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New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with

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New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Sep 2018, 23:27
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 128
Page: 672

The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 80
Page: 650

New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties.

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties

(B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation

(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/08/14/science/new-varieties-of-hardy-rice-hold-promise.html

The new varieties promise to give high yields without the costly irrigation required by the earlier ''miracle'' rice strains developed at the International Rice Research Institute here. The new strains have not yet been tested in farmers' fields, but one particularly promising variety has produced test yields more than twice as large as those from traditional varieties.

So in the 1970's the mission of rice scientists became to develop high-yielding strains that were also resistant to disease and insect pests. That second frontier, too, was crossed, and once again the institute led the way. A strain called IR-36, the progeny of 13 different varieties from six countries, is the best example of that effort. First planted by farmers in the Philippines in 1976, IR-36 is now grown on more than 24.7 million acres of rice lands throughout the world.

Progress is likely to proceed gradually for two main reasons. First, breakthroughs inevitably become harder to come by as the work advances. Second, while the irrigated environments for earlier high-yielding varieties tend to be uniform, the adverse conditions of rain-fed areas vary tremendously. Some areas are drought-prone, but others are frequently flooded.

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Originally posted by shoonya on 11 Jun 2007, 20:20.
Last edited by hazelnut on 18 Sep 2018, 23:27, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2008, 21:03
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Well the sentence is trying to say, the new variety of rice shows promise of producing high yields without X and Y when compared to old variety of rice, which required both X and Y.

If we break
X - requirements of irrigation
Y - application of commercial fertilizer

New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties.

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high-yielding varieties
without X and Y by earlier high-yielding varieties - ambiguous comparison .

(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation
without X by....and Y -don't need to say further

(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high-yielding varieties
ugly -here we have split X itself.

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high-yielding varieties
without Y and X that was....Was is a problem here. We are talking about additive phrase , need plural were.

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high-yielding varieties
without X and Y that were required by earlier....clean comparison..agreement on pronoun
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New post 11 Jun 2007, 21:08
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Why not E??

irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer is a plural subject
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New post 11 Jun 2007, 21:46
shoonya wrote:
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties

A)

B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation

C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties.

D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties.

E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties.



A - costly requirements of irrigation is awkward and wordy
B - awkward and changes the meaning of the actual sentence
C - awkward and changes the meaning of the actual sentence
D - without the costly requirements of X and Y that "was" is incorrect. it should be "were"
E - without the costly requirements of X and Y that "were" is correct.

E should be the answer.

Any other explanations?
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New post 12 Jun 2007, 04:35
A. use of 'requirements' is redundant.
D. we need 'were' to use both irrigation & c.fertilizers.
E. Answer.
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New post 31 Jan 2008, 07:40
irrigatuon AND commercial application of fertilizer are two different things and so "were" is the correct verb here.
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New post 31 Jan 2008, 11:14
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i think the best explanation for this question is to look at the meaning of the sentence. Requirements and application cannot be costly. Only the irrigation can, therefore right away you eliminate A, B, C and D, leaving you with E, which is the correct answer.
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New post 09 Feb 2010, 16:00
I work by elimination

a) 'by earlier high -yielding varieties is incorrect
b) requirement by - is incorrect
c) irrigation of earlier .. is incorrect should be irrigation required/ needed by etc
d) changes meaning and it incorrect.
appears as it only fertilizer is required while irrigation is required. Was should be were.
e) IS CORRECT.
costly looks like an adverb split over both irrigation and fertilizer as in original
required by earlier is the correct phrasing

zest4mba wrote:
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the
costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer
by earlier high-yielding varieties

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer
by earlier high-yielding varieties

(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of
commercial fertilizer and irrigation

(C) requirements of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of
earlier high-yielding varieties

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by
earlier high-yielding varieties

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by
earlier high-yielding varieties


What is the right answer and why

thanks !!
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Re: New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2010, 18:33
zest4mba wrote:
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the
costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer
by earlier high-yielding varieties

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer
by earlier high-yielding varieties

(B) requirements by earlier high-yielding varieties of application of
commercial fertilizer and irrigation

(C) requirements of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of
earlier high-yielding varieties

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by
earlier high-yielding varieties

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by
earlier high-yielding varieties


What is the right answer and why

thanks !!


