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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater

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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 01:34
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

(A) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them

(B) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced

(C) which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(D) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(E) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them

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http://www.oakton.edu/user/4/billtong/eas100/real_jurassic_park.pdf

When the team brought the dinosaur into the lab, we noticed that some parts deep inside the long bone of the leg had not completely fossilized. Normally a bone becomes fossilized with the help of groundwater, which permeates it, washes away its organic components and replaces them with minerals. But water also interacts with DNA and protein molecules, breaking apart the bonds that hold them together. One possible explanation was that not much water had gotten into this T. rex. If that was true, then some biomolecules could remain. It was a long shot but clearly worth checking out.

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 01:48
1
The underlined portion talks of three actions ..
I) permeates the bone
II) washes away it's organic components
III)) replaces them..

Who does this action - the ground water

Normally becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.


A. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them
Correct... The ground water, which permeates..., Washes..... And replaces...

B. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced
THOSE is wrong and is not parallel with other two actions

C. which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced
This makes the parallel actions as WASHING... dependent on the previous phrase

D. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced
changes the actions as MODIFIER

E. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them
Same as D

A



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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 02:18
Bunuel wrote:
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.


A. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them

B. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced

C. which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

D. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

E. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them



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(SC01595)


Going by meaning.

Intended meaning is - a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater. It is ground water that does three things
1) permeates the bone,
2) washes away its organic components
3) and replaces them with minerals.

This is conveying correct meaning as well.

A. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them. A is correct

B. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced those are replaced - makes it wrong

C. which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced it changes the second item in list to modifier. And this modifier is placed next to relative clause. Hence doesn't convey intended meaning.

D. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced It uses two modifier placed next to each other. But it should be modifying groundwater. This modifier should be connected with "and". This is incorrect.

E. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them Similar error as in D.

Clearly A is the Ans
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 02:21
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.


A. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components and replaces them --- correct choice.

B. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced--- and 'those are replaced' breaks the //ism.

C. which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced --- There is no intention involved in this action. This is a natural phenomenon. Hence, 'to be replaced' is out of context.

D. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced -- 'comma +permeating' changes the meaning, since permeating does not now modify the groundwater.

E. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them ---- same error as in D.



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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 05:06
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.


A. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them --> correct

B. which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced --> not parallel

C. which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced--> not parallel

D. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced --> not parallel

E. permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them --> "Sub + verb + obj, <>-ing": "," + ing doesn't modify the noun before "," i.e. meaning change
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 00:17
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chetan2u
In option A...what is antecedent of pronoun 'them'?

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 01:11
them refers to organic components
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 10:49
Hello Everyone!

We’ve got a list. parallelism! Any time you see a list on the exam, that means there will be a few unparallel options that you’ll be able to quickly dump, and that will help us get to the right option even faster.

So what could the parallel structure be here?

Permeates, washes, and replaces
-or-
Permeating, washing, and replacing (but there are some problems with this one...more to come on that later)

Let’s see how each answer holds up:

(A) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them → CORRECT
(B) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replacedINCORRECT
(C) which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replacedINCORRECT
(D) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced → INCORRECT

(E) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them INCORRECT

So why else is option E incorrect, even though it uses parallel structure? The GMAT requires the use of the serial comma (aka the Oxford comma) for every item in a list, including the last item in a list of 3+ items. Answer E doesn’t use a serial comma for the third item, so it’s wrong.

But even more fundamentally, (options D and E), insert “permeating” as an -ing modifier right after the comma, which opens up a confusing ambiguous reference because “permeating” could mean that:

1) groundwater permeates the bone
2) the action of groundwater permeates the bone
3) or even the fossilization through the action of groundwater permeates the bone

A is both parallel, and retains the intended message.

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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 01:54
In answer choice A,they are talking about "them" which refers to singular noun "a bone".How it could be correct ?
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 02:07
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Kanir12 wrote:
In answer choice A,they are talking about "them" which refers to singular noun "a bone".How it could be correct ?

"them" is for organic components, not for "a bone".
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2018, 22:16
egmat

First glance A is perfect. Is there a trap? Delving into it deeper marked E.

Why is E incorrect?

If a comma+a Verb-ing modifier can modifiy the how aspect of the action presented before, the comma+Verb-ing modifier presents how the bone gets fossilized by the action of ground water and mantains the parallel structure too?

What am I missing?

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater &nbs [#permalink] 21 Sep 2018, 22:16
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