether English is your first language, but this choice between (A) & (E) certainly could be perplexing to a non-native speaker. Here's everything after the word "that" in choice (A)
(A) . . . the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.
The word "those" is necessary: it's a demonstrative pronoun standing in for "the patterns of stress." The word "that" is not only necessary as a relative pronoun beginning a noun-modifying clause, but it also anchors the parallelism by reflecting the previous "that" (before the word "girls"). This presents us with perfectly parallel endings with the matching noun-modifying clauses "that girls experience . . . that boys experience." This is elegant and well-written, and not a single iota of it is unnecessary.

By contrast, here's (E):
(E) . . . the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than stress patterns of boys
To the ears of native English speakers, this is a major train wreck. Notice that the definite article "the" is missing, which adds to the awkwardness. Note that, in contrast to (A), there is not even the vaguest attempt to construct a mirrored pattern of matching. This sounds stunted and unnatural. I can see that someone whose first language is not English might be tempted to mistake this construction for concision. The GMAT SC is so challenging, because these writers excel at creating combinations of words that might sound plausible if you don't know the language well but which simply sound off if you are a native speaker. There is often something suspect about putting two nouns together ("stress" + "patterns"), especially if these two nouns were not put together in this way in the first branch of the parallelism. The phrase "the patterns of stress that girls experience" sounds academic and formal, and the phrase "the stress patterns of boys" sounds casual, perhaps as one might see in advertising; this juxtaposition, in corresponding branches of the parallelism, creates a kind of mismatch in level of formality. Add to this that (E) completely omits the definite modifier: that absence makes (E) clankingly awkward. There is absolutely no way (E) could be correct.

My friend, does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 01:40
Many teenagers undergo stress, but results of a recent study indicate that the patterns of stress that girls experience are more likely to result in depression than are those that boys experience.
A are those that boys experience -Correct. "than are patterns of stress that boys experience" --> correct usage
B what boys experience -Wrong.
C boys’ experience would - Wrong.
D boys’ stress patterns do - instead of "do" are is needed to maintain correct comparison
E stress patterns of boys - "are" is missing, making the comparison unambiguous
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