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# Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironw

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jerrywu
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Responding to a pm:

Between (A) and (B), (A) clearly explains the meaning.

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

The output tripled ...
When? over the course of the century
Why? as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore (2 reasons)
The 2 reasons are joined with an "and" and act as adverbs. There is no parallelism issue here.

Look at (B) now -

A tripling was ...
When? over the course of the century

What does that mean? "was" indicates a point in time. But "over the course ..." indicates a period of time.
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A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Clear A...

B : tripling??
C : being??
D : no connection between the two phrases...
E : being??
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You are looking for a cause and effect in the sentence.

A. I didn't really like it but I couldn't find anything wrong.
B. A tripling ...was due to... due to is modifying tripling. Out
C. With Charcoal's - possessive, charcoal is being replaced by coal.
Proposition + Subject + Participle to describe an action.
D. The replacement ....., the average output tripled. first part has no verb.
E. which is not modifying correctly.
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A. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A normal construction would be - as a result of several improvements ..... and replacement of coal
In this sentence, by introducing "because" the 2nd clause (coal replaced charcoal..) is not made parallel (this seems to acceptable)

Learnt something new today. Thanks for posting.

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In option A, are as a result of / and because Parallel?? There is nothing wrong to use it like that?

Wouldn't it be better to say it like this: "as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and the replacement of charcoal...."??
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jerrywu
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Meaning: Over the course of 18th century average output tripled as a result of several improvements and coal replacing charcoal
Option A is correct as it
Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong
Option C: Usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: we need a connector between the two sentences. They cannot be joined with a comma
Option E: There is no verb in this sentence.

Correct Option: A
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jerrywu
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

[V] - A
- The trick in A is understanding that we have - logically- 2 reasons. Now it is true that the gmat prefers 2 elements that are structurly as well as logically the same, but in this case we cannot structure the 2 elements the same, simply becuase one is a result and the other is a reason.

[X] - B
- "a tripling" is weired, and even weireder is " a tripling was due"
- Logically we lose the focus of the sentence: in the original sentence the focus (subject) was the avg. output, in this sentence the focus (subject) is the "tripling". so this is a change in the meaning.
- "in addition" is not a parallelism marker so we have no proper parallelism.

[X] - C
- with is a prepositional . it can modify a noun entity or a verb. Notice that in this case, we lose the logical meaning of a "the reasons for the avg. increasing". this is a major change of meaning.
- the use of "Being" is incorrect, sience we are talking about a time in the past.

[Correct Usage 1]

When Being is used as a noun.
For example: Being disrespectful to elders is not an acceptable behavior.
Notice the subject here – being disrespectful to her elders

[Correct Usage 2]

When passive continuous verb tense is required to communicate the meaning.
For example:The residents of this 100-year old apartment complex are being evacuated because of structural instability of the building.
Notice the verb tense here – are being evacuated – present continuous written in passive voice.

X - [D]
- The 1st phrase in this optional answer is not properly connected to the 1st clause.
- We have ambiguity problem: this 2 parallel object in the list created with "and" could have several logical options:
* "The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in [the smelting] of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "The replacement of charcoal with [coal] for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "[The replacement of charcoal] with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"

X - [E]
- "being replaced" is not a verb
- this is the wrong use of "being"
- we have no verb for charcoal
- ambiguity problem: [several improvements] in blowing [machinery], which tripled the average output
* both the improvments and the machinery could have tripled the output.

Originally posted by AlexGenkins1234 on 04 Oct 2016, 07:04.
Last edited by AlexGenkins1234 on 24 Oct 2016, 11:13, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironw [#permalink]
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I chose B. Why B is wrong? Thanks!
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septwibowo
I chose B. Why B is wrong? Thanks!

SC is as much about finding grammatical errors as it is about Meaning.

B. The structure of B
Over a period of time , a tripling ... was due to .... -----> What's the core verb? 'Was'? Horrible !

Just because 'due to' is used with nouns, the author changed the verb 'tripled' to 'tripling was'. This kind of structure has not only concealed the main action of the sentence incorrectly but also introduced an unidiomatic phrase - tripling in the average.

The structure of A is far better than that of B-
A. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled....... - the heart of the sentence is perfectly retained, following the reasons of why it did. Correct
-A-
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septwibowo
I chose B. Why B is wrong? Thanks!

SC is as much about finding grammatical errors as it is about Meaning.

B. The structure of B
Over a period of time , a tripling ... was due to .... -----> What's the core verb? 'Was'? Horrible !

Just because 'due to' is used with nouns, the author changed the verb 'tripled' to 'tripling was'. This kind of structure has not only concealed the main action of the sentence incorrectly but also introduced an unidiomatic phrase - tripling in the average.

