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Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers

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Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2012, 06:08
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Meaning/clarity



1. American Heart Association researchers have calculated that one person in the United States
should experience a coronary event every 26 seconds.


• one person in the United States should experience a coronary event every 26 seconds
• a person in the United States should experience a coronary event once in every 26 seconds
• a coronary event will strike one person in the United States once in every 26 seconds
• every 26 seconds a person in the United States will experience a coronary event
• every 26 seconds a person in the United States should experience a coronary event
1. The original sentence says something that differs from the logical intent. The verb
“should” implies obligation; in this sentence, it indicates that one person in the United
States ought to experience a coronary event every 26 seconds, as though the person
deserves it, or, for that matter, as though any one person could continue indefinitely
to have such frequent heart attacks. The American Heart Association clearly means
that some person in the United States will experience a coronary event roughly every
26 seconds.
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) “Should” suggests that a person oughtto experience a coronary event, rather than
that a person will. Furthermore, “every 26 seconds” is an approximation, but the
phrase “once in every 26 seconds” is too precise for the situation, suggesting
coronary events occur with predetermined frequency.
(C) “Every 26 seconds” is an approximation, but the phrase “one person in the United
States once in every 26 seconds” is too precise for the situation, suggesting that a
specific person will suffer coronary events on a predetermined schedule.
Furthermore, "once in" is wordy and unnecessary.
(D) CORRECT. In this sentence, “will experience a coronary event” is free of the
unintended connotations of “should experience a coronary event.”
(E) “Should” suggests that a person ought to experience a coronary event, rather than
that a person will.

2. By choosing glass apartments towering a hundred feet over brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seemingly younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic that accentuated
their luxury-laden lives.

• By choosing glass apartments towering a hundred feetover brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seemingly younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic that accentuated
• By choosing glass apartments towering a hundred feet over brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seeming younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic that accentuates
• In choosing glass apartments in hundred-foot towersinstead of brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seemingly younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic that accentuates
• In choosing glass apartments in hundred-foot towersinstead of brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seemingly younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic that accentuated
• In choosing glass apartments towering a hundred feetover brownstone units designed for
earlier generations, seeming younger-than-ever moneyed professionals have embraced a
modern design ethic, accentuating
The original sentence contains two problems. First,“towering a hundred feet
over brownstone units” is unclear and implies the absurd meaning that the glass
apartments are located directly over brownstone units in different buildings. Second,
the verb "accentuated" should be in the present tense, since the earlier use of the
present perfect tense ("have embraced") implies that the embracing is still happening,
and therefore that the ethic accentuates the lives in the general present. Incidentally,
in this context, "by choosing" and "in choosing" have nearly identical meanings; as a
result, this split is immaterial.
(A) Incorrect, as it repeats the original sentence.
•(B) This choice repeats the errors from the choice(A) and adds another. The
adjective “seeming” is incorrect, since adjectives modify nouns; it is not
“seeming professionals,” but “seemingly younger... professionals.” An adverb
must be used to describe an adjective.
•(C) CORRECT. Using “in hundred-foot towers instead of” rather than “towering
a hundred feet over” makes the intended meaning clearer. Also, the verb
"accentuates" is in the proper tense (present).
•(D) The verb "accentuated" should not be in the past tense, as noted above.
•(E) In this choice, “towering a hundred feet over brownstone units” is unclear
and implies the absurd meaning that the glass apartments are located directly
over brownstone units in different buildings. The adjective “seeming” is
incorrect, as noted earlier in choice B. An adverb must be used to describe an
adjective. Finally, the participle "accentuating" should arguably be
replaced with the relative clause "that accentuates"; following a comma,
the participle implies that the professionals are doing the accentuating,
rather than the design ethic. This change of meaning is inadvisable.

3. Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman
aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in1985, prompting the Spanish government
to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.


• Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman
aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in1985, prompting the Spanish government
to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.
• Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had
been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United
Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.
• After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish
government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been
deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.
• In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of
Humanity and prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which
had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.
• In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity,
prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been
deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.
The original sentence contains a misplaced modifier, which alters the intended
meaning of the sentence. The modifying phrase “Nearly 2000 years after its initial
construction” incorrectly modifies “the United Nations,” the adjacent noun. However, it
is the “Roman aqueduct” that was constructed nearly2000 years earlier, not “the
United Nations.” Further, “declared the Roman aqueduct…to be a Heritage of
Humanity” uses an incorrect idiom: “declare X to beY.” The correct form of the idiom
is: “declare X Y.”
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This sentence implies that it was the deterioration of the aqueduct that prompted
the “Spanish government to begin renovations.” However, the intended meaning, as
dictated by the original sentence, is that the United Nations’ declaration prompted the
renovations. Further, “declared the Roman aqueduct…to be a Heritage of Humanity”
uses an incorrect idiom: “declare X to be Y.” The correct form of the idiom is: “declare
X Y.”
(C) The modifying phrase “After being declared…in 1985” incorrectly modifies the
adjacent noun “Spanish government.” It is not the “Spanish government” that was
declared a Heritage of Humanity, but rather the “Roman aqueduct.” Additionally, the
modifying phrase “which had been deteriorating…” incorrectly modifies the
immediately preceding noun, “Segovia.” Again, it was not “Segovia” that had been
deteriorating, but rather the “Roman aqueduct.”
(D) The verbs “declared” and “prompted” are written with parallel structure.
This changes the original meaning of the sentence by making these actions
independent and sequential. However, the intended meaning is that the
“prompting” occurred not independently of the declaration, but as a
consequence of the declaration. Further, “declared the Roman aqueduct…to
be a Heritage of Humanity” uses an incorrect idiom: “declare X to be Y.” The
correct form of the idiom is: “declare X Y.”
(E) CORRECT. This sentence is clear in meaning. The modifying phrase “which had
been deteriorating…” correctly modifies the immediately preceding noun “aqueduct.”
Also, the phrase “prompting the Spanish government…” is subordinate to “declared,”
making it clear that the “prompting” occurred as a result of the declaration. Finally,
“declared the Roman aqueduct…a Heritage of Humanity” uses the correct form of the
idiom: “declared X Y.”

4. Geologists once thought that the molten rock known as lava was an underground remnant of
Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting
through volcanoes, but they now know that it is
continuously created by the heat of the radioactivity deep inside the planet.

• was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, sporadically erupting
• had been an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days and sporadically erupted
• was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, which sporadically erupted
• would be an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days that sporadically erupted
• was an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days, having sporadically erupted
The original sentence does not contain any errors. The verb clause "was an
underground remnant of Earth's earliest days" is correct in tense (simple past
"was") and number (singular "molten rock" paired with singular "was").
Moreover, the modifier "sporadically erupting through volcanoes" correctly
modifies "an underground remnant of Earth's earliest days."
•(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
•(B) This choice unnecessarily and incorrectly changes the simple past "was" to
the past perfect "had been," which is used only when describing the earlier of
two past actions. Moreover, the use of "and" here equates the geologists' false
understanding of lava with the fact that it sometimes erupts through volcanoes.
•(C) This choice improperly uses the relative pronoun "which" to modify "Earth's
earliest days" instead of "molten rock known as lava."
- 78 -
•(D) This choice incorrectly changes the simple past "was" to the conditional
"would be." Moreover, the use of "that" implies that eruption through volcanoes
was part of what the geologists erroneously believed about lava.
•(E) In this choice, "having sporadically erupted" incorrectly places this modifier
in the past tense, implying that lava no longer erupts through volcanoes.

5. Disease, pollution, and overfishing have devastated the bountiful oyster harvests that once
sustained the residents of the Chesapeake Bay area.

