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Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic

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Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 23:47
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 113, Date : 29-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medicine down to size: not only widespread malpractice litigation and massive governmental regulation, but also attempts by consumer groups and others to redefine medicine as a trade rather than as a profession, and the physician as merely a technician for hire under contract. Why should physicians (or indeed all sensible people) resist such efforts to give the practice of medicine a new meaning? We can gain some illumination from etymology. “Trade,” from Germanic and AngloSaxon roots meaning “a course or pathway,” has come to mean derivatively a habitual occupation and has been related to certain skills and crafts. On the other hand, while “profession” today also entails a habit of work, the word “profession” itself traces to an act of selfconscious and public—even confessional—speech. “To profess” preserves the meaning of its Latin source, “to declare publicly; to announce, affirm, avow.” A profession is an activity or occupation to which its practitioner publicly professes, that is, confesses, devotion. But public announcement seems insufficient; publicly declaring devotion to plumbing or auto repair would not turn these trades into professions.

Some believe that learning and knowledge are the diagnostic signs of a profession. For reasons probably linked to the medieval university, the term “profession” has been applied to the so-called learned professions—medicine, law, and theology—the practices of which are founded upon inquiry and knowledge rather than mere “knowhow.” Yet it is not only the pursuit and acquisition of knowledge that makes one a professional. The knowledge involved makes the profession one of the learned variety, but its professional quality is rooted in something else.

Some mistakenly seek to locate that something else in the prestige and honor accorded professionals by society, evidenced in their special titles and the special deference and privileges they receive. But externalities do not constitute medicine a profession. Physicians are not professionals because they are honored; rather, they are honored because of their profession. Their titles and the respect they are shown superficially signify and acknowledge something deeper, that physicians are persons of the professional sort, knowingly and freely devoting themselves to a way of life worthy of such devotion. Just as lawyers devote themselves to rectifying injustices, looking up to what is lawful and right; just as teachers devote themselves to the education of the young, looking up to truth and wisdom; so physicians heal the sick, looking up to health and wholesomeness. Being a professional is thus rooted in our moral nature and in that which warrants and impels making a public confession to a way of life.

Professing oneself a professional is an ethical act because it is not a silent and private act, but an articulated and public one; because it promises continuing devotion to a way of life, not merely announces a present preference or a way to a livelihood; because it is an activity in service to some high good that insists on devotion; because it is difficult and demanding. A profession engages one’s character and heart, not merely one’s mind and hands.
1. According to the author, which one of the following is required in order that one be a professional?

(A) significant prestige and a title
(B) “know-how” in a particular field
(C) a long and difficult educational endeavor
(D) a commitment to political justice
(E) a public confession of devotion to a way of life


2. Which one of the following best expresses the main point made by the author in the passage?

(A) Medicine is defined as a profession because of the etymology of the word “profession.”
(B) It is a mistake to pay special honor to the knowledge and skills of physicians.
(C) The work of physicians is under attack only because it is widely misunderstood.
(D) The correct reason that physicians are professionals is that their work involves public commitment to a high good.
(E) Physicians have been encouraged to think of themselves as technicians and need to reorient themselves toward ethical concerns.


3. The question posed by the author in first para (Highlighted) of the passage introduces which one of the following?

(A) the author’s belief that it is futile to resist the trend toward defining the physician’s work as a trade
(B) the author’s dislike of governmental regulation and consumer advocacy
(C) the author’s inquiry into the nature of the practice of medicine
(D) the author’s suggestions for rallying sensible people to a concentrated defense of physicians
(E) the author’s fascination with the origins of words


4. In the passage, the author mentions or suggests all of the following EXCEPT

(A) how society generally treats physicians
(B) that the practice of medicine is analogous to teaching
(C) that being a professional is in part a public act
(D) the specific knowledge on which trades are based
(E) how a livelihood is different from a profession


5. The author’s attitude towards professionals is best described as

(A) eager that the work of one group of professionals, physicians, be viewed from a new perspective
(B) sympathetic toward professionals who have become demoralized by public opinion
(C) surprised that professionals have been balked by governmental regulations and threats of litigation
(D) dismayed that most professionals have come to be considered technicians
(E) certain that professionals confess a commitment to ethical ideals


6. Based on the information in the passage, it can be inferred that which one of the following would most logically begin a paragraph immediately following the passage?

(A) A skilled handicraft is a manual art acquired by habituation that enables tradespeople to tread regularly and reliably along the same path.
(B) Critics might argue that being a doctor, for example, requires no ethical or public act; thus medicine, as such, is morally neutral, does not bind character, and can be used for good or ill.
(C) Sometimes the pursuit of personal health competes with the pursuit of other goods, and it has always been the task of the community to order and define the competing ends.
(D) Not least among the myriad confusions and uncertainties of our time are those attending efforts to discern and articulate the essential characteristics of the medical profession.
(E) When, in contrast, we come to physicians of the whole body, we come tacitly acknowledging the meaning of illness and its potential threat to all that we hold dear.


