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Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g

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Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 87
Page: 493

Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists’ recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

In the passage, the author develops the argument by

(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence

(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory

(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon

(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar structures in creatures now extinct

(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures

Similar Question : LINK 1 LINK 2

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Originally posted by ykaiim on 14 May 2010, 04:36.
Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Mar 2018, 23:13, edited 7 times in total.
Reformatted the question.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2010, 07:02
the flaw in the ARG is that author exaggerated his conclusion by considering Bat & dinosaur same....

any option specifying this should be answer...

C does it :)
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2010, 15:12
"c" for sure , similer Q is mentioned in OG 11
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2014, 15:01
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Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.
Inthe passage, the author develops the argument by
(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence
(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory
(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar
structures in creatures now extinct
(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures


Official Answer is C.

My problem is I choosed down to B and C, and selected B, and got wrong!!!! The reason I eliminate C is
1. The phenomenon was not unknown, in question stimulus you find the word "hypothesis", so the analogy of flight technique of bats and Sandactylus was not unknown.

The reasons I chose B are
1. "the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels" was an evidence
2. this evidence was reintrepeting to establish same flight technique
3. this evidence also was supporting earlier percieved theory that birds network of blood vessels in their wings usually fly by gliding and sometimes flapping their wings.
4. I thought this was a strengthening question "the author develops the argument by", if only a newly discovered evidence support the earlier theory, then the argument will be "developed"

Please, help me finding my misunderstandings...!!!
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2014, 23:18
shpnoraj wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.
Inthe passage, the author develops the argument by
(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence
(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory
(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar
structures in creatures now extinct
(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures


Official Answer is C.
Please, help me finding my misunderstandings...!!!


FACT : Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings.
The author also knows a fact that BAT fly using its wing.Author makes an conclusion that Because BAT has blood vessels in wings , It flies.
Blood vessel in wings ---A
BAT flies using its wings ------B
If A happens then B will happen [b]Conclusion 1[/b]

This is a Known Phenomenon.

paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

It was hypothesized that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding. It was not proven.
We have a FACT that Sandactylus has similar networks of blood vessels as bat in the skin of its wings.
The Author takes this above fact and apply Conclusion 1 on this and reach to a final conclusion that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory.


(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
Correct. Author uses the conclusion of BAT and apply the analogy to Sandactylus.
Quote:
1. The phenomenon was not unknown, in question stimulus you find the word "hypothesis", so the analogy of flight technique of bats and Sandactylus was not unknown.
The argument mentions " provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its" Hypothesis is for Sandactylus only.Author knows for sure that BAT flies.Moreover, It makes sense to assume about BAT that they fly not just glide because the do exists now but Sandactylus extincted long back, we can only hypothesize about that now.

The reasons I chose B are
1. "the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels" was an evidence
Correct
2. this evidence was reintrepeting to establish same flight technique
Nopes. The argument doesn't talk about previous interpretation if any.So, It will not be correct to say "reinterpreting" .
3. this evidence also was supporting earlier percieved theory that birds network of blood vessels in their wings usually fly by gliding and sometimes flapping their wings.
4. I thought this was a strengthening question "the author develops the argument by", if only a newly discovered evidence support the earlier theory, then the argument will be "developed"
It is How the author developed the argument.


I hope it helps :)
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 12:52
This question appears before in Gmat club, but it has different format


Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.
Inthe passage, the author develops the argument by
(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence
(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory
(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar
structures in creatures now extinct
(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures


Official Answer is C.

My problem is I choosed down to B and C, and selected B, and got wrong!!!! The reason I eliminate C is
1. The phenomenon was not unknown, in question stimulus you find the word "hypothesis", so the analogy of flight technique of bats and Sandactylus was not unknown.

The reasons I chose B are
1. "the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels" was an evidence
2. this evidence was reintrepeting to establish same flight technique
3. this evidence also was supporting earlier percieved theory that birds network of blood vessels in their wings usually fly by gliding and sometimes flapping their wings.
4. I thought this was a strengthening question "the author develops the argument by", if only a newly discovered evidence support the earlier theory, then the argument will be "developed"

Please, help me finding my misunderstandings...!!!
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2014, 11:37
First off, it's definitely not a strengthen question. "The argument develops the argument by" means that we are going to explain how the existing argument is already written. We are just describing the structure of what we have read. Nothing in the answer choices is strengthening--it's just descriptive.

So, how does this argument work? The author presents facts about bats and how the network of blood vessels in their wings relates to their method of flight. Then we're told that this dinosaur, Sandactylus, had a similar network of blood vessels. The author thinks that this information supports the conclusion that Sandactylus flew in a similar way to a bat.