• of the Chesapeake Bay area
• in and around the Chesapeake Bay
• of the Chesapeake Bay
• around the vicinity of the Chesapeake Bay
• living in and around the Chesapeake Bay area
The given sentence is correct as written. "The residents of" a certain place is the
proper idiom. It is also correct to refer to the residents living in the "area" of the
Chesapeake Bay, rather than in the Bay itself.
•(A) CORRECT. The original sentence is correct as written.
•(B) This answer incorrectly implies that the residents are living "in" the Bay
itself as well as the area surrounding the Bay. (Note that if we were talking
about residents with houseboats or the like, they would be living "on" the Bay,
not "in" it.)
•(C) This answer implies that the residents reside only in or on the Bay itself
rather than near it or around the Bay area; though there may be some
residents living on boats, the meaning of the original sentence indicates it was
not intended to be limited to those living in or on the Bay. In addition, logic
dictates that the residents cannot live "in" the Bay.
•(D) "Around the vicinity of" is both redundant and the incorrect idiom; to live in
the "vicinity" of a landmark already includes the area "around" that landmark.
The correct idiom is "in the vicinity of."
•(E) "Living in and around the Chesapeake Bay area "is redundant; living "in" a
particular "area" implies living "around" that same area.

6. The spending on durable goods like household appliances and automobiles is a cyclical pattern
that depends on if the overall economy is healthy, whereas non-durable goods like food and
shelter remain constant regardless of the economy
.

• The spending on durable goods like household appliances and automobiles is a cyclical pattern
that depends on if the overall economy is healthy, whereas non-durable goods like food and
shelter remain constant regardless of the economy.
• Regardless of the economy, spending on non-durable goods like food and shelter remains
constant even though spending on durable goods like household appliances and automobiles is
a cyclical pattern that depends on whether the overall economy is healthy.
• Spending on durable goods, such as household appliances and automobiles, follows a cyclical
pattern that depends on the health of the overall economy, whereas spending on non-durable
goods such as food and shelter remains constant regardless of the economy's health.
• Whether the overall economy is healthy determines the cyclical pattern of spending on durable
goods such as household appliances and automobiles, whereas non-durable spending such as
food and shelter remains constant regardless of the economy.
• The cyclical pattern of spending on durable goods such as household appliances and
automobiles depends on whether the overall economy is healthy but non-durable goods like
food and shelter remain constant regardless of the economy.
The original sentence contains several errors. First, "household appliances and
automobiles" are specific examples of durable goods, so they ought to be
introduced with "such as" instead of "like." Similarly, "food and shelter" are specific
examples of non-durable goods, so “like” is used incorrectly there, too. Second,
the use of "if" in this context is incorrect. On the GMAT, "if" is used only to
introduce conditional clauses (e.g. “if X, then Y”). Here, the author should have
used "whether" instead of “if” to indicate uncertainty about the health of the overall
economy. Third, it is illogical to say that "spending…is a cyclical pattern". The
author clearly means that spending follows a cyclical pattern. Finally, the author’s
intent is to make a comparison between spending on durable goods and spending
on non-durable goods, but the original sentence incorrectly compares “spending
on durable goods” to “non-durable goods.”
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) First, "household appliances and automobiles" are specific examples of
durable goods, so they ought to be introduced with "such as" instead of "like."
Similarly, "food and shelter" are specific examples of non-durable goods, so “like”
is used incorrectly there, too. Additionally, it is illogical to say that "spending…is a
cyclical pattern". The author clearly means that "spending" follows a "cyclical
pattern."
(C) CORRECT. The specific examples of durable and non-durable goods are
correctly introduced with “such as.” The comparison is made in a logically and
structurally parallel way: “spending on durable goods…follows a cyclical pattern” is
parallel to “spending on non-durable goods…remains constant.”
(D) The phrasing of this choice is wordy and awkward, and “determines the
cyclical pattern of spending on durable goods” is not structurally parallel to “non-
durable spending … remains constant.” Finally, “non-durable spending” has a
nonsensical meaning; it is the goods that are non-durable, and the author’s intent
was to refer to spending on such goods. NOT parallel.
•(E) "Food and shelter" are specific examples of non-durable goods, so they
ought to be introduced with "such as" instead of "like." Also, this choice states
that "non-durable goods...remain constant" when what is meant is that
"spending on non-durable goods...remains constant.”

