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# Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the

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Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 11:21
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Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth
century that the ice ages were caused by variations
in the Earth's orbit around the Sun. For some
time this theory was considered untestable,
(5) largelybecause there was no sufficiently precise
chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital
variations could be matched.
To establish such a chronology it is necessary
to determine the relative amounts of land ice that
(10) existed at various times inthe Earth's past. Arecent
discovery makes such a determination possible:
relative land-ice volume for a given period can be
deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes,
16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost
(15) all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few
molecules out of every thousand incorporate the
heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the
continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the
amount of water evaporated from the ocean that
tend to be left behind when water evaporates
from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean
water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen
18. The degree of enrichment can be determined
(25) by analyzing ocean sediments of the period,
because these sediments are composed of calcium
carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that
were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from
the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of
(30) oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen,
the more land ice there was when the sediment
was laid down.
As an indicator of shifts in the Earth's climate,
the isotope record has two advantages. First, it is
(35) a global record: there is remarkably little variation
in isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken
from different continental locations. Second, it is
a more continuous record than that taken from
rocks on land. Because of these advantages,
(40) sedimentary evidence can be dated with sufficient
accuracy by radiometric methods to establish a
precise chronology of the ice ages. The dated
isotope record shows that the fluctuations in
global ice volume over the past several hundred
(45) thousand years have a pattern: an ice age occurs
roughly once every 100,000 years. These data have
established a strong connection between variations
in the Earth's orbit and the periodicity of the ice
ages.
(50) However, it is important to note that other
factors, such as volcanic particulates or variations
in the amount of sunlight received by the Earth,
could potentially have affected the climate. The
advantage of the Milankovitch theory is that it
(55) is testable; changes in the Earth's orbit can be
calculated and dated by applying Newton's laws
of gravity to progressively earlier configurations
of the bodies in the solar system. Yetthe lack of
information about other possible factors affecting
(60) global climate does not make them unimportant.
In the passage, the author is primarily interested in
(A) suggesting an alternative to an outdated
research method
(B) introducing a new research method that calls an
accepted theory into question
(C) emphasizing the instability of data gathered
from the application of a new scientific method
(D) presenting a theory and describing a new
method to test that theory
(E) initiating a debate about a widely accepted
theory

The author of the passage would be most likely to
agree with which of the following statements about the
Milankovitch theory?
(A) It is the only possible explanation for the ice
ages.
(B) It is too limited to provide a plausible explanation
for the ice ages, despite recent research
findings.
(C) It cannot be tested and confirmed until further
research on volcanic activity is done.
(D) It is one plausible explanation, though not the
only one, for the ice ages.
(E) It is not a plausible explanation for the ice ages,
although it has opened up promising possibilities
for future research.

Itcan be inferred from the passage that the isotope
record taken from ocean sediments would be less
usefulto researchers if which of the following were true?
(A) It indicated that lighter isotopes of oxygen
predominated at certain times.
(B) It had far more gaps in its sequence than the
record taken from rocks on land.
(C) It indicated that climate shifts did not occur
every 100,000 years.
(D) It indicated that the ratios of oxygen 16 and
oxygen 18 in ocean water were not consistent
with those found in fresh water.
(E) It stretched back for only a million years.

According to the passage, which of the following is
true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean
sediments?
(A) They indicatethat sediments found during an ice
age contain more calcium carbonate than
sediments formed at other times.
(B) They are less reliablethan the evidence from
rocks on land in determining the volume of
land ice.
(0 They can be used to deduce the relative volume
of land ice that was present when the sediment
was laid down.
(D) They are more unpredictable during an ice age
than in other climatic conditions.
(E) They can be used to determine atmospheric
conditions at various times inthe past.

It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation
formed from evaporated ocean water has
(A) the same isotopic ratio as ocean water
(B) less oxygen 18 than does ocean water
(C) less oxygen 18 than has the ice contained in
continental ice sheets
(D) a different isotopic composition than has
precipitation formed from water on land
(E) more oxygen 16 than has precipitation formed
from fresh water

Itcan be inferred from the passage that calcium
carbonate shells
(A) are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks
(B) are less common in sediments formed during an
ice age
(C) are found only in areas that were once covered
by land ice
(D) contain radioactive material that can be used to
determine a sediment's isotopic composition
(E) reflect the isotopic composition of the water at
the time the shells were formed

