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Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 20:36
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Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper into a pretty paper crane, but the principles behind the paper-folding art can also be applied to making a microfluidic device for a blood test, or for storing a satellite's solar panel in a rocket's cargo bay. A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales. The researchers lay out the rules for folding and cutting a hexagonal lattice, a structure made from strips of material that cross over each other with spaces between, into a wide variety of useful three-dimensional shapes.

A hexagonal lattice may seem like an odd choice for a starting point, but the researchers think that the pattern has advantages over a seemingly simpler tessellation, such as one made from squares; for instance, it is easier to fill a space with a hexagonal lattice and move from 2-D to 3-D. Starting from a flat hexagonal grid on a sheet of paper, the researchers outlined the fundamental cuts and folds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same proportions of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is removed. This is a critical quality for making the transition from paper to materials that might be used in real-world applications.

Having a set of rules that draws on fundamental mathematical principles means that the kirigami approach can be applied equally across length scales, and with almost any material that can be selected on the basis of its relevance to the ultimate application, whether it is in nanotechnology, architecture, or aerospace.The rules also guarantee that "modules," basic shapes such as channels that can direct the flow of fluids, can be combined into more complex ones. Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

1. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?

A. To introduce a discussion on the most critical aspect of the technique that dictates the transformation of origami from paper to potentially real structures

B. To highlight the scope of kirigami across various applications

C. To suggest how maintaining a quality of the technique of kirigami is key to its application to various materials

D. To evaluate some key features of the technique of kirigami

E. To analyze what makes kirigami a successful technique for fabricating materials



2. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

A. Origami as an art form is less flexible than kirigami, making it less relevant for building nanostructures.

B. In nanoscale projects, certain building materials can be tricky to work with as they are relatively rigid for the purpose of shaping.

C. It is very difficult to fill in spaces in structures formed of patterns other than the hexagonal lattice.

D. An important quality for transforming paper designs to materials that could be used in real-world structures is that the shape of the hexagonal grid should not change.

E. The type of material to be used changes drastically with the change in the ultimate application.



3. The author is primarily concerned with

A. discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a technique

B. explaining how a technique is more than just a superficial art form

C. highlighting the relevance of a particular pattern in the application of a technique to building structures

D. discussing revolutionary techniques for building 3-D structures

E. discussing the potential of a technique for building varied physical structures



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New post 25 Aug 2018, 00:54
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1. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?


A. To introduce a discussion on the most critical aspect of the technique that dictates the transformation of origami from paper to potentially real structures

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Firstly, the critical aspect being referred to is that of kirigami and not origami. Secondly, this feature is stated as an important aspect but not the “most” important aspect. Lastly, the author does not introduce a new discussion but instead carries on from the previous paragraph’s discussion of the features of kirigami.

B. To highlight the scope of kirigami across various applications

Incorrect: Irrelevant

There is no discussion in this paragraph on the scope of kirigami on various applications. In fact, it is the third paragraph in which the author briefly analyses the scope of the technique with respect to one application- nanotechnology.

C. To suggest how maintaining a quality of the technique of kirigami is key to its application to various materials

Incorrect: Partial scope

The author does talk about this quality but this mention forms part of a bigger discussion of the features of the technique; for instance, the author also talks about the benefit of the hexagonal lattice vi-a-vis some other shapes.

D. To evaluate some key features of the technique of kirigami

Correct

This choice rightly captures the essence of the second paragraph and matches our pre-thinking.

E. To analyze what makes kirigami a successful technique for fabricating materials

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The talk about fabrication happens in the final paragraph. In the second paragraph, the author mostly talks about maintaining proportions.

2. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?


A. Origami as an art form is less flexible than kirigami, making it less relevant for building nanostructures.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

Nowhere in the passage does the author compare kirigami and origami.

B. In nanoscale projects, certain building materials can be tricky to work with as they are relatively rigid for the purpose of shaping.

Correct

This statement can be derived from the final sentence of the passage. The author says that:

Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

Since the self-folding materials would avoid the fabrication/shaping problems that can occur when working with other materials at such small scales, it can be deduced that these other materials are more rigid compared to the self-folding ones.

C. It is very difficult to fill in spaces in structures formed of patterns other than the hexagonal lattice.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The passage states that it is easier to fill spaces with a hexagonal lattice, presenting a comparison between this shape and others. It makes a relative/comparative statement; however, the choice makes an absolute statement.

D. An important quality for transforming paper designs to materials that could be used in real-world structures is that the shape of the hexagonal grid should not change.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author states that the important quality of the technique is that the resulting proportions of the shape, and the not the shape itself, are kept intact.

E. The type of material to be used changes drastically with the change in the ultimate application.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author states that the relevant material can be selected keeping in mind the ultimate application. The extent of the change in material is neither stated nor suggested.

3. The author is primarily concerned with


A. discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a technique

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The passage never delves in to discussing the disadvantages of the technique created from kirigami.

B. explaining how a technique is more than just a superficial art form

Incorrect: Inconsistent

There is no basis to conclude that kirigami, without its further application in the field of developing structure, is a “superficial” art form. Also, the entire passage is written from the point of view of appreciating the rules and features of kirigami and how these rules can be applied to building structures with almost any material. So, if anything, the rules underlying kirigami are actually appreciated.