7. One characteristic of top-performing sales organizations is that they have a tendency to have
concentrated greater resources in the direction of a smaller, more careful selection of a
number of important customers than is the case with
other sales organizations.

• that they have a tendency to have concentrated greater resources in the direction of a smaller,
more careful selection of a number of important customers than is the case with
• that they tend to concentrate more resources to a smaller, more careful selection of a number
of important customers than toward
• that they have a tendency to concentrate more resources on a smaller, more careful selection
of a number of important customers as opposed to
• that they tend to concentrate more resources on a smaller, more carefully selected number of
important customers than do
• the tendency to concentrate a greater amount of resources on a careful and small selection of
a number of important customers as opposed to
The original sentence correctly compares a characteristic of top-performing sales
organizations with that of other sales organizations. However, the original sentence is
unnecessarily wordy in its use of “they have a tendency” as well as “in the direction
of” and “is the case.” Moreover, the use of the present perfect verb construction “have
concentrated” is inappropriate, since the simple present tense is sufficient to describe
a regular feature of “sales organizations.”
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice is clear and concise. However, in its use of “toward other sales
organizations,” this choice does not draw the correct and logical comparison between
the behavior of top sales organizations and the behavior of other sales organizations.
Instead, this choice illogically compares the level of resources concentrated on
certain important customers and the resources directed toward other sales
organizations. Finally, the construction “concentrate more resources to” is
unidiomatic; the appropriate idiom is “to concentrate on.”
(C) This choice incorrectly draws a comparison between the level of resources
concentrated on a number of important customers and the resources directed
towards other sales organizations in its use of “as opposed to other sales
organizations.” The correct comparison is between the behavior of top sales
organizations and that of other sales organizations.
(D) CORRECT. This choice correctly draws a comparison between a characteristic of
top sales organizations and that of other sales organizations, and is otherwise clear
and concise.
(E) This choice incorrectly draws a comparison between the level of resources
directed toward a number of important customers and the resources directed toward
other sales organizations in its use of “as opposed to.” The correct comparison is
between top sales organizations and other sales organizations.

8. When airline carriers are able to impose a significant fare increase without deterring many
price-sensitive passengers
, it is an encouraging sign for the health of the airline industry.

• When airline carriers are able to impose a significant fare increase without deterring many
price-sensitive passengers
• When airline carriers are able to impose a significant fare increase without deterring many
passengers who are price-sensitive
• When airline carriers may raise fares significantly without it acting as a deterrent to many
price-sensitive passengers
• When airline carriers may raise fares significantly without it deterring many price-sensitive
passengers
• When airline carriers are able to impose a significant fare increase without it deterring many
price-sensitive passengers
In C, D and E, the two it’s have to mean the same thing, which is not the case.
•The meaning of the original sentence is clear: If passengers are not deterred
by a significant fare increase, the airline industry must be doing well. The
original sentence also uses concise language ("price-sensitive passengers") to
make its point. Additionally, the pronoun "it" in the original sentence clearly
refers to the fact that passengers are not deterred by a significant fare
increase.
•(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
•(B) This choice incorrectly replaces the concise phrase "price-sensitive
passengers" with the wordy alternative "passengers who are price-sensitive."
•(C) In this choice, the pronoun "it" is used initially to refer to a fare increase. In
the non-underlined portion of the sentence, a second "it" is used to refer not to
a fare increase, but to the fact that a fare increase does not deter price-
sensitive passengers. The use of the pronoun "it" is incorrect in this answer
choice as it causes the antecedent to be unclear for the second "it" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Also, "acting as a deterrent" is
unnecessarily wordy, and the use of the term "may raise" suggests that the
airlines are being given permission to increase their fares.
•(D) In this choice, the pronoun "it" is used initially to refer to a fare increase. In
the non-underlined portion of the sentence, a second "it" is used to refer not to
a fare increase, but to the fact that a fare increase does not deter price-sensitive passengers. The use of the pronoun "it" is incorrect in this answer
choice as it causes the antecedent to be unclear for the second "it" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Also, the use of the term "may raise"
suggests that the airlines are being given permission to increase their fares.
•(E) In this choice, the pronoun "it" is used initially to refer to a fare increase. In
the non-underlined portion of the sentence, a second "it" is used to refer not to
a fare increase, but to the fact that a fare increase does not deter price-sensitive passengers. The use of the pronoun "it" is incorrect in this answer
choice as it causes the antecedent to be unclear for the second "it" in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.

