GMAT Changed on April 16th - Read about the latest changes here

 It is currently 25 May 2018, 09:52

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 02 Aug 2006
Posts: 205
Location: Taipei
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 22 Oct 2016, 08:28
21
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00

Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

66% (00:40) correct 34% (00:47) wrong based on 999 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Originally posted by jerrywu on 07 Sep 2006, 10:40.
Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 22 Oct 2016, 08:28, edited 1 time in total.
edited the question and added the OA
CEO
Joined: 20 Nov 2005
Posts: 2852
Schools: Completed at SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - Class of 2008
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2006, 11:46
Swagatalakshmi wrote:

I think A is good.
_________________

SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - MBA CLASS OF 2008

Senior Manager
Joined: 14 Jul 2006
Posts: 316
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2006, 11:56
I think (B) too.The two causes must be combined into a single sentence.
_________________

A well-balanced person is one who has a drink in each of his hands.

Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Aug 2006
Posts: 345
Location: San Francisco
Schools: Berkeley Haas
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2006, 12:11
I go for A. B sounds artificial, "a tripling was due" is painfully unidiomatic.
VP
Joined: 02 Jun 2006
Posts: 1240
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2006, 13:23
1
KUDOS
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Clear A...

B : tripling??
C : being??
D : no connection between the two phrases...
E : being??
Director
Joined: 24 Aug 2006
Posts: 699
Location: Dallas, Texas
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Sep 2006, 13:30
1
KUDOS
ps_dahiya wrote:
Swagatalakshmi wrote:

I think A is good.

I goofed up. I was trying to solve it under 1.5 minute ... looks like I'm not there yet

I diagramed the original sentence and found two perfectly joined adverbial clauses.
_________________

"Education is what remains when one has forgotten everything he learned in school."

Intern
Joined: 23 Oct 2011
Posts: 7
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2011, 03:25
11
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us
_________________

I am a student from China, and working on SC now
Send me email if you want to discuss gmat SC with me
email: zhengkangcheng@126(.)com (remove the parentheses)

Manager
Joined: 21 Apr 2011
Posts: 104
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2011, 11:28
egoistwlv wrote:
Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us

I go for A. Dont think anything is wrong with the original sentence.
Very thorough analysis Zeng. Good one.
Manager
Joined: 28 Sep 2011
Posts: 71
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2011, 20:06
I vote for an A here. But A does not seem parallel. Can we have some expert advice on that?
Intern
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 12
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Nov 2011, 18:13
Can't decide b/w A and C, but in exam would choose C. Because A is not parallel, as a result...and because
where as C lack cause effect but uses but is parallel.
Intern
Joined: 07 Oct 2014
Posts: 23
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Jul 2016, 02:02
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

I got this question while attempting the exam pack 2 mock.
My understanding for the question was
Over the course of the eighteenth century,
the average output of ironwork tripled because of two reasons.
1. several improvements in blowing machinery
2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore

In error analysis, I deduced error in parallelism.
the first entity in the list is a noun phrase and second is a clause.
For option B usage of 'due to' is wrong as it is presenting action and also distorts the meaning.
Option C both the entities in the list are phrases but usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: the meaning is lost and there is no main verb.
Option E: No main verb

The correct ans is A. While attempting this ques, I thought that coal is not performing the action of replacing so replaced cannot be the verb. If the sentence were 'because coal was replaced by charcoal', then it would be a clause. I was really confused here and finally ended up marking incorrect option. Acc to my understanding correct ans should be:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and replacement of charcoal by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Any inputs will be much appreciated.
Current Student
Joined: 22 Apr 2016
Posts: 39
Location: France
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V45
GPA: 3.73
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Jul 2016, 11:20
In option A, are as a result of / and because Parallel?? There is nothing wrong to use it like that?

Wouldn't it be better to say it like this: "as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and the replacement of charcoal...."??
SVP
Joined: 06 Nov 2014
Posts: 1888
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Jul 2016, 19:31
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Meaning: Over the course of 18th century average output tripled as a result of several improvements and coal replacing charcoal
Option A is correct as it
Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong
Option C: Usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: we need a connector between the two sentences. They cannot be joined with a comma
Option E: There is no verb in this sentence.

Correct Option: A
Current Student
Joined: 18 Sep 2015
Posts: 94
GMAT 1: 610 Q43 V31
GMAT 2: 610 Q47 V27
GMAT 3: 650 Q48 V31
GMAT 4: 700 Q49 V35
WE: Project Management (Health Care)
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 24 Oct 2016, 11:13
3
KUDOS
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

[V] - A
- The trick in A is understanding that we have - logically- 2 reasons. Now it is true that the gmat prefers 2 elements that are structurly as well as logically the same, but in this case we cannot structure the 2 elements the same, simply becuase one is a result and the other is a reason.

[X] - B
- "a tripling" is weired, and even weireder is " a tripling was due"
- Logically we lose the focus of the sentence: in the original sentence the focus (subject) was the avg. output, in this sentence the focus (subject) is the "tripling". so this is a change in the meaning.
- "in addition" is not a parallelism marker so we have no proper parallelism.