Same passage with 3 extra questions: LINK

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Joined: 04 Mar 2013
Posts: 15
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 15:00
7
carcass wrote:
Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth
century that the ice ages were caused by variations
in the Earth's orbit around the Sun. For some
time this theory was considered untestable,
(5) largelybecause there was no sufficiently precise
chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital
variations could be matched.
To establish such a chronology it is necessary
to determine the relative amounts of land ice that
(10) existed at various times inthe Earth's past. Arecent
discovery makes such a determination possible:
relative land-ice volume for a given period can be
deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes,
16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost
(15) all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few
molecules out of every thousand incorporate the
heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the
continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the
amount of water evaporated from the ocean that
tend to be left behind when water evaporates
from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean
water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen
18. The degree of enrichment can be determined
(25) by analyzing ocean sediments of the period,
because these sediments are composed of calcium
carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that
were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from
the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of
(30) oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen,
the more land ice there was when the sediment
was laid down.
As an indicator of shifts in the Earth's climate,
the isotope record has two advantages. First, it is
(35) a global record: there is remarkably little variation
in isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken
from different continental locations. Second, it is
a more continuous record than that taken from
rocks on land. Because of these advantages,
(40) sedimentary evidence can be dated with sufficient
accuracy by radiometric methods to establish a
precise chronology of the ice ages. The dated
isotope record shows that the fluctuations in
global ice volume over the past several hundred
(45) thousand years have a pattern: an ice age occurs
roughly once every 100,000 years. These data have
established a strong connection between variations
in the Earth's orbit and the periodicity of the ice
ages.
(50) However, it is important to note that other
factors, such as volcanic particulates or variations
in the amount of sunlight received by the Earth,
could potentially have affected the climate. The
advantage of the Milankovitch theory is that it
(55) is testable; changes in the Earth's orbit can be
calculated and dated by applying Newton's laws
of gravity to progressively earlier configurations
of the bodies in the solar system. Yetthe lack of
information about other possible factors affecting
(60) global climate does not make them unimportant.
In the passage, the author is primarily interested in
(A) suggesting an alternative to an outdated
research method
(B) introducing a new research method that calls an
accepted theory into question
(C) emphasizing the instability of data gathered
from the application of a new scientific method
(D) presenting a theory and describing a new
method to test that theory
(E) initiating a debate about a widely accepted
theory

The author of the passage would be most likely to
agree with which of the following statements about the
Milankovitch theory?
(A) It is the only possible explanation for the ice
ages.
(B) It is too limited to provide a plausible explanation
for the ice ages, despite recent research
findings.
(C) It cannot be tested and confirmed until further
research on volcanic activity is done.
(D) It is one plausible explanation, though not the
only one, for the ice ages.
(E) It is not a plausible explanation for the ice ages,
although it has opened up promising possibilities
for future research.

Itcan be inferred from the passage that the isotope
record taken from ocean sediments would be less
usefulto researchers if which of the following were true?
(A) It indicated that lighter isotopes of oxygen
predominated at certain times.
(B) It had far more gaps in its sequence than the
record taken from rocks on land.
(C) It indicated that climate shifts did not occur
every 100,000 years.
(D) It indicated that the ratios of oxygen 16 and
oxygen 18 in ocean water were not consistent
with those found in fresh water.
(E) It stretched back for only a million years.

According to the passage, which of the following is
true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean
sediments?
(A) They indicatethat sediments found during an ice
age contain more calcium carbonate than
sediments formed at other times.
(B) They are less reliablethan the evidence from
rocks on land in determining the volume of
land ice.
(0 They can be used to deduce the relative volume
of land ice that was present when the sediment
was laid down.
(D) They are more unpredictable during an ice age
than in other climatic conditions.
(E) They can be used to determine atmospheric
conditions at various times inthe past.

It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation
formed from evaporated ocean water has
(A) the same isotopic ratio as ocean water
(B) less oxygen 18 than does ocean water
(C) less oxygen 18 than has the ice contained in
continental ice sheets
(D) a different isotopic composition than has
precipitation formed from water on land
(E) more oxygen 16 than has precipitation formed
from fresh water

Itcan be inferred from the passage that calcium
carbonate shells
(A) are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks
(B) are less common in sediments formed during an
ice age
(C) are found only in areas that were once covered
by land ice
(D) contain radioactive material that can be used to
determine a sediment's isotopic composition
(E) reflect the isotopic composition of the water at
the time the shells were formed

Really... a tough one.. I was completely blown ......

here are my answers with explanations:

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

Ans : (D) presenting a theory and describing a new method to test that theory
The author mentions the theory presented by Milankovitch and states that for some time this theory was untestable. It is also mentioned in next para that a recent discovery helps in testing the validity of the theory mentioned by Milankovitch.