9. The pioneering research of Lewis Latimer and Thomas Edison, who became known for his
invention of the light bulb
, accelerated the development of the first power plant, which opened
in New York City in 1882.

• of Lewis Latimer and Thomas Edison, who became known for his invention of the light bulb,
• of Lewis Latimer and Thomas Edison, known for his invention of the light bulb,
• of Thomas Edison, known for his invention of the light bulb, and Lewis Latimer
• of Lewis Latimer and Thomas Edison became known for his invention of the light bulb and
• that was conducted by Thomas Edison, who became known for his invention of the light bulb,
and Lewis Latimer
In the original sentence, the pronoun “his” lacks a clear antecedent, making it
unclear whether it was “Lewis Latimer” or “Thomas Edison” who “became
known for his invention of the light bulb.” In fact, the plural phrase "Lewis
Latimer and Thomas Edison" leads us to expect a plural pronoun later on; if we
only wish to refer to "Thomas Edison," we should position the modifying phrase
so as to refer to "Thomas Edison" only.
Also, the construction “who became known for his invention” is wordy and could be
replaced by the more concise form “known for his invention.”
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This answer choice replaces the wordy construction “who became known for his
invention” with the more concise form “known for his invention,” but retains the
original ambiguity stemming from the lack of a clear antecedent for the pronoun “his.”
(C) CORRECT. By placing the modifier “known for his invention of the light bulb”
immediately after “Thomas Edison” and prior to the introduction of “Lewis Latimer,”
this answer choice resolves the original ambiguity and makes it clear that the pronoun
“his” refers to “Thomas Edison” rather than “Lewis Latimer.” The construction “known
for his invention” is also more concise than the original form “who became known for
his invention.”
(D) This answer choice illogically states that it was the “pioneering research” rather
than “Thomas Edison” that became “known for his invention of the light bulb,” thus
altering the original meaning of the sentence. Further, this answer choice retains the
original problem of ambiguity by failing to provide a clear antecedent for the pronoun
“his.”
(E) This answer choice uses the passive construction “research that was conducted
by Thomas Edison” rather than the more direct and concise form “research of
Thomas Edison.” Further, while the placement of the modifier “who became known for
his invention of the light bulb” next to Thomas Edison and prior to the introduction of
“Lewis Latimer” resolves the ambiguity, the phrase “who became known for his
invention” is wordy; the more concise form “known for his invention” is preferable.

10. The bowerbirds of Australia derive their name from the fact that the males build elaborate
bowers of sticks and twigs to attract females, decorating them with flowers and other
vegetation
in a display of courtship.

