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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2018, 03:48
daagh wrote:
kichen

1. I am afraid while calling "A" a fragment, you have conveniently left out the part", which permeates the bone". May I know the reason? If you leave out the subject from a clause, then it will only be a fragment


"Which" is a relative pronoun that acts as the subject of all those actions that water does? The relative clause is a subordinate clause with three verbs together called compound verbs.

There is a subject, then there is a legal compound verb structure, and taken together that is a licit clause.

2. While choosing E as the choice, you seem to have missed the basic point of what the adverbial clause
"E) Permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, and replacing them" is modifying.

The modifier erroneously modifies the bone and the action of fossilizing. Does the bone do all those activities or does water do the activities?

singh8891.

I have a small question to singh8891. If 'them' does not refer to the organic materials, could you please suggest an alternate for 'the minerals'?

In case you could not find another plural in the text to refer to 'them', how would you tackle this official question?
Sir
I acknowledge your point. The purpose is to find the best answer. Thanks for answering.
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2018, 00:23
on the first look A seems to be correct but rejected on the same ground as by @singh8891.( them do not have antecedent)

but forget that best answer among 5 is the correct answer, even though best is doubtful.
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2018, 15:29
I thought ,which was inappropriate to use to show cause-effect relationships? Can anyone help me understand why this is incorrect
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2019, 22:53
Bunuel wrote:
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

(A) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them

(B) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced

(C) which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(D) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(E) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them



First lets look at modifier aspect of the sentence
do we need a which or not ??
(B) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced-by something
Incomplete sentence

(C) which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced - by what ??
Incomplete sentence

(D) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced- by what ??
Incomplete sentence

Pronoun its is correctly referring back to the bone, now them in A and E
(A) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them
which is non essential modifier, we can remove the part between the comma and then read it
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its(bone) organic components, and replaces them(organic components) with minerals.
Correct Answer

(E) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them
Here them is not referring to the components it is referring back to the bone, which is illogical.
Because the sentence will be permeating the bone, washing away and replacing them
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Feb 2019, 02:00
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Quote:
aa088 wrote
on the first look A seems to be correct but rejected on the same ground as by @singh8891.( them do not have antecedent)


aa088,

I note that you can't take the organic components as the antecedent of the pronoun ''them' even though it is the only plural noun present in the whole clause. Any reason?

However, I suppose you have no doubt about the antecedent of the pronoun 'its', which perhaps refers to the proximate 'groundwater' rather than the distant 'a bone', the subject of the sentence. Probably you might understand that it is the appropriateness of the context that is the ultimate decider of the pronoun reference. I will give you some examples.

1. Yesterday, my children brought some vegetables from the stores and my wife cooked them in the oven. Can we take 'the children' or 'the stores' as the referents of 'them', because they stand as good as vegetables?

2. Last evening my wife and my daughter washed all the clothes in the machine and I ironed them today. -- What does 'them' antecede?

I hope it is clear that logic is the tool by which we solve pronoun reference.
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Originally posted by daagh on 10 Feb 2019, 00:44.
Last edited by daagh on 10 Feb 2019, 02:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Feb 2019, 07:18
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Quote:
bbn2 wrote
I thought, which was inappropriate to use to show cause-effect relationships? Can anyone help me understand why this is incorrect

Quote:
The text

Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.


In this sentence, 'which' is the subject of the adjectival relative clause that lies before, a clause that acts as a modifier describing how the process of fossilization happens? Normally a cause and effect relationship is marked by such pointers as ---for, because, as, since, therefore, hence, as a result, consequently, due to, because of, as a result of, owing to etc. --- it may be noted that 'which ' is not part of that brigade.

The acts of permeating, washing, and replacing are not happening because of fossilization but as random occurrences in the process of fossilization.

I do not see 'which' as a causal cue in this case.
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The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest

Originally posted by daagh on 10 Feb 2019, 01:54.
Last edited by daagh on 23 Feb 2019, 07:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 06:55
Official explanation:

The sentence explains the process by which groundwater produces fossilization of bones. The grammatically correct sentence describes a series of three stages in the process.

A. Correct. Three parallel verbal phrases-permeates ..., washes ..., and replaces ...-are correctly coordinated within a relative clause that has which as its subject referring to groundwater.

B. The third component of the series, and those are replaced, is nonparallel, and therefore incorrect. This renders the sentence ungrammatical.

C. This lacks the appropriate parallelism; based on structure, the phrase to be replaced ... should modify which, a relative pronoun referring to groundwater. But this would not express the thought intended in the given sentence, which indicates that organic components are replaced.

D. The participles permeating and washing away should, based on structure, have the subject of the sentence, a bone, as their implicit subject. But this produces nonsense. It is unclear what the phrase to be replaced modifies: based on the intended meaning, it should be its organic components, but the structure does not indicate this, given that the subject of the sentence is a bone.

E. The three participles permeating, washing away, and replacing have the subject of the sentence (a bone) as their implicit subject. This produces nonsense. Also, any three-element series must have a comma immediately following each of its first two elements.
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2019, 06:56
Option E is incorrect because

Comma -ing is an adverbial modifier and it modifies the main subject and verb of the clause. Comma -ing cannot modify a noun.
- The main subject is "bone" and main verb is "becomes"
- Through the action of ground water - prepositional phrases

So comma ing does not make sense here as “comma premating the bone” cannot modify “bone becomes”
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2019, 17:51
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

Look at 3 things permeates/washes/replaces : this three should be parallel, Only Ans opt A is parallel

(A) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them

(B) which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and those are replaced

(C) which permeates the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(D) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components, to be replaced

(E) permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater   [#permalink] 30 May 2019, 17:51

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