2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the Milankovitch theory?

Ans : Answering this question consumed most of my time while solving this passage. I was confused between options A and D. My pick for this is
(D) It is one plausible explanation, though not the only one, for the ice ages.

As it has already been mentioned in the passage that Milankovitch's theory can be tested if chronology of ice ages is known. Now measuring the relative amount of land ice that existed during various times in the earth's past is helpful in determining the chronology of ice ages and the amount of land ice can be predicted using the findings of the recent discovery. So the answer B, C and E are out. Now between A and D we need to confirm if the theory is the only way to find the volume of land ice. The author mentions in last passage that there are some other factors as well such as volcanic particulates or variations in the amount of sunlight received by the earth which could potentially have affected the climate. The only reason for which the author chose the Milankovitch's theory is that it is testable. There are other factors but they are not considered just because of the lack of information about them.

3. Itcan be inferred from the passage that the isotope record taken from ocean sediments would be less usefulto researchers if which of the following were true?
Ans : (B) It had far more gaps in its sequence than the record taken from rocks on land.
It is clearly mentioned in lines 37-39 that records taken from ocean sediments are advantageous because they are more continuous in nature that those taken from rocks on land.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?
Ans : (c) They can be used to deduce the relative volume of land ice that was present when the sediment was laid down.
It is clearly mentioned in lines 12 to 14 that relative land-ice volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes,16 and 18, found in ocean sediments.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation formed from evaporated ocean water has
Ans : (B) less oxygen 18 than does ocean water
It is mentioned in lines 20 to 24 that when water evaporates the heavier isotope remains in ocean water. This clearly causes the concentration of oxygen 18 to decrease in evaporated water. So precipitation formed from evaporated water will have less oxygen 18 than that in oceanic precipitations.

6. Itcan be inferred from the passage that calcium carbonate shells
Ans : (E) reflect the isotopic composition of the water at the time the shells were formed
From lines 24 to 29 it can be inferred that calcium carbonate shells were constructed using the oceanic water at the time of their composition. So the oxygen isotope's concentration found in their analysis will show the concentration of isotopes in oceanic water.

Carcass, It has taken a lot of time in formatting the question in my post but if some errors are still persisting, I am worried about them. Request you to review the answers and explanations. Its 3:40 am here...So i m gonna sleep with hope to get reply from you when i wake up .... It was really tough question.

Pressing +1 Kudos is the best way to say Thanks!
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 19:20
Bingo !..

i also got the same answers ! .. you are right
Board of Directors
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Posts: 3420
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2013, 11:13
Well done raiprem123 all correct

+1
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2015, 00:43
Got all correct! Time taken: 16 mins 30 secs..!!
_________________

ITS NOT OVER , UNTIL I WIN ! I CAN, AND I WILL .PERIOD.

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Joined: 10 Mar 2014
Posts: 212
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2015, 02:20
carcass wrote:
Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth
century that the ice ages were caused by variations
in the Earth's orbit around the Sun. For some
time this theory was considered untestable,
(5) largelybecause there was no sufficiently precise
chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital
variations could be matched.
To establish such a chronology it is necessary
to determine the relative amounts of land ice that
(10) existed at various times inthe Earth's past. Arecent
discovery makes such a determination possible:
relative land-ice volume for a given period can be
deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes,
16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost
(15) all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few
molecules out of every thousand incorporate the
heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the
continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the
amount of water evaporated from the ocean that
tend to be left behind when water evaporates
from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean
water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen
18. The degree of enrichment can be determined
(25) by analyzing ocean sediments of the period,
because these sediments are composed of calcium
carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that
were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from
the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of
(30) oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen,
the more land ice there was when the sediment
was laid down.
As an indicator of shifts in the Earth's climate,
the isotope record has two advantages. First, it is
(35) a global record: there is remarkably little variation
in isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken
from different continental locations. Second, it is
a more continuous record than that taken from
rocks on land. Because of these advantages,
(40) sedimentary evidence can be dated with sufficient
accuracy by radiometric methods to establish a
precise chronology of the ice ages. The dated
isotope record shows that the fluctuations in
global ice volume over the past several hundred
(45) thousand years have a pattern: an ice age occurs
roughly once every 100,000 years. These data have
established a strong connection between variations
in the Earth's orbit and the periodicity of the ice
ages.
(50) However, it is important to note that other
factors, such as volcanic particulates or variations
in the amount of sunlight received by the Earth,
could potentially have affected the climate. The
advantage of the Milankovitch theory is that it
(55) is testable; changes in the Earth's orbit can be
calculated and dated by applying Newton's laws
of gravity to progressively earlier configurations
of the bodies in the solar system. Yetthe lack of
information about other possible factors affecting
(60) global climate does not make them unimportant.
In the passage, the author is primarily interested in
(A) suggesting an alternative to an outdated
research method
(B) introducing a new research method that calls an
accepted theory into question
(C) emphasizing the instability of data gathered
from the application of a new scientific method
(D) presenting a theory and describing a new
method to test that theory
(E) initiating a debate about a widely accepted
theory