• the fact that the males build elaborate bowers of sticks and twigs to attract females,
decorating them with flowers and other vegetation
• the elaborate bowers of sticks and twigs that the males build and decorate with flowers and
other vegetation in order to attract females
• the elaborate bowers of sticks and twigs, decorated with flowers and other vegetation that the
males use to attract females
• the fact that the males build elaborate bowers of sticks and twigs, having decorated them with
flowers and other vegetation, to attract females
• the elaborate bowers of sticks and twigs that are built by the males and decorated with
flowers and other vegetation to attract females
The original sentence contains the pronoun "them" but it is not grammatically clear
whether the pronoun's antecedent is "bowers of sticks and twigs" or
"females." Logically, we know that the antecedent is "bowers", so we need to find a
replacement that makes this clear. Moreover, the bowerbird does not derive its name
from the fact that it builds bowers, but from the bowers themselves.
(A) This choice is incorrect as it is the same as the original sentence.
(B) CORRECT. This choice rewrites the sentence to make it clear that the name
derives from the bowers and not from the fact of building them, and it also eliminates
the pronoun "them" and instead refers to "structures" to make the relationship clear.
(C) This choice does not make it clear that the males build the bowers and decorate
them. Instead, it seems to suggest that the bowers exist on their own and that the
male uses only the flowers and vegetation to attract females.
(D) This choice uses the phrase "having decorated them" improperly. It is not
necessary to use "having" in this context because the sentence describes an ongoing
event, not one that occurred in the past.
(E) This choice is in the passive voice, which is not preferable to active voice when a
grammatical active version (such as B) is also offered. Moreover, the placement of
the modifier "that are built by the males" incorrectly implies the sticks and
twigs are built by the males. Also the phrase "and decorated with flowers and other
vegetation to attract females" seems to further imply that the sticks and twigs are also
decorated with flowers...

11. Although reclusive author Harper Lee wrote just one book in her lifetime and that book is
widely considered a masterpiece.

• lifetime and that book
• lifetime and it
• lifetime, that book
• lifetime; it
• lifetime; that book
The initial connecting word "although" indicates a change of direction will occur later
in the sentence, but the subsequent connecting word "and" incorrectly allows the
sentence to continue in the same direction instead of introducing a contrast.
(A) This choice is incorrect because it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice also uses the incorrect connecting word "and" when the initial
"although" indicates a change of direction is necessary. In addition, "it" has an
unclear antecedent; it could be referring back to "book" or "lifetime."
(C) CORRECT. This choice correctly removes the connecting word "and," enabling
the change of direction indicated by "although" to take place successfully.
(D) This choice uses a semicolon incorrectly. Semicolons require each clause before
and after the semicolon to be complete sentences, and here "Although reclusive
author Harper Lee wrote just one book in her lifetime" is not a complete sentence. In
addition, "it" has an unclear antecedent; it could be referring back to "book" or
"lifetime."
(E) This choice uses a semicolon incorrectly. Semicolons require each clause before
and after the semicolon to be complete sentences, and here "Although reclusive
author Harper Lee wrote just one book in her lifetime" is not a complete sentence.