The structure of A is far better than that of B-
A. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled....... - the heart of the sentence is perfectly retained, following the reasons of why it did. Correct
-A-

Thank you for your explanation TaN1213.

However, I think that construction "was due to" is fine.
Magoosh gave example in its course : "The delay was due to rain" and that is perfectly fine : due to modify the delay.

Here, in (B), :

a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

- "Due to" modify noun phrase : "a tripling in the average output of ironwork"
- A tripling was due to X, in addition Y.

Wdyt? mikemcgarry, need your clarification here
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septwibowo
Thank you for your explanation TaN1213.

However, I think that construction "was due to" is fine.
Magoosh gave example in its course : "The delay was due to rain" and that is perfectly fine : due to modify the delay.

Here, in (B), :

a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

- "Due to" modify noun phrase : "a tripling in the average output of ironwork"
- A tripling was due to X, in addition Y.

Wdyt? mikemcgarry, need your clarification here
Dear septwibowo,

I have many things to say in response, my friend.

First of all, I want to acknowledge TaN1213 for an intelligent and thoughtful response. I completely agree with TaN1213.

Next, septwibowo: you got a brilliant explanation from TaN1213 and, rather than learning the deep point that this user presented, you presented a counterargument. One of the deepest questions any student can ask himself is, "Do I want to be right or do I want to learn as much as I can?" You see, it's a paradox: of course on test day, you primarily want to be right (although you can learn even there), but the way to get to that is by disattaching from a need to be right while you are in the role of a student, because being holding to a position of being right can prevent you from picking up a new subtlety.

In this GMAT SC problem, choice (B) is precisely the kind of incorrect answer choice that acts as a trap for non-native speakers: it's 100% grammatically correct but wrong. Virtually all the high level SC questions have at least one such choice. This is a classic predictable trap and you fell into it.

Yes, the "is due to" construction in (B) is 100% grammatically correct. There's absolutely no ambiguity about that: you and I and TaN1213 are in full agreement about that. It's true and also completely besides the point. Choice (B) is 100% grammatically correct but it's still wrong. That's the piece you are missing: you are focused on the grammar and missed that TaN1213's brilliant response was addressing other aspects of the sentence beyond the grammar.

The GMAT SC is NOT primarily a test of grammar. On the GMAT SC, grammar & logic & rhetoric all combine to support meaning.

The principles of good rhetorical construction can be hard for non-native speakers to appreciate, because much of it is intuitive--it's about the "feel" of the sentence. Here's one principle that I can articulate: when a sentence is focused on a main action, this sentence usually will be phrased in the most direct and powerful way when that main action is the main verb of the sentence.

Choice (A) follows this principle fully. Choice (A) is not only grammatically correct but also direct, clear, and powerful. Like almost all correct answers on the GMAT SC, it's an exceptionally well-crafted sentence.

Choice (B) is 100% grammatically correct but it's an embarrassingly awkward and punchless sentence. In particular, the main action of the sentence, "tripling," is congealed as a gerund subject, and the sentence is organized so that a complete non-action verb, "is," winds up as the main verb of the sentence. Any well-read native speaker instantly would recognize this as a poorly written section. The fact that you selected choice (B) as correct and were willing to defend it should tell you a great deal about the progress you still have to make.

Grammar has a lot of rules, although many of the rules have exceptions. Rhetoric doesn't have many rules--it's more intuition-based. A non-native speaker can develop this intuition by cultivating a rigorous habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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MartyMurray , GMATNinja

I somehow feel A is not the correct answer because

1. as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery (A phrase)
2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore (A clause)

Both don't seem parallel
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Prateek176
I somehow feel A is not the correct answer because

1. as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery (A phrase)
2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore (A clause)

Both don't seem parallel
The only situations in which wording alone REALLY affects whether structures are considered parallel are situations in which gerunds or infinitives are used in lists.

While, for instance, "to swim" and "swimming" could both function as nouns, the GMAT, and most writers, prefer that the two forms not be mixed.

So the GMAT would not prefer the following:

In summer, the vacationers like to swim and going to the beach.

It would prefer either of the following:

In summer, the vacationers like to swim and to go to the beach.

In summer, the vacationers like swimming and going to the beach.

However, the wording in most cases does not have to be so exactly parallel. Consider the following, which would be fine on the GMAT:

The car is shiny and well kept.

While "shiny" is an adjective and "kept" is a participle, since they modify the noun "car" in similar ways, adjectivally, the structure is considered parallel.

Let's now consider choice (A).

(A) Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

We have two modifiers modifying "tripled":

as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery

because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore

"as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery" is a phrase that serves as an adverb.

"because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore" is an adverb clause.