[X] - C
- with is a prepositional . it can modify a noun entity or a verb. Notice that in this case, we lose the logical meaning of a "the reasons for the avg. increasing". this is a major change of meaning.
- the use of "Being" is incorrect, sience we are talking about a time in the past.

[Correct Usage 1]

When Being is used as a noun.
For example: Being disrespectful to elders is not an acceptable behavior.
Notice the subject here – being disrespectful to her elders

[Correct Usage 2]

When passive continuous verb tense is required to communicate the meaning.
For example:The residents of this 100-year old apartment complex are being evacuated because of structural instability of the building.
Notice the verb tense here – are being evacuated – present continuous written in passive voice.

X - [D]
- The 1st phrase in this optional answer is not properly connected to the 1st clause.
- We have ambiguity problem: this 2 parallel object in the list created with "and" could have several logical options:
* "The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in [the smelting] of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "The replacement of charcoal with [coal] for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "[The replacement of charcoal] with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"

X - [E]
- "being replaced" is not a verb
- this is the wrong use of "being"
- we have no verb for charcoal
- ambiguity problem: [several improvements] in blowing [machinery], which tripled the average output
* both the improvments and the machinery could have tripled the output.

Originally posted by AlexGenkins1234 on 04 Oct 2016, 07:04.
Last edited by AlexGenkins1234 on 24 Oct 2016, 11:13, edited 1 time in total.
Retired Moderator
Joined: 18 Sep 2014
Posts: 1175
Location: India
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Oct 2016, 09:10
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery,the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

I find option A still weird as it uses both because and as a result of in a sentence and that too in parallel parts of it.
_________________

The only time you can lose is when you give up. Try hard and you will suceed.
Thanks = Kudos. Kudos are appreciated

http://gmatclub.com/forum/rules-for-posting-in-verbal-gmat-forum-134642.html
When you post a question Pls. Provide its source & TAG your questions
Avoid posting from unreliable sources.

My posts
http://gmatclub.com/forum/beauty-of-coordinate-geometry-213760.html#p1649924
http://gmatclub.com/forum/calling-all-march-april-gmat-takers-who-want-to-cross-213154.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/possessive-pronouns-200496.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/double-negatives-206717.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-greatest-integer-function-223595.html#p1721773

Intern
Joined: 21 Dec 2014
Posts: 31
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V37
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Oct 2016, 21:30
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
Original question shows 2 reasons that make the average output of ironwork triple.
1. Improvements in blowing machinery
2. Replacement of coal.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
Tricky in this question is that it seems nonparallel. Actually, ‘as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery’ and ‘because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore’. Are 2 adverbs which modify tripled. Same function, so parallel.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.
This choice change intended meaning.
From original question, ‘over the course of the eighteenth century’ modifies tripled.
In choice b, ‘over the course of eighteenth century’ modifies was. It means that the average output of ironwork was over the course of the eighteenth century due to…. It doesn’t make any sense.
Analogy:
Over 10 years, the average productivity of workers tripled as a result of technology investment..
Over 10 years, the tripling in average productivity of workers was over 1o years due to technology investment (suggest that now, the tripling can be a result of other factors. ..

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.
This choice is not parallel. Written this way, charcoal parallels with improvement. It wrongs. Improvement should parallel with replacement.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.
This choice does not show cause-effect relationship of original question.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.
This choice contains many mistakes.
1. Do not have main verb.
2. Which illogically modifies machinery
3. Unparallel: charcoal and improvement.
Intern
Joined: 15 Feb 2016
Posts: 36
Schools: Booth PT '21 (A)
GMAT 1: 710 Q47 V40
GMAT 2: 620 Q49 V21
GPA: 2.9
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Nov 2016, 19:12
I did not chose A because I thought there was no verb in the main clause - "the average output of ironwork tripled." Isn't it supposed to be like the average output of ironwork was tripled to have verb? Can someone please explain what I'm missing?
Intern
Joined: 05 Jan 2017
Posts: 25
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 690 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.3
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2017, 14:47
[quote="OptimusPrepJanielle"][quote="jerrywu"][u]
B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong

Can you please explain why "due to" is wrong?

The tripling was due to the replacement. The tripling was caused by the replacement.
Intern
Joined: 05 Jan 2017
Posts: 25
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 690 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.3
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2017, 14:51
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong

Can you please explain why "due to" is wrong?

The tripling was due to the replacement. The tripling was caused by the replacement.
Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4257
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 May 2017, 21:31
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
Top Contributor
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore. -- Perhaps the choice that comes nearest to the best with the introductory prepositional phrase duly followed by the subject and its action of tripling.

B. Over the course of the eighteenth century, a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery. --- The prepositional introducer is wrongly modified by a tripling while it should modify the subject 'the average output'.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century. ---Who is replacing the coal should be placed next to the comma after machinery. Faulty modification

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century. -- No connect between the introducer and the main clause as many have pointed out.

E. Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century. --- A fragment.
_________________

Can you solve at least some SC questions without delving into the initial statement?

Narendran 98845 44509

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average   [#permalink] 25 May 2017, 21:31

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 28 posts ]

Display posts from previous: Sort by