12. Some scientists suggest the moon had been formed out of part of the Earth, which was
dislodged perhaps
by a meteor.

• the moon had been formed out of part of the Earth, which was dislodged perhaps
• that the moon was formed from part of the Earth that had perhaps been dislodged
• that part of the Earth formed the moon, which was dislodged perhaps
• the moon was formed out of part of the Earth, having perhaps been dislodged
• that the moon had been formed from part of the Earth, which perhaps had been dislodged
There are several errors in the original sentence. First, “some scientists
suggest the moon…” illogically indicates that the moon is the object of the verb
“suggest.” The scientists are not suggesting the moon, rather they are
suggesting something about the moon. Second, “formed out of” is wordier than
the preferred idiom “formed from.” Finally, the relative pronoun “which” must
refer to the immediately preceding noun, suggesting illogically in this case that
“the Earth” was dislodged by a meteor. It is more likely that the author intends
to say that “a part” of the Earth was dislodged, or that “the moon” was
dislodged from the Earth.
(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) CORRECT. This choice begins with “some scientists suggest that the
moon was formed…” clearing up the confusion from the original sentence
about what the scientists are suggesting. Second, this choice uses the
preferred idiom “formed from.” The modifying phrase “that had perhaps been
dislodged” correctly refers to “part of the Earth.”
(C) The use of the active verb “formed” is incorrect here because it illogically
suggests that “part of the Earth” had an active role in forming the moon.
(D) First, “some scientists suggest the moon…” illogically indicates that the
moon is the object of the verb “suggest.” The scientists are not suggesting the
moon, rather they are suggesting something about the moon. Second, “formed
out of” is wordier than the preferred idiom “formed from.”
(E) The scientists suggest that two actions occurred: “the moon had been
formed” and “part of the Earth…had been dislodged. ”Both of these actions
took place in the distant past, and it is logical to infer that the part was
dislodged, and later the moon was formed from it. However, this choice uses
the past perfect tense for both actions, incorrectly indicating that the part was
dislodged and the moon simultaneously formed. Furthermore, the past perfect
tense is only used correctly to indicate that one action took place prior to some
other action in the simple past tense; this sentence has no verbs in the simple
past tense, so the use of the past perfect tense is not warranted.

13. The work of Byron and Shelley, like other poets of their era, explored themes of love and
beauty, which gave rise to the school of poetry known as Romanticism
.

• The work of Byron and Shelley, like other poets of their era, explored themes of love and
beauty, which gave rise to the school of poetry known as Romanticism.
• Byron and Shelley, like other poets of their era, explored themes of love and beauty in their
work, giving rise to the school of poetry known as Romanticism.
• Like other poets of their era, Byron and Shelley's work explored themes of love and beauty,
giving rise to the school of poetry known as Romanticism.
• Love and beauty are themes explored by the work of Byron and Shelley, like they were by
other poets of the era, and they gave rise to the school of poetry known as Romanticism.
• The school of poetry known as Romanticism rose from the works of Byron and Shelley, which
was like that of other poets of the era in exploring themes of love and beauty.
The original sentence incorrectly compares the work of Byron and Shelley to poets. In
addition, the use of "which" in the original sentence incorrectly implies that "themes of
love and beauty" gave rise to Romanticism.
(A) This choice is the same as the original sentence.
(B) CORRECT. The comparison is correctly drawn between Byron and Shelley and
"other poets." Moreover, the original problematic use of "which" has been corrected.
(C) This choice incorrectly compares "other poets" to "Byron and Shelley's work."
(D) This choice incorrectly uses "like" to compare verb clauses. Instead, "as" would
be appropriate here. Moreover, parallelism requires that the comparison be made
between "the work of Byron and Shelley" and "the work of other poets" or between
"Byron and Shelley" and "other poets." Instead, we have "the work of Byron and
Shelley" and "other poets."
(E) This is choice is awkward and wordy. Moreover, the verb "was" incorrectly refers
to "the works of Byron and Shelley."

14. Quarried from a site over five miles away, scientists are still puzzled as to how the prehistoric
Britons managed to transport the massive stone blocks of Stonehenge over such a great
distance without machinery
.

• scientists are still puzzled as to how the prehistoric Britons managed to transport the massive
stone blocks of Stonehenge over such a great distance without machinery.
• the massive stone blocks of Stonehenge are still puzzling to scientists because of how the
ancient Britons managed to transport them over such a great distance without machinery.
• scientists are still puzzled by how the prehistoric Britons managed the transportation of the
massive stone blocks of Stonehenge without machinery over such a great distance.
• the massive stone blocks of Stonehenge still puzzle scientists, who wonder how the prehistoric
Britons managed to transport them over such a great distance without machinery.
• the massive stone blocks of Stonehenge are still a puzzle to scientists due to being transported
over such a great distance without machinery.
The sentence begins with a modifier: "quarried from a site over five miles away". This
clearly describes stone. However, the subject of the modifier in the original sentence
is "scientists." This is incorrect. We need to find a choice that places some kind of
stone as the subject of the modifier.
(A) This choice is the same as the original.
(B) While the opening modifier correctly modifies "the massive stone blocks," the
phrase "because of how" seems to imply that the prehistoric Britons' method of
transporting the stones is known.
(C) This choice incorrectly uses "scientists" as the subject of the opening modifier.
(D) CORRECT. "Massive stone blocks" is correctly placed as the subject of the
modifier.
(E) While the opening modifier correctly modifies "the massive stone blocks," this
sentence omits reference to the prehistoric Britons and contains the awkward phrase
"due to being transported".