So, even though the two structures don't look parallel, they both function adverbially and, thus, are parallel in a logical sense. So, choice (A) is solid.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironw [#permalink]
Isn't using both as and because in Option A redundant?
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironw [#permalink]
Hi Garvu, the sentence does not use as, but as a result of. It ends with an of, so as a result of is used as a preposition (and hence is followed by a noun phrase), while because is followed by a clause.

So, they have completely different grammatical functions and hence, not redundant.

However, this is a slightly unique sentence because the two factors (improvements in blowing machinery and coal being replaced by charcoal) are expressed as two different grammatical constructs: first one is a phrase, while the second one is a clause. Quite rare.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironw [#permalink]
mikemcgarry
septwibowo
Thank you for your explanation TaN1213.

However, I think that construction "was due to" is fine.
Magoosh gave example in its course : "The delay was due to rain" and that is perfectly fine : due to modify the delay.

Here, in (B), :

a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

- "Due to" modify noun phrase : "a tripling in the average output of ironwork"
- A tripling was due to X, in addition Y.

Wdyt? mikemcgarry, need your clarification here
Dear septwibowo,

I have many things to say in response, my friend.

First of all, I want to acknowledge TaN1213 for an intelligent and thoughtful response. I completely agree with TaN1213.

Next, septwibowo: you got a brilliant explanation from TaN1213 and, rather than learning the deep point that this user presented, you presented a counterargument. One of the deepest questions any student can ask himself is, "Do I want to be right or do I want to learn as much as I can?" You see, it's a paradox: of course on test day, you primarily want to be right (although you can learn even there), but the way to get to that is by disattaching from a need to be right while you are in the role of a student, because being holding to a position of being right can prevent you from picking up a new subtlety.

In this GMAT SC problem, choice (B) is precisely the kind of incorrect answer choice that acts as a trap for non-native speakers: it's 100% grammatically correct but wrong. Virtually all the high level SC questions have at least one such choice. This is a classic predictable trap and you fell into it.

Yes, the "is due to" construction in (B) is 100% grammatically correct. There's absolutely no ambiguity about that: you and I and TaN1213 are in full agreement about that. It's true and also completely besides the point. Choice (B) is 100% grammatically correct but it's still wrong. That's the piece you are missing: you are focused on the grammar and missed that TaN1213's brilliant response was addressing other aspects of the sentence beyond the grammar.

The GMAT SC is NOT primarily a test of grammar. On the GMAT SC, grammar & logic & rhetoric all combine to support meaning.

The principles of good rhetorical construction can be hard for non-native speakers to appreciate, because much of it is intuitive--it's about the "feel" of the sentence. Here's one principle that I can articulate: when a sentence is focused on a main action, this sentence usually will be phrased in the most direct and powerful way when that main action is the main verb of the sentence.

Choice (A) follows this principle fully. Choice (A) is not only grammatically correct but also direct, clear, and powerful. Like almost all correct answers on the GMAT SC, it's an exceptionally well-crafted sentence.

Choice (B) is 100% grammatically correct but it's an embarrassingly awkward and punchless sentence. In particular, the main action of the sentence, "tripling," is congealed as a gerund subject, and the sentence is organized so that a complete non-action verb, "is," winds up as the main verb of the sentence. Any well-read native speaker instantly would recognize this as a poorly written section. The fact that you selected choice (B) as correct and were willing to defend it should tell you a great deal about the progress you still have to make.

Grammar has a lot of rules, although many of the rules have exceptions. Rhetoric doesn't have many rules--it's more intuition-based. A non-native speaker can develop this intuition by cultivating a rigorous habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike

I rejected B as there is a clause after due to while we need a noun, is this correct.
Are below reasonings also correct
C with is wrong, charcoal's is wrong
D is a run on
E which is wrongly used neither the improvements nor the machinery makes sense but entire preceeding caluse is the reason.

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MAnkur

I rejected B as there is a clause after due to while we need a noun, is this correct.
Are below reasonings also correct
C with is wrong, charcoal's is wrong
D is a run on
E which is wrongly used neither the improvements nor the machinery makes sense but entire preceeding caluse is the reason.

Consider the following examples:

• The game was postponed due to rain.
• Dave is cool.
• Dave's success was due to his hard work.

In the first example, "due to" modifies the verb "was postponed" (Why was the game postponed? Due to rain). But using "due to" to modify a verb seems to be a no-no on the GMAT.

In the second example, we have a linking verb ("is"), and "cool" modifies "Dave". (A fellow named Dave may or may not have played a role in writing these sentences. )

In the third example, we have another linking verb ("was"), and "due to" actually modifies "success". "Due to" can modify a noun, so this is okay.

Similarly, in choice (B), "due to" actually modifies "a tripling", which is a noun. So the usage of "due to" in choice (B) is totally fine.

I hope this helps!
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