I go by simple reading technique. Break the sentence into logical and meaningful clauses.

New hardy varieties of rice | show promise of producing high yields | without the
costly | ......requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer |
by earlier high-yielding varieties

Doesn't that sound awkward? At least, GMAT doesn't test colloquial verbiage. So I pick E, which sounds better among the given answer options.
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New post 09 Feb 2010, 21:48
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amgbeano wrote:
I disagree. I believe (D) is the right answer. The reason being that "costly application and irrigation" is singular and should have "was" as the verb following instead of "were"...IMHO.


I can't do the regular build-up thing anymore, pretty tired tonight, 11:45 PM EST already. So I'll quickly go by the rule.

The conjunction "and" will make the verb plural when nouns are connected.

My dog and I "were" running. Sheena and Tina "were" listening to music.

Costly irrigation and application of fertilizer that "were" goes by the same sounding principles!!!!
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Re: New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2010, 13:53
noboru wrote:
What's wrong with A?
thanks



You don't need requirements of on A.

It sounds as if requirements are costly.
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New post 04 Aug 2016, 07:51
Why not C?

promise of producing high yields
application of commercial fertilizer
irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties
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New post 04 Aug 2016, 22:24
promise of producing - isn't this wrong

Even though it was not illegal for the bank to share its customers' personal and financial information with an outside marketing company in return for a commission on sales, the state's attorney general accused the bank of engaging in deceptive business practices by failing to honor its promise to its customers to keep records private.

a) by failing to honor its promise to its customers to keep

b) by its failure of honoring its promise to its customers to keep

c) in its failing to honor its promise to its customers of keeping

d) because of its failure in honoring its promise to its customers in keeping

e) because of its failure to honor its promise to its customers of keeping

In this question, most of the option are wrong because of "promise of keeping"

@veritasprep : pl help
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New post 11 Oct 2016, 01:25
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1
A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties – this should be applicable to both "irrigation" and "application of commercial fertilizer". There is ambiguity on applicability to both the aspects
B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation – illogical meaning
C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties. – changes meaning. this should be applicable to both irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer
D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties. – "application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation", plural "were" should be used. "earlier high yielding varieties" now correctly applies to both the aspects.
E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties. – "earlier high yielding varieties" now correctly applies to both the aspects.

Thanks
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New post 12 Jun 2017, 03:53
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties
A)
B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation
C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties.
D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties.
E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties.

I believe and I may be wrong:
- first the choice is b/w "costly requirements " or "costly application/irrigation" - I went with the latter because I felt requirements cannot be costly are the activities of application and irrigation.
- second and that's the easier one b/w D and E - D fails because of "was" as against the "were" in E
So E is correct
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New post 12 Jun 2017, 10:18
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This topic is deep. The first point is to note is that the requirements are not themselves costly but the factors that are required such as the application of fertilizers and irrigation are costly. That is the reason we can dispense with choice A, B, and C instantly
In D, a couple of factors are denoted by a singular verb 'was'.
Only E remains.
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New post 12 Jun 2017, 11:44
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties.

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties
this option says that application of CF was done by earlier high yielding rice varieties ... This is definitely not the meaning intended...

(B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation
this option says "application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation" again not the intended meaning ...

(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties
Again similar to option B...application of commercial fertilize and irrigation !!!!"

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties
"Was" is grammatically incorrect ...we need a plural verb

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties
Was replaced by Were and Bingo ..no other errors...
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Re: New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2017, 02:54
shoonya wrote:
New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields without the costly requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties.

(A) requirements of irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer by earlier high yielding varieties

(B) requirements by earlier high yielding varieties of application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation

(C) requirements for application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation of earlier high yielding varieties

(D) application of commercial fertilizer and irrigation that was required by earlier high yielding varieties

(E) irrigation and application of commercial fertilizer that were required by earlier high yielding varieties


e correctly uses the subjunctive with plural

E
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New post 26 Jun 2019, 03:36
Option E is the best , option D has the issue of was present instead of were . Every other option makes absolutely no sense meaning wise.
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Re: New hardy varieties of rice show promise of producing high yields with   [#permalink] 26 Jun 2019, 03:36
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