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Re: Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2019, 02:48
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souvik101990 carcass
For#3, take a look at the OE for option C (incorrect)
Quote:
After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

Apart from the obvious fact that the first modifier incorrectly modifies the Spanish Government - Error 1
It says,
Quote:
Additionally, the
modifying phrase “which had been deteriorating…” incorrectly modifies the
immediately preceding noun, “Segovia.” Again, it was not “Segovia” that had been
deteriorating, but rather the “Roman aqueduct.”
- Error 2
I think because the option says the "The Roman Aqueduct of Segovia" which clearly refers to the Aqueduct itself. The usage of 'of' can be an exception to the touch rule sometimes, I presume, according to one of daagh 's explanations for a similar sentence structure in another question.
So for this reason (Error 2) the option isn't wrong.
Correct me if I've mistaken it.

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Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2019, 15:55
Quote:
Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

A) Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

B) Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.

C) After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

D) In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity and prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

E) In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

sharathnair14 wrote:
souvik101990 carcass
For#3, take a look at the OE for option C (incorrect)
Quote:
After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

Apart from the obvious fact that the first modifier incorrectly modifies the Spanish Government - Error 1
It says,
Quote:
Additionally, the
modifying phrase “which had been deteriorating…” incorrectly modifies the
immediately preceding noun, “Segovia.” Again, it was not “Segovia” that had been
deteriorating, but rather the “Roman aqueduct.”
- Error 2
I think because the option says the "The Roman Aqueduct of Segovia" which clearly refers to the Aqueduct itself. The usage of 'of' can be an exception to the touch rule sometimes, I presume, according to one of daagh 's explanations for a similar sentence structure in another question.
So for this reason (Error 2) the option isn't wrong.
Correct me if I've mistaken it.

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sharathnair14 , you are correct. The relative pronoun which correctly refers to aqueduct.
As you point out, option C is incorrect because the introductory phrase modifies the wrong noun.
The United Nations did not declare the Spanish government a Heritage of Humanity.

This source typically has excellent writers. Call the second part of the OE for option C a blooper.

Generally, which modifies the immediately preceding noun. Generally.

On the other hand, if a noun is followed by a prepositional phrase and then comma + which, the modifier which is allowed to "reach back" over prepositional phrases to get to its noun.

In many instances, a prepositional phrase such as "of Segovia" follows the noun.
That prepositional phrase is an essential modifier.
Essential modifiers trump nonessential modifiers such as [comma + which].
Goth of Segovia and which had been deteriorating modify aqueduct, but the modifiers cannot be in the same place at the same time.

The essential modifier comes first. The nonessential modifier follows and is allowed to "reach back" over the prepositional phrase to get to the main noun that it modifies.

Quite a few correct official answers use C's [comma + which] structure.
(The noun followed by a prepositional phrase is also followed by comma + which, and which correctly modifies the main or "head" noun in the noun phrase.)

Three official questions immediately come to mind. There are many.

Spoiler alert: Opening the links to the questions will reveal which options in three important official questions are incorrect.

Links to those questions are beneath the spoiler.

HERE (effects of crack cocaine)
HERE (area of high pressure)
HERE (Dickinson's letters to)


Nice catch. :)
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Re: Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2020, 02:55
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Re: Meaning/clarity 1. American Heart Association researchers   [#permalink] 23 Jan 2020, 02:55
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