So we have evidence about a known phenomenon (bats still exist, and we seem to know facts about them). This evidence is used to support an idea about an unknown phenomenon (Sandactylus does not still exist, and we don't yet know for sure how it flies). This matches (C) precisely.

If the answer were (B), we'd need to see the author coming to a different conclusion than someone else had come to. Reinterpreting evidence would be more like "Scientists once thought that this meant that Sandactylus flapped its wings, but now we think that X."

Does this help?
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2014, 10:40
DmitryFarber wrote:
First off, it's definitely not a strengthen question. "The argument develops the argument by" means that we are going to explain how the existing argument is already written. We are just describing the structure of what we have read. Nothing in the answer choices is strengthening--it's just descriptive.

So, how does this argument work? The author presents facts about bats and how the network of blood vessels in their wings relates to their method of flight. Then we're told that this dinosaur, Sandactylus, had a similar network of blood vessels. The author thinks that this information supports the conclusion that Sandactylus flew in a similar way to a bat.

So we have evidence about a known phenomenon (bats still exist, and we seem to know facts about them). This evidence is used to support an idea about an unknown phenomenon (Sandactylus does not still exist, and we don't yet know for sure how it flies). This matches (C) precisely.

If the answer were (B), we'd need to see the author coming to a different conclusion than someone else had come to. Reinterpreting evidence would be more like "Scientists once thought that this meant that Sandactylus flapped its wings, but now we think that X."

Does this help?



yes, of course, obviously, remarkably. Actually I misunderstood the word "reinterpret"
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2015, 13:15
Hi Experts, please advice on this one. I had great problems to decide between B and C. Picked B.

Why is B wrong ? Reinterpreting the evidence = evidence that bats wings serve to disperse heat for the discovery of Sandactctylus
New theory about dinos - earlier theory about Bats, so this evidence used in the eralier theory about bats is used to support a recent theory about dinos.......
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2015, 08:06
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Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus
paleontologists’ recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the
hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.
In the passage, the author develops the argument by
(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence
(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory
(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar structures in creatures now extinct
(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures


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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2015, 21:53
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Hi There! I have outlined the explanation in the quote below. This is a type of question that asks you to analyze which method is used to develop the argument - is the author giving an example? comparing one evidence with another? refuting evidence with another? contrasting two cases?

Read below:

amatya wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus
paleontologists’ recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the
hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.
In the passage, the author develops the argument by
(A) forming the hypothesis that best explains several apparently conflicting pieces of evidence - the evidence used to draw a conclusion is not contradictory to any other evidence mentioned.
(B) reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory - this is tempting, but note that the evidence given (that bats use blood vessels to disperse heat created ONLY during flight) is not REinterpreted in any way. It is interpreted in only one way. Had the evidence lead to another, different conclusion or had it had two possible interpretations, this would be right. In this case, it is not.
(C) using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon - this is correct. The author uses a known phenomenon (bats' use of their blood vessels to disperse heat created ONLY during flight) to draw a conclusion about a phenomenon in which exactly the same evidence is available about a different species. Thus, they are analogous.
(D) speculating about how structures observed in present-day creatures might have developed from similar structures in creatures now extinct - there is no speculation about the evolution of the structures. Rather, the argument is about the use of a particular physical feature.
(E) pointing out differences in the physiological demands that flight makes on large, as opposed to small, creatures - no such comparison is made with regard to size. The argument focuses on function, not size.

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Hope this helps.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2015, 00:23
Hello BrainLab,

"Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings"

Next:
"winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings "

Conclusion Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

Authors is basing the conclusion on drawing similarity between Bats and Sandactylus .Option B talks about: "reinterpreting evidence that had been used to support an earlier theory" what is the earlier theory here ?

Author has drawn an analogy between Bats and Sandactylus and assumed the same logic applies for Sandactylus too .

C is the right answer.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2015, 13:51
The fact about about Sandactylus: The winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings.

Analogy meaning: a comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification
Conclusion: Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding

From the author's statement, There is no theory attached to this from the past fact. Author is trying to compare the two based on the present day known fact and past fact. Hence B
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2017, 08:13
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 08:27
Imo C using an analogy with a known phenomenon to draw a conclusion about an unknown phenomenon
The author states that fly by flapping wings and the network of blood vessels in the wings are used to disperse heat generated y flapping of the wings.
The author uses this piece of evidence to show that the Sandactylus used similar style for flying.
The network of blood vessels found on the wings of the Sandactylus serves to dissipate heat similar to bat.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat g   [#permalink] 19 Feb 2019, 21:22
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