The author of the passage would be most likely to
agree with which of the following statements about the
Milankovitch theory?
(A) It is the only possible explanation for the ice
ages.
(B) It is too limited to provide a plausible explanation
for the ice ages, despite recent research
findings.
(C) It cannot be tested and confirmed until further
research on volcanic activity is done.
(D) It is one plausible explanation, though not the
only one, for the ice ages.
(E) It is not a plausible explanation for the ice ages,
although it has opened up promising possibilities
for future research.

Itcan be inferred from the passage that the isotope
record taken from ocean sediments would be less
usefulto researchers if which of the following were true?
(A) It indicated that lighter isotopes of oxygen
predominated at certain times.
(B) It had far more gaps in its sequence than the
record taken from rocks on land.
(C) It indicated that climate shifts did not occur
every 100,000 years.
(D) It indicated that the ratios of oxygen 16 and
oxygen 18 in ocean water were not consistent
with those found in fresh water.
(E) It stretched back for only a million years.

According to the passage, which of the following is
true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean
sediments?
(A) They indicatethat sediments found during an ice
age contain more calcium carbonate than
sediments formed at other times.
(B) They are less reliablethan the evidence from
rocks on land in determining the volume of
land ice.
(0 They can be used to deduce the relative volume
of land ice that was present when the sediment
was laid down.
(D) They are more unpredictable during an ice age
than in other climatic conditions.
(E) They can be used to determine atmospheric
conditions at various times inthe past.

It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation
formed from evaporated ocean water has
(A) the same isotopic ratio as ocean water
(B) less oxygen 18 than does ocean water
(C) less oxygen 18 than has the ice contained in
continental ice sheets
(D) a different isotopic composition than has
precipitation formed from water on land
(E) more oxygen 16 than has precipitation formed
from fresh water

Itcan be inferred from the passage that calcium
carbonate shells
(A) are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks
(B) are less common in sediments formed during an
ice age
(C) are found only in areas that were once covered
by land ice
(D) contain radioactive material that can be used to
determine a sediment's isotopic composition
(E) reflect the isotopic composition of the water at
the time the shells were formed

Hi Carcass,

As an indicator of shifts in the Earth's climate,
the isotope record has two advantages

Regards
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2016, 12:32
Took more than 15 min but finally all correct :D
D
B
C
B
E
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Joined: 15 Mar 2016
Posts: 1
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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16 May 2016, 19:23
All correct 9 minutes 30 secs
Director
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 504
Concentration: Technology, Other
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 00:45
Top Contributor
All correct 10 mins. ~4 mins for para and ~1 min for each question.
_________________

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Joined: 29 Jun 2015
Posts: 11
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2016, 01:36
Hi,

Can anyone please explain the Q2 - answer? Why it's option 'D', while i understood it should be as 'B'.
It's only mentioned that there are other factors which can play a role in assessing M's discovery, and no where mentioned that there are other discoveries as well to find the ice age. Thanks!
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Joined: 17 Mar 2014
Posts: 220
Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century that the ice ages [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2017, 18:35
Line Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth
century that the ice ages were caused by variations
in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. For some time
this theory was considered untestable, largely
(5) because there was no sufficiently precise
chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital
variations could be matched.
To establish such a chronology it is necessary to
determine the relative amounts of land ice that
(10) existed at various times in the Earth’s past. A
recent discovery makes such a determination
possible: relative land-ice volume for a given period
can be deduced from the ratio of two oxygen
isotopes, 16 and 18, found in ocean sediments.
(15) Almost all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a
few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the
heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the
continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the
amount of water evaporated from the ocean that
isotopes tend to be left behind when water
evaporates from the ocean surfaces, the remaining
ocean water becomes progressively enriched in
oxygen 18. The degree of enrichment can be
(25) determined by analyzing ocean sediments of the
period, because these sediments are composed of
calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms,
shells that were constructed with oxygen atoms
drawn from the surrounding ocean. The higher the
(30) ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary
specimen, the more land ice there was when the
sediment was laid down.
As an indicator of shifts in the Earth’s climate,
the isotope record has two advantages. First, it is a
(35) global record: there is remarkably little variation in
isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken from
different continental locations. Second, it is a
more continuous record than that taken from rocks
on land. Because of these advantages, sedimentary
(40) evidence can be dated with sufficient accuracy
by radiometric methods to establish a precise
chronology of the ice ages. The dated isotope
record shows that the fluctuations in global ice
volume over the past several hundred thousand
(45) years have a pattern: an ice age occurs roughly once
every 100,000 years. These data have established
a strong connection between variations in the Earth’s
orbit and the periodicity of the ice ages.
However, it is important to note that other
(50) factors, such as volcanic particulates or variations
in the amount of sunlight received by the Earth,
could potentially have affected the climate. The
advantage of the Milankovitch theory is that it
is testable; changes in the Earth’s orbit can be
(55) calculated and dated by applying Newton’s laws of
gravity to progressively earlier configurations of the
bodies in the solar system. Yet the lack of
information about other possible factors affecting
global climate does not make them unimportant.