7. Which one of the following best describes the author’s purpose in lines 14–33 of the passage?
“To profess” ..........medicine a profession.


(A) The author locates the “something else” that truly constitutes a profession.
(B) The author dismisses efforts to redefine the meaning of the term “profession.”
(C) The author considers, and largely criticizes, several definitions of what constitutes a profession.
(D) The author clarifies the meaning of the term “profession” by advocating a return to its linguistic and historical roots.
(E) The author distinguishes trades such as plumbing and auto repair from professions such as medicine, law, and theology.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 1 (June 1991)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 29 Mar 2019, 08:10.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 23:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2019, 03:26
Can somebody explain about question Q3. why not E is the answer?
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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2019, 12:22
1
Hello harshgarg9511

Explanation


3. The question posed by the author in first para (Highlighted) of the passage introduces which one of the following?

Explanation

The entire passage concerns the nature of professions, using the medical profession as an example.

(A) Efforts to redefine medicine as a trade are mentioned before lines as: "Why should physicians (or indeed all sensible people) resist such efforts to give the practice of medicine a new meaning?" but the passage doesn’t address the question of whether these efforts are likely to succeed.

(B) The author never claims to dislike “governmental regulation” or “consumer advocacy.” He simply mentions that such things currently pose a challenge to the status of the medical profession. Moreover, the author mentions these things prior to posing the question in lines as "Why should physicians (or indeed all sensible people) resist such efforts to give the practice of medicine a new meaning?"

(D)What suggestions? The author never offers suggestions for rallying people to the defense of physicians, though he personally defends their status.

(E) is beyond the scope of the passage. The author isn’t interested in the origins of words in general; only the origins of the words trade and profession.

Answer: C

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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2019, 19:59
Hi SajjadAhmad

Please post OE for 7th Question

Thanks
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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2019, 02:45
Hello

i don't have OE, this explanation belongs to kaplan.

7. Which one of the following best describes the author’s purpose in lines 14–33 of the passage? “To profess” ..........medicine a profession.

Explanation

From the end of para 1 through the middle of para 3, the author is primarily concerned with raising and dismissing alternative definitions of the term profession.

(A) That “something else” is discussed from line 37 onward.

(B) What efforts? The author dismisses alternative definitions of professionalism, but that’s not the same thing as saying that he dismisses “efforts” to redefine the term.

(D) Lines 14-33 do contain a discussion of linguistics and history, but only in order to dismiss alternative definitions of professionalism, not to clarify this term’s meaning.

(E) Distinguishing between trades and professions is part of the author’s larger purpose of refuting definitions that don’t satisfy him.

Answer: C


gmat1393 wrote:
Hi SajjadAhmad

Please post OE for 7th Question

Thanks

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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2019, 02:44
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Hi everyone,
Took 16:15 minutes and got all correct. Took me 5:15 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1 difference between trade and profession
P2 Knowledge is not enough to be a professional, something is missing
P3 it's not prestige but devotion the key to be a professional
P4 Professions are related to moral, ethic...

MP: what are the features of a professional

1. According to the author, which one of the following is required in order that one be a professional?

Pre-thinking:
devotion and ethic are the main features stressed throughout the passage.

(A) significant prestige and a title
This is not a requirement but a false belief held by people and you can see that at the beginning of P3. Hence incorrect

(B) “know-how” in a particular field
Refer to P2 and especially to "For reasons probably linked to the medieval university, the term “profession” has been applied to the so-called learned professions—medicine, law, and theology—the practices of which are founded upon inquiry and knowledge rather than mere “knowhow.” ". Hence incorrect

(C) a long and difficult educational endeavor
No since it requires, knowledge, devotion and ethic. Hence incorrect

(D) a commitment to political justice
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(E) a public confession of devotion to a way of life
In P1 the meaning of the word profession is analyzed. Meaning = to confess publicly. Hence correct


2. Which one of the following best expresses the main point made by the author in the passage?

Pre-thinking:
Use our main point formulation to guide you through the answer analysis.

(A) Medicine is defined as a profession because of the etymology of the word “profession.”
Medicine is just an example made in P1 to stress the importance of the meaning of profession. Hence incorrect since this choice is not broad enough to be the main point

(B) It is a mistake to pay special honor to the knowledge and skills of physicians.
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(C) The work of physicians is under attack only because it is widely misunderstood.
This is not true. The work of physician is a profession since physicians are publicly committed to a cause BUT what is misunderstood is the concept of trade and of profession. Hence incorrect

(D) The correct reason that physicians are professionals is that their work involves public commitment to a high good.
This accurately describes the most important feature of professionals. Hence correct

(E) Physicians have been encouraged to think of themselves as technicians and need to reorient themselves toward ethical concerns.
No such suggestion is made throughout the passage. Hence incorrect


3. The question posed by the author in first para (Highlighted) of the passage introduces which one of the following?

Pre-thinking
It introduces the analysis of the word trade and the word professional