C. highlighting the relevance of a particular pattern in the application of a technique to building structures

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does highlight the relevance of the hexagonal lattice but that is only a part of the entire passage. The whole passage does not concentrate on hexagonal lattice.

D. discussing revolutionary techniques for building 3-D structures

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The whole passage revolves only around one technique- the one developed from kirigami.

E. discussing the potential of a technique for building varied physical structures

Correct

This answer choice is on the same lines as the one we came up with in our pre-thinking, and summary and main point section.
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 23:50
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The author is primarily concerned with

A. discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a technique..No disadvantages is discussed...wrong option

B. explaining how a technique is more than just a superficial art form----superficial really? wrong option

C. highlighting the relevance of a particular pattern in the application of a technique to building structures---relevance? the passage is all about how an art is used to create physical structures in different fields....so this option is wrong too

D. discussing revolutionary techniques for building 3-D structures---it just one line of a para telling how a paper art can be converted into 3-D..so out

E. discussing the potential of a technique for building varied physical structures---yes the whole passage talks about how a paper technique can be used to build varied physical structures...This is the answer
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 22:28
2
4 minutes. Chose

1. d: the second paragraph although mentions "This is a critical quality for making the transition from paper to materials that might be used in real-world applications", it is completely used to evaluate the key techniques of kirigami & thus option A would be incorrect

2. c (an incorrect guess) - would love an explanation for this

3. e: went with POE for this one-

A. discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a technique - no disadvantages are mentioned

B. explaining how a technique is more than just a superficial art form - it does discuss about the technique being more than a superficial art form, the passage is mainly concerned with discussing how the technique can be scaled up elsewhere

C. highlighting the relevance of a particular pattern in the application of a technique to building structures - too strong

D. discussing revolutionary techniques for building 3-D structures too strong & slightly narrowminded

E. discussing the potential of a technique for building varied physical structures
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New post 17 Aug 2018, 23:11
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1. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?
Last line of first Para says: The researchers lay out the rules for folding and cutting a hexagonal lattice into a wide variety of useful three-dimensional shapes.
2nd para says researchers think that the pattern has advantages a) it is easier to fill a space b) the researchers outlined the fundamental cuts and folds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same proportions of the initial lattice AND LAST LINE...
these all tell us some features of technique kirigami so D is the right choice
No scope of kirigami is discussed, nothing about fabricating material and nothing about maintaining the quality is discussed. so one can rule out B, C and E. A is out because 2nd para not a single critical aspect of technique is discussed
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 23:15
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Question 2) Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?
Last line of last Para says it all:
"Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales"
B is the right choice
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 01:01
For the second question, I would like to know how you guys used POE to eliminate other answers and chose B. It was taking a lot of time (more than a min and a half) for me..
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 01:19
2
6 minutes
1)
A--> the most important?
No, author never mentions this is the MOST important

B---> no applications are discussed in Para 2

C---> quality is out of scope

E---> 3rd para 1st line mentions what makes Kiragami the successful technique
It is not mentioned in 2nd para


2)
A is wrong because author never compares both of these techniques. He just says that --> A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a RELATED art form

C is wrong because the question asks about what AUTHOR will agree to, not researchers.

D--> olds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same PROPORTION of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is
wasted.

E---> out of scope


3)
A--- disadvantages are never discussed.

C--- only para2 talks about hexagonal pattern
( limited /partial scope)

D--- revolutionary is extreme

Now, I spent a considerable time choosing between B and E. I rejected b as author never says it is superficial. Any comment on this will be appreciated.



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Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Aug 2018, 21:51
sumit411 wrote:
6 minutes
1)
A--> the most important?
No, author never mentions this is the MOST important

B---> no applications are discussed in Para 2

C---> quality is out of scope

E---> 3rd para 1st line mentions what makes Kiragami the successful technique
It is not mentioned in 2nd para


2)
A is wrong because author never compares both of these techniques. He just says that --> A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a RELATED art form

C is wrong because the question asks about what AUTHOR will agree to, not researchers.

D--> olds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same PROPORTION of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is
wasted.

E---> out of scope


3)
A--- disadvantages are never discussed.

C--- only para2 talks about hexagonal pattern
( limited /partial scope)

D--- revolutionary is extreme

Now, I spent a considerable time choosing between B and E. I rejected b as author never says it is superficial. Any comment on this will be appreciated.



Hit kudos if explanation helped.



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For Q3, I POE'd E as the author says in the first paragraph that kirigami finds its applications in diverse range of things -from micofluidic device to solar panel and goes on to explain how. Choice E says exactly that.
(A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales.)
On the other hand mentions about art in only line.

need insights and kudos:)

Originally posted by Gagoosh on 19 Aug 2018, 01:17.
Last edited by Gagoosh on 19 Aug 2018, 21:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 17:21
In question no. 2, why D is not correct.
Please elaborate.
I was vacillating between B and D.
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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 11:05
gvij2017 wrote:
In question no. 2, why D is not correct.
Please elaborate.
I was vacillating between B and D.

D--> olds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same PROPORTION of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is
wasted.



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Re: Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper &nbs [#permalink] 20 Aug 2018, 11:05
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