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in
A. suggesting an alternative to an outdated research method
B. introducing a new research method that calls an accepted theory into question
C. emphasizing the instability of data gathered from the application of a new scientific method
D. presenting a theory and describing a new method to test that theory
E. initiating a debate about a widely accepted theory

2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the Milankovitch theory?
A. It is the only possible explanation for the ice ages.
B. It is too limited to provide a plausible explanation for the ice ages, despite recent research findings.
C. It cannot be tested and confirmed until further research on volcanic activity is done.
D. It is one plausible explanation, though not the only one, for the ice ages.
E. It is not a plausible explanation for the ice ages, although it has opened up promising possibilities for future research

3.It can be inferred from the passage that the isotope record taken from ocean sediments would be less useful to researchers if which of the following were true?
A. It indicated that lighter isotopes of oxygen predominated at certain times.
B. It had far more gaps in its sequence than the record taken from rocks on land.
C. It indicated that climate shifts did not occur every 100,000 years.
D. It indicated that the ratios of oxygen 16 and oxygen 18 in ocean water were not consistent with those found in fresh water.
E. It stretched back for only a million years.

4.According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?

A. They indicate that sediments found during an ice age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments formed at other times.
B. They are less reliable than the evidence from rocks on land in determining the volume of land ice.
C. They can be used to deduce the relative volume of land ice that was present when the sediment was laid down.
D. They are more unpredictable during an ice age than in other climatic conditions.
E. They can be used to determine atmospheric conditions at various times in the past.

5.It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation formed from evaporated ocean water has
A. the same isotopic ratio as ocean water
B. less oxygen 18 than does ocean water
C. less oxygen 18 than has the ice contained in continental ice sheets
D. a different isotopic composition than has precipitation formed from water on land
E. more oxygen 16 than has precipitation formed from fresh water

6. It can be inferred from the passage that calcium carbonate shells
A. are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks
B. are less common in sediments formed during an ice age
C. are found only in areas that were once covered by land ice
D. contain radioactive material that can be used to determine a sediment’s isotopic composition
E. reflect the isotopic composition of the water at the time the shells were formed

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Schools: AGSM '18
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2017, 18:24
Can anyone please explain why Q4 /option A is wrong?

According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?
(A) They indicate that sediments found during an ice age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments formed at other times.
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2017, 23:51
Hi All. Took 13 mins 47 secs. Got all correct.
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Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2018, 02:13
anchal25 wrote:
Hi,

Can anyone please explain the Q2 - answer? Why it's option 'D', while i understood it should be as 'B'.
It's only mentioned that there are other factors which can play a role in assessing M's discovery, and no where mentioned that there are other discoveries as well to find the ice age. Thanks!

Its 2018 now, but i'll try to answer that for the benefit of those who might have gotten stuck here as well.

Milansovitch theory states that ice ages are caused by variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun (and nothing else). The passage then explains and confirms that such a connection does indeed exist. But when we read line (49-52), there could be other causes of ice age as well.

Hence the answer, "It is one plausible explanation, though not the only one, for the ice ages."
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Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2018, 02:23
Soul777 wrote:
Can anyone please explain why Q4 /option A is wrong?

According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?
(A) They indicate that sediments found during an ice age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments formed at other times.

Hi, let me try to answer that.

The passage did not mentioned anything about having more or less calcium carbonate in sediments. In fact the answer can be directly lifted from the passage in line (12).
Re: Milankovitch proposed inthe early twentieth century that the   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2018, 02:23
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