(A) the author’s belief that it is futile to resist the trend toward defining the physician’s work as a trade
The author does not say that the trend should not be resisted. Hence incorrect

(B) the author’s dislike of governmental regulation and consumer advocacy
These are factors contributing to the trend but the author never attacks them. Hence incorrect

(C) the author’s inquiry into the nature of the practice of medicine
The author inquires into the nature of the words trade and profession in order to evaluate a trend against physicians. Therefore we can say that the author uses this analysis to inquire into the nature of medicine, assessing the trend. Hence correct

(D) the author’s suggestions for rallying sensible people to a concentrated defense of physicians
The author does not want to defend physicians. Hence incorrect

(E) the author’s fascination with the origins of words
The author is not fascinated with the words origins. Hence incorrect


4. In the passage, the author mentions or suggests all of the following EXCEPT

Pre-thinking:
We cannot make inferences or prethink at all since this question asks us about the entire passage. So let's directly evaluate the answer choices.

(A) how society generally treats physicians
This is mentioned in P1. Hence incorrect

(B) that the practice of medicine is analogous to teaching
This is mentioned in the last lines of P3. Hence incorrect

(C) that being a professional is in part a public act
This is mentioned in P1 when the meaning of profession is analyzed. Hence incorrect

(D) the specific knowledge on which trades are based
Never mentioned. Hence correct

(E) how a livelihood is different from a profession
This is mentioned in P4: "because it promises continuing devotion to a way of life, not merely announces a present preference or a way to a livelihood;". Hence incorrect


5. The author’s attitude towards professionals is best described as

Pre-thinking
The author's idea of professional is that they are competent (they have the knowledge) but they have also something else, that is public commitment, devotion, ethic etc. A little admiration I would say

(A) eager that the work of one group of professionals, physicians, be viewed from a new perspective
The author is not eager. She is just analyzing the case. Hence incorrect

(B) sympathetic toward professionals who have become demoralized by public opinion
Nowhere in the passage it is said that ALL professionals are demoralized by public opinion. Hence incorrect

(C) surprised that professionals have been balked by governmental regulations and threats of litigation
The author is definitely not surprised. Hence incorrect

(D) dismayed that most professionals have come to be considered technicians
The author is not dismayed. Hence incorrect

(E) certain that professionals confess a commitment to ethical ideals
Yes. She is 100% sure of this. Hence correct



6. Based on the information in the passage, it can be inferred that which one of the following would most logically begin a paragraph immediately following the passage?

Pre-thinking
Pretty hard to exactly pre-think here since there could be many scenarios. Let's consider the last paragraph. P4 talks about what a professional is and what he/she is not. My guesses are the followings: evidence in support, examples, critics about what a professional really is.

(A) A skilled handicraft is a manual art acquired by habituation that enables tradespeople to tread regularly and reliably along the same path.
It seems something out of the blue to me since trade is discussed only in P1 and the purpose was to state the difference with professions. Hence incorrect

(B) Critics might argue that being a doctor, for example, requires no ethical or public act; thus medicine, as such, is morally neutral, does not bind character,
and can be used for good or ill.
This could be linked to the previous paragraph and to the passage as a whole. Hence correct

(C) Sometimes the pursuit of personal health competes with the pursuit of other goods, and it has always been the task of the community to order and define the competing ends.
The pursuit of personal health is completely unrelated to the topics discussed in the passage. Hence incorrect

(D) Not least among the myriad confusions and uncertainties of our time are those attending efforts to discern and articulate the essential characteristics of the medical profession.
The essential characteristics of the medical profession are those studied in med school. These characteristics are irrelevant to the discussions made in the passage since our concern is the profession in general and its features. Hence incorrect

(E) When, in contrast, we come to physicians of the whole body, we come tacitly acknowledging the meaning of illness and its potential threat to all that we hold dear.
I think this is completely unrelated to the passage and outside of the scope. Hence incorrect


7. Which one of the following best describes the author’s purpose in lines 14–33 of the passage?
“To profess” ..........medicine a profession.

Pre-thinking:
In these lines the author is discarding the wrong views about professions

(A) The author locates the “something else” that truly constitutes a profession.
This is done afterwards. Hence incorrect

(B) The author dismisses efforts to redefine the meaning of the term “profession.”
There are no efforts to redefine the meaning of the term profession. Hence incorrect

(C) The author considers, and largely criticizes, several definitions of what constitutes a profession.
Yes, this is what the author does here. In line with our pre-thinking and hence correct.

(D) The author clarifies the meaning of the term “profession” by advocating a return to its linguistic and historical roots.
No clarification along these lines and the author does not advocate anything. Hence incorrect

(E) The author distinguishes trades such as plumbing and auto repair from professions such as medicine, law, and theology.
Trade is not the purpose here and it is not mentioned. Hence incorrect

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Re: Outside the medical profession, there are various efforts to cut medic   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2